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0 A framework provides an explicit explanation why the

problem under study exists by showing how the
variables relate to each other
A Theory
0 A theory comprises a generalization that
systematically explains the relationship between
0 Its basic components are concepts
0 Thus the theory is a set of statements, each of which
expresses a relationship among the concepts
Overall objectives of theories
and framework
0 To make scientific findings meaningful and
0 To summarize existing knowledge into coherent
systems and stimulate new research by providing
both direction and impetus
0 All theories and frameworks are considered tentative
Theoretical framework
0 Thought of as a map or travel plan
0 Important to consider relevant theory underpinning the
knowledge base of the phenomena under study
0 Kinds of questions that cross our minds (Sinclair, 2007)
What do I know about the phenomenon that I want to
What types of knowledge are available to me
(empirical, non-empirical, tacit, intuitive, moral or
What theory will best guide my practice or research
Is this theory proven through theory-linked research?
What other theories are relevant to this practice?
How can I apply these theories and findings in
Theoretical Framework
0 Emanate from theories that influence a research or
underpin a construct under study
0 Theories could be from a singular influence
(discipline) or from a multidisciplinary vantage point
0 Could comprise of
0 several constructs (attachment or psychotherapy
research; mentalization, complex trauma) or
0 ideas about particular participants (young adults,
elderly, preschool children, migrants) or
0 could even be around different outcomes (psychopathy,
HIV + status, reduction in psy-symptom).
Example 1 Maternal
0 Psychologists have been talking about depression and
its links to poor early childhood adversities;
philosophers, psychologists talk about womens
vulnerability to developing depression
0 Theres no baby without the mother early mother-
child relationship is studied in details
Example 2: Attachment
0 Theory developed from child development, ethology
and psychoanalysis
0 Infants are preprogrammed to seek safety, security of
ties and proximity with a caregiver/s
0 Different types of insecurities- diff types of
attachment styles- continue in adulthood
0 A dimensional concept
0 Secure attachment is the norm across cultures
0 Secure attachment a prophylaxis against
Sometimes TF may not be
easily identified
0 Esp. if studies are multidisciplinary at the interface
of different disciplines and diff methodologies being
Research has a beginning and
an endpoint testing certain
Concepts move from being completely abstract and unconnected
to becoming a tentative or loose framework to explore and test
Conceptual framework is
like a process that involves
mapping out or visualizing these
theoretical threads to form
some diagrammatic representation
of inter-relatedness
Sinclair M. (2007) Editorial: A guide to understanding theoretical and conceptual frameworks. Evidence
Based Midwifery 5(2): 39
When we conceptualise
0 Definitions
0 What is the meaning of the word or term or idea
0 What is the actual use of the word
0 What are the boundaries within which a term
0 What are the contrary examples of the word
0 Enable interpretation of a subject
0 Analyse complex subject matter
0 Synthesize separate pieces of a subject matter into a
0 Perceive similarities and differences
0 Enable us to make value judgments
0 Extend our knowledge
The conceptual framework describes and explains the
concepts to be used in the study, their relationships with each
other, and how they are to be measured.

Developing your conceptual framework requires five main


1. Identifying the relevant concepts.

2. Defining those concepts.
3. Operationalising the concepts.
4. Identifying any moderating or intervening variables.
5. Identifying the relationship between variables.
Conceptual Research
Is also like theoretical framework and can include
studying a concept or phenomena in depth.
Such as concept of narcissism in psychoanalysis,
attachment in early childhood, identity in middle
childhood, learned helplessness in intimate partner
violence, substance use literacy in young people
An illustration from 3
0 Agot et al paper about widow inheritance theories
behind the idea of WI;
0 Other two on alcohol and HIV; IPT and depressed
pregnant teenagers
Conceptual framework

0 Look at the alcohol paper a good conceptual framework

developed there
0 Also look at HIV/AIDS- related Stigma and Discrimination:
A conceptual Framework for an agenda for action-
HORIZONS PROGRAM by Richard Parker and Peter
OConnor, R.C. & Nock, M.K. The
psychology of suicidal behavior
(2014). Lancet Psychiatry, 1: 73-85
Pathways linking poverty to
developmental inequalities
(Walker et al 2011)
Why are conceptual frameworks useful?

0 Conceptual frameworks provide researchers with:

The ability to move beyond descriptions of what to explanations

of why and how.

A means of setting out an explanation set that might be used to

define and make sense of the data that flow from the research

An filtering tool for selecting appropriate research questions and

related data collection methods.

A reference point/structure for the discussion of the literature,

methodology and results.

The boundaries of the work.

What are the limitations of a conceptual

0 Conceptual frameworks, however, also have problems in that the


Is influenced by the experience and knowledge of the individual

initial bias.

Once developed will influence the researchers thinking and may

result in some things being given prominence and others being
ignored ongoing bias.

0 The solution is to revisit the conceptual framework, particularly at the

end when evaluating your work.
Dr Bukusi
Dr Donovan
Logic Models

A logic model takes into account:

0 the nature of the problem being considered
0 the programs goals in attempting to address the problem
0 the reasoning/rationale for certain activities or components
of the program that will be implemented to address the
0 the resources available to implement the program
the outputs and outcomes of the intervention

Once you have determined the desired program outcomes, you

have determined the domains to be assessed in your program

Theoretical/Conceptual Model
RESOURCES Activities Target Short-term Medium-term Long-term

Community Partners Community Development

- Suquamish Tribe - Community Advisory Council
- Port Gamble Tribe (CAC) meetings - Increased community
- Tribal Councils - Presentations to Tribal awareness of ATOD
- Tribal Communities Councils issues
- Advisory Councils - Regular Community Meetings Tribal - Increased community - Development of more
- Suquamish - Conduct Community Communities readiness to implement ATOD-free social
Cultural Co-Op Readiness and Academic ATOD prevention activities for youth in
- PGST ATOD assessments in both Researchers programs community
Prevention communities - Community acceptance - Development of Elder-
Committee - Conduct needs & resources of culturally tailored youth mentoring
- Elders Councils assessment in PGST substance abuse programs
- Youth Councils community prevention interventions - Increased
- Wellness Programs - Regular cross-training - Increased cultural communication between - Integration of HOC &
- Tribal Cultural sessions competence among Elders and youth culturally tailored ATOD
Programs researchers - Increased acceptance of prevention programs
- Tribal Educational research & partnership into Suquamish &
Programs Curriculum Adaptation by tribal communities PGST communities
- Tribal mentors - Refine HOC curriculum - Increased use of CBPR - Increase in community-
- Community - Refine assessment instrument - Shift in attitude toward by tribal communities to level protective factors
Volunteers - Adapt curriculum for PGST cultural identity establish culturally - Designation of such
- In-kind support from - Prepare curriculum materials - Increased identification tailored programs as evidence-
Tribes with tribal culture & evidence-based based to increase
- Space for staff and community likelihood of continued
- Increased knowledge of: practices based on
for funding & sustainability
Participating - Tribal history practice-based
conducting in the communities
Curriculum Delivery Tribal Youth - Rules of the Canoe evidence
interventions - Dissemination of HOC
-Developing research - Train curriculum/group - Increased youth curriculum, assessment
infrastructure facilitators awareness of alcohol battery, and guidelines
- Arrange community speakers & drug issues - Increased participation
University Partners for community
- Arrange logistics - New or increased in ATOD-free activities
- ADAI adaptation to
- Recruit participants skills for youth to refuse - Increased participation
- ABRC other tribal communities
- Deliver intervention alcohol & drug use in tribal cultural events
- IWRI - Reduced substance
- Increased accurate by youth
- ADAI, Suquamish, use/abuse among tribal
information about - Involvement of youth in
& PGST research youth in Suquamish and
alcohol & drugs positive peer/social
teams PGST communities
- Increased self-efficacy networks
- Expertise in ATOD, Evaluation - Healthier tribal
CBPR, & TPR - Assess participants at baseline, communities as defined
- Grant support for 6- & 12-month follow-ups - Accurate & reliable - Accumulation of by Suquamish & PGST
program - Focus groups with constituents assessment of changes empirical support for
development, at project end in communities, HOC intervention as
Tribal Youth
implementation, & - Repeat Community Readiness participants & evidence-based
and Tribal
evaluation assessments in both collaborative - Evidence for
- Computer & communities in Years 1 & 5 relationships effectiveness of
communications - Ongoing assessment of - Continued refinement of collaborative partnership
infrastructure collaborative relationships assessment methods
-Research to assure cultural
infrastructure appropriateness
Protective Factor
Treatment Component Promotes Assessed Via
or Outcome
Treatment Component Promotes Protective Factor or Assessed Via Measure
Native/Community Pride, Cultural Identity and
Conflict Resolution/Problem Respect, Involvement, & Participation Scale
Knowledge, Identity
Solving Workshop with Elders

Actual Involvement in Self-esteem/Self-efficacy Measure of Self-esteem

and Belief in the Future or Self-efficacy?
Community Cultural Activities
Goal Setting & Attainment Questions about Goals
Actual Involvement in
Individual Cultural Activities
Coping Skills Coping Scale or
Goal Setting Workshop with questions
Social/Community Social/Community
Coping/Resilience Workshop Support Support Scale or questions
with Elders
Accurate Risk Perception Test questions regarding
Jeopardy Game to Increase regarding Substance Use Substance Use (& Other
Knowledge of Substances/Risks Risky Behaviors?)

Communication Skills
Knowing and Telling ones
Not assessed? unsure
own Story Conflict Resolution and
Problem Solving Skills
Cultural Mentoring Some questions about
Exercise and Diet
Exercise & Good Nutrition

Not assessed
Health and Nutrition Spiritual Fulfillment
Workshop and Physical
Exercises/Canoe Pulling Use Frequency Questions
Increased Healthy
Behaviors ( less sub use)
Spiritual Enhancement Some questions about
Workshop with Elders Bonding with Family?
Family Bonding ?

Honoring Ceremony Grades, Job Status, and

Other Prosocial Outcomes? Volunteerism Questions?

The Healing of the Canoe: A Model of Treatment Components, Protective Factors, and Outcome Measures
The deeper the roots, the stronger the branches
Can we make a framework or
model of our own?
0 Lets give it a go
0 Naming and Framing the problem: Using theories,
models and conceptual frameworks-Irene Iioth,
KateGerrish et al
0 Conceptual and theoretical contexts- Lecture by
Erlinda Castro-palaganas
0 Conceptual Framework- Lecture May 28th 2008- Prof
Roger Vaughan- Bournemouth University
0 Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Programs-