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The Rise and fall of

Mughal
Empire(1526-1707)
The Early Modern Era in India

Prof. Subho Basu History of South and South East Asia


The Origins of Mughal Empire
The Mughals descended from
Mongol stock in Turkestan. They
were, however, quite distant from
their original ancestors. The
Mughals had become Islamic, for
the Middle Eastern Mongol
invaders had converted to Islam
long before. They had also
thoroughly absorbed Middle
Eastern culture, especially
Persian culture (the Persian word
for Mongol is "Mughal," from
which we get the English word,
"mogul," meaning "tycoon"), and
their wars of invasion spread
Persian culture throughout India.

Prof. Subho Basu History of South and South East Asia


The Foundation of Mughal Empire
The founder of the Mughal dynasty
was Babur, who ruled from 1483 to
1530. Babur was not fully a Mongol:
his mother was descended from
Genghis Khan, but his father was
descended from Timur. He ruled over
a small kingdom in Turkestan; he
expanded his kingdom by attacking
Afghanistan and capturing Kabul in
1504. From there he crossed over the
mountains into Hindustan and
attacked the Dehli Sultanate in 1526.
When he died in 1530 he had
conquered all of Hindustan and
controlled an empire that extended
from the Deccan to Turkestan.
Western Historians attributed his
victory to the use of firearms-a fact
now disputed by other historians.

Prof. Subho Basu History of South and South East Asia


India under Akbar (1556-1605)
Babur's son Humayun
succeeded him in 1530,
but was defeated by Sher
Shah, an Afghan who
ruled north India for 15
years, in 1540. Humayun
only just managed to
regain his father's
territories before his death
and the accession of his
13 year old son, Akbar,
whose 49 year reign laid
the foundation of empire.

Prof. Subho Basu History of South and South East Asia


India under Akbar (1556-1605)
Akbars Conquests
Theory of Kingship
Akbars Military Administrative
System- Mansabdars
Land Revenue Collection
Systems and Jagirdars
Alliance with Rajput Warriors
Abolition of Special tax Jizyat
and Pilgrimage Tax
Din-i-Ilahi ( Religion of God)
and sulahkul ( Universal
Tolerance)

Prof. Subho Basu History of South and South East Asia


The Last Three Great Mughal Rulers
Jehangir (1605-1627)
Shajahan(1627-1658)
Aurangzeb(1658-
1707)

Prof. Subho Basu History of South and South East Asia


The Crisis of Mughal Empire
War of Succession
Fiscal Crisis (Jagirdari
Crisis)
Heavy Tax Burden on the
Peasantry
Wars of Peasant
Resistance
Return of Jizyat and
Pilgrimage Tax
Collapse of Alliance with
Hindu Warriors

Prof. Subho Basu History of South and South East Asia


Mughal Commercial System
The Arrival of Portuguese
Commercial Empire of
Dutch, English and French
Companies
Commercial Revolution in
India
Banking System
Separation between
Political and Economic
Elites

Prof. Subho Basu History of South and South East Asia


Mughal Art and Architecture
Synthesis of Indian
and Persian Styles in
Architecture
Mughal Style of
Painting
Fusion in Music
An era of Splendor
and Poverty

Prof. Subho Basu History of South and South East Asia