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The structure of the


Ferenc Ruzsa
ELTE University,Budapest
The structure of the Nyya-Kusumjali

Intro (2 loka)
Chapter intro Chapter intro Chapter intro Chapter intro Chapter intro
15 loka 2 loka 21 loka 4 loka 16 loka
Prayer Prayer Prayer Prayer Prayer
Conclusion (2)

Green = artistic metre (rdla-vikrdit, the last verse Vasanta-tilak)

Altogether 73 verses + 25 times as much, some 2500 lines of prose

6 arguments to show that we have two texts:

the (Nyya-)Kusumjali(-Krik)
an independent commentary on it by Udayana,
the Nyya-Kusumjali-Prakaraa

widely different length of the comments

different basic plan
doubling the number of arguments for Gods existence
differing interpretations
verses left uncommented
other commentaries on the verses only
1. Widely different length of the comments

after krik 1.4 we get only two lines of

after krik 2.1 follow 290 lines of
commentary, which is 11% of the whole text
2. Different basic plan
Udayana says that the five chapters are answers to
five objections to the generally accepted belief in
God: ad 1.3
Summarily there is disagreement on five points: tad iha sakepata pacatay vipratipatti:
There are no transcendental means to reach alaukikasya paraloka-sdhanasybhvt;
heaven anyathpi paraloka-sdhannuhna-
These means can work without God sambhavt;
There are proofs for his nonexistence tad-abhvvedaka-prama-sadbhvt;
Even if He exists, he is not a source of valid sattve 'pi tasypramatvt;
knowledge tat-sdhaka-prambhvc c ti
There is no proof for his existence
The verses follow a continuous plan:.
there is karma and rituals influence it;
their source can only be God;
it is impossible to disprove God
or that He is the source of scripture
There are inferences to prove His existence
2. Different basic plan
According to Udayana, chapter 1
is about supramundane means to alaukikasya paraloka-sdhanasybhvt
reach heaven

In the verses non-physical causes

spekatvd, anditvd,
for human fate are proven, and it vaicitryd, viva-vttita, |
is explicitely stated in the pratytma-niyamd bhukter
introductory verse. asti hetur alaukika. || 1.4 ||
3. Doubling the number of arguments for Gods existence

The fifth chapter offers eight proofs for the kryyojana-dhty-de

existence of God. padt pratyayata rute |
vkyt sakhy-viec ca
Udayana explains these, then without any sdhyo vivavid avyaya || 5.1 ||
basis in the verses says before 5.6:
Alternatively, they could be explained in athav, kry ty-dikam anyath
another way. vykhyyate

And adds another set of arguments!

4. Differing interpretations and opinions
Verse 1.12cd says, that god-images are sacred because the
gods stay near them, or because we recognise them as gods.
devat sanidhnena pratyabhijnato 'pi v.

Udayana accepts the first idea (it is our view) and rejects the
second (but for others)
pratimdayas tu tena-tena vidhin sanidhpita-rudrpendra-
mahendrdy-abhimni-devat-bheds tatra-tatrrdhanyatm
sdayanti; via-daa-mrcchita rja-arram iva
vipanayana-vidhinpdita-caitanyam. sanidhna ca tatra
tem ahakra-mamakrau, citrdv iva sva-sdya-darino
rja iti no daranam. anye tu prva-prva-pjita-
pratyabhijna-viayasya pratihita-pratyabhijna-viayasya ca
tathtvam avaseyam.
4. Differing interpretations and opinions
Atoms are negligible in the verses, appearing only once
(in 1.11), while for Udayana they are important: he
mentions them 39 times, and they supply two of the
arguments for God.
Power, akti is a natural category in the verses,
appearing 7 times. Udayana in a very long (161 lines )
passage rejects the concept while commenting on 1.9-
13 (where akti does not occur). Realizing the
absurdity he adds at the end that it can be used, but
only in the sense being a cause.
atha akti-niedhe ki pramam? na kicit | tat kim, asty eva? bham |
na hi no darane akti-padrtha eva nsti | ko 'sau tarhi? kraatvam
4. Differing interpretations and opinions
Dhti: God is needed to sustain the world. In the verses, it
means preservation -- for dhti-vina, preservation and
destruction are mentioned together in 5.5. Udayana,
however, interprets it as holding the Earth in space
being heavy, its not its nature to fly: gurutve saty apatana-dharmakatvt
Anupalabdhi, non-perception is shown in 3.20-22 not to be
a separate source of information (prama). Udayana
thinks it superfluous, since it has been already discussed
under 3.1:
It has been considered before that non-perception cannot disprove God,
anupalabdhis tu na bdhik ti cintitam
And indeed ad 3.1 he wrote:
ayogya-aa-gdv anupalabdhir na bdhik syt
5. Verses left uncommented

Intro (2 loka)
Chapter intro Chapter intro Chapter intro Chapter intro Chapter intro
15 loka 2 loka 21 loka 4 loka 16 loka
Prayer Prayer Prayer Prayer Prayer
Conclusion (2)

All the green verses are difficult, but they receive no commentary from Udayana.
Everybody who ever commented on the Kusumjali always commented on them.
Udayana did not : because it was his own work. And that shows that the rest of the
verses were not his.
6. Commentaries on the verses only
There are three published commentaries on the
verses only (by Nryaa Trtha, Haridsa
Bhacrya, Rmabhadra Srvabhauma). This
suggest that their authors thought that it is an
independent work. The two I studied know
Udayanas commentary well and mostly follow
him. But they do not mention, not even in the
colophon that the verses were Udayanas.
Varadarjas Bodhan on Udayanas work is called
a k, i.e. a subcommentary
Thank you!