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Sources of water supply
Water Quality
Water requirements for all type of residential, commercial,
Industrial buildings and for town
Water treatment methods
Screening, aeration
Sedimentation, Filtration, Disinfection, Softening,
conveyance of water
Distribution of water
Choice of pipe materials
Types of fixtures and fittings
System of plumbing in all type of building
Sources of Water
Surface Water
Lakes, reservoirs, rivers
Rivers dammed to create reservoirs
Reservoirs store water during heavy
rain/snow Courtesy USDA

Courtesy NASA
Lake Tuscaloosa Dam
After complete treatment of water, it becomes necessary to distribute it to
a number of houses, estates, industries and public places by means of a
network of distribution system. The distribution system consists of pipes of
various sizes, values, meters, pumps etc. The following are the
"equirements of a good distribution system.
1 ) It should convey the treated water upto the consumers with the
same degree of purity.
(2) The water should reach to every consumer with the repaired
pressure head.
(3) Sufficient quantity of treated water should reach for the domestic
and industrial use.
(4) It should be economical and easy to maintain and use.
\5) It should be able to transport sufficient quantity of water during
(6) During repair work, it should not cause obstruction to the traffic.
(7) It should be safe against any future pollution.
(8) The quantity of pipes laid should be good and it should not trust.
(9) It should be water tight and the water losses due to leakage should
be minimum as for as possible.
Water requirements for different types of buildings

Sl. No Type of Buildng Consumption (litres/day)

i) Factories with bath rooms 45 per head
ii) Factories without bath rooms 30 per head
iii) Hospital (including laundry):
a) Number of beds not exceeding 100 340 per head
b) Number of beds exceeding 100 450 per head
iv) Nurses homes and medical quarters 135 per head
v) Hostels 135 per head
vi) Hotel (up to 4 star) 180 per head
vii) Hotel (5 star and above) 320 per head
viii) Offices 45 per head
ix) Restaurants 70 per seat
x) Cinemas, concert halls and theaters 15 per seat
xi) Schools
a) Day schools 45 per head
b) Boarding schools 135 per head
In addition, water demand of visitors to these building is considered as 15 LPCD
Course Content
Layout of distribution
networks, methods of water
distribution, storage capacity
of ESR( Enterprise Storage Replication)
and underground service

The purpose of distribution system is

to deliver water to consumer with
appropriate quality, quantity and

Distribution system is used to

describe collectively the facilities
used to supply water from its source
to the point of usage.
Requirements of Good Distribution System...

Water quality should not get

deteriorated in the distribution pipes.
It should be capable of supplying
water at all the intended places with
sufficient pressure head.
It should be capable of supplying the
requisite amount of water during fire
The layout should be such that no consumer
would be without water supply, during the
repair of any section of the system.

All the distribution pipes should be

preferably laid one metre away or above the
sewer lines.

It should be fairly water-tight as to keep

losses due to leakage to the minimum.
Layouts of Distribution Network

The distribution pipes are generally

laid below the road pavements, and
as such their layouts generally follow
the layouts of roads.

There are, in general, four different

types of pipe networks; any one of
which either singly or in
combinations, can be used for a
particular place.
They are:

Dead End System

Radial System

Grid Iron System

Ring System
Dead End System...
It is suitable for old towns and cities
having no definite pattern of roads.
Relatively cheap.
Determination of discharges and pressure
easier due to less number of valves.

Due to many dead ends, stagnation of
water occurs in pipes.
Radial System...
The area is divided into different

The water is pumped into the

distribution reservoir kept in the
middle of each zone.

The supply pipes are laid radially

ending towards the periphery.
It gives quick service.
Calculation of pipe sizes is easy.
Grid Iron System...
It is suitable for cities with
rectangular layout, where the water
mains and branches are laid in
Water is kept in good circulation due to the
absence of dead ends.
In the cases of a breakdown in some section,
water is available from some other direction.

Exact calculation of sizes of pipes is not possible
due to provision of valves on all branches.
Ring System...

The supply main is laid all along the

peripheral roads and sub mains branch out
from the mains.

This system also follows the grid iron

system with the flow pattern similar in
character to that of dead end system.

So, determination of the size of pipes is

Water can be supplied to any point
from at least two directions.
Methods of water distribution

For efficient distribution system

adequate water pressure required at
various points.

Depending upon the level of source,

topography of the area and other
local conditions the water may be
forced into distribution system by
following ways -
1. Gravity system

2. Pumping system

3. Combined gravity and pumping

Gravity system
Suitable when source of supply is at
sufficient height.
Most reliable and economical
distribution system.
The water head available at the
consumer is just minimum required.
The remaining head is consumed in
the frictional and other losses.
Pumping system
Treated water is directly pumped in to
the distribution main with out storing.
Also called pumping without storage
High lifts pumps are required.
If power supply fails, complete
stoppage of water supply.
This method is not generally used.
Combined gravity and pumping system

Most common system.

Treated water is pumped and stored
in an elevated distribution reservoir.
Then supplies to consumer by action
of gravity.
The excess water during low demand
periods get stored in reservoir and
get supplied during high demand
Economical, efficient and reliable
Distribution Reservoirs...
Distribution reservoirs, also called
service reservoirs, are the storage
reservoirs, which store the treated
water for supplying water during
emergencies (such as during fires,
repairs, etc.) and also to help in
absorbing the hourly fluctuations in
the normal water demand.
Functions of Distribution Reservoirs
to absorb the hourly variations in demand.
to maintain constant pressure in the distribution
water stored can be supplied during emergencies.

Location and Height of Distribution Reservoirs

should be located as close as possible to the centre of
water level in the reservoir must be at a sufficient
elevation to permit gravity flow at an adequate
Types of Reservoirs...

Depending upon their elevation w.r.t

ground it may be classified into

1. Surface reservoirs
2. Elevated reservoirs
Surface reservoirs

These also called ground reservoir.

Mostly circular or rectangular tank.
Under ground reservoirs are
preferred especially when the size is
These reservoirs are constructed on
high natural grounds and are usually
made of stones, bricks, plain or
reinforced cement concrete.
The side walls are designed to take
up the pressure of the water, when
the reservoir is full and the earth
pressure when it is empty.

The position of ground water table is

also considered while designing
these reservoirs.

The floors of these reservoirs may

constructed with R.C.C slab or square
stone blocks resting on columns.
To obtain water tightness bitumen
compounds are used at all construction

At the top of roof about 60cm thick earth

layer is deposited and maintained green
lawns to protect the reservoir from cold and

For aeration of water and inspection,

ventilation pipes and stairs are provided.
Under Ground Reservoir
R.C.C TANKS: R.C.C tanks are very
popular because
1) They have long life
2) Very little maintenance
3) decent appearance
G.I. (Galvanized Tanks) TANKS: G.I. tanks
are generally in rectangular or
square in shape. Now a days G.I.
tanks are not preferring because
1) Life of the tank is short
2) Corrosion of metal
3) maintenance cost may be more
HDPE TANKS: (high density polyethylene) Now a
days HDPE tanks are very popular for
storing less quantity of water and hence
useful for residential purpose. The
following are the advantages of HDPE
1) Handling is easy because of light weight
2) Cheap in cost
3) Maintenance cost is low
4) Cleaning of tanks are easy
Elevated Storage Reservoirs (ESRs) also
referred to as Overhead Tanks are required at
distribution areas which are not governed and
controlled by the gravity system of
These are rectangular, circular or elliptical in
If the topography of the town not suitable for
under gravity, the elevated tank or reservoir
are used.
They are constructed where combine
gravity and pumping system of water
distribution is adopted.

These tanks may be steel or RCC.

Now RCC is commonly preferred.

The accessories of ESR are-
Inlet and outlet pipe, overflow pipe
discharging into a drain
Float gauge, indicating depth of
Automatic device to stop pumping
when the tank is full.
A manhole and ladder.
Ventilator for circulation of fresh air.
Storage Capacity of Distribution Reservoirs...

The total storage capacity of a

distribution reservoir is the
summation of:
Balancing Storage:The quantity of
water required to be stored in the
reservoir for equalising or balancing
fluctuating demand against constant
supply is known as the balancing
storage (or equalising or operating
Breakdown Storage:The
breakdown storage or often called
emergency storage is the storage
preserved in order to tide over the
emergencies posed by the failure of
pumps, electricity, or any other
mechanism driving the pumps.
A value of about 25% of the total
storage capacity of reservoirs, or 1.5
to 2 times of the average hourly
supply, may be considered as
enough provision for accounting this
Fire Storage:The third component
of the total reservoir storage is the
fire storage.
This provision takes care of the
requirements of water for
extinguishing fires.
A provision of 1 to 4 per person per
day is sufficient to meet the
When reserve storage is elevated, amount of
fire reserve may be determined by
R= (F-P) T
R= Reserve storage (liters)
F= Fire demand, liters/min
P= Reserve fire pumping capacity, liters/min
T= Duration of the fire in min

The total reservoir storage can finally be

worked out by adding all the three storages.










In the system all soil
and waste water
discharge into one
common pipe and all
branch ventilating
pipes into one main
ventilating pipe. This
system largely replaces
the two pipe system
and lent itself very well
to use in multi storey
developments. It is far
more economical than
the two pipe system.
The waste stack received the
discharge ablutionary fitments and
conveyed this to the ground level
where it was delivered above the
water seal in a trapped gully
connected to the drainage system.
the soil stack receives the
discharge from soil appliances and
delivered it direct to the
underground drainage system. The
waste and soil water did not
combine until they reached the
below ground drainage system.
A large number of sanitary
appliances in ranges.

Each trap with an anti-

siphon or vent pipe
connected to the discharge
pipe in direction of the flow
of water at a point between
75 - 450 mm from trap

Vent stack connected to the

discharge stack near to the
bend to remove compressed
air at this point
The single stack system
Reduces the cost of soil and waste

Branch vent pipes are not required

To prevent loss of trap water seals:-

The trap water seals on the waste

traps must be 76 mm deep.

The slopes of the branch pipes are:

sink and bath, 18 to 19 mm/m;
basin 20-120 mm/m; WC 18 mm/m

Vertical stack at 200 mm below the

centre of the WC branch
Modified single stack

Close grouping of the sanitary

appliances install the branch waste
and soil pipes without the need for
individual branch ventilating pipes.

To prevent the loss of trap water

WC branch pipe min. 100 mm bore
and the angle = 90.5 to 95.

To prevent the loss of trap water

basin main waste pipe min. 50 mm
bore and the angle = 91 to 92.5.

Five basins or more / length of the

main waste pipe exceeds 4.5 m a
25 mm bore vent pipe connected to
main waste pipe at a point between
wastewater treatment

Conventional wastewater treatment consists of a combination of physical, chemical, and

biological processes and operations to remove solids, organic matter and, sometimes,
nutrients from wastewater.

Screening is the first unit operation used at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

Screening removes objects such as rags, paper, plastics, and metals to prevent damage
and clogging of downstream equipment, piping, and appurtenances.

Some modern wastewater treatment plants use both coarse screens and fine screens.
When is Aeration Used?
In municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, aeration is part of the stage known as
the secondary treatment process.

The activated sludge process is the most common option in secondary treatment.

Aeration in an activated sludge process is based on pumping air into a tank, which promotes
the microbial growth in the wastewater.

The microbes feed on the organic material, forming flocs which can easily settle out.

After settling in a separate settling tank, bacteria forming the "activated sludge" flocs are
continually recirculate back to the aeration basin to increase the rate of decomposition
Sedimentation tank, also called settling tank or clarifier,
component of a modern system of water supply or
wastewater treatment.

A sedimentation tank allows suspended particles to

settle out of water or wastewater as it flows slowly
through the tank, thereby providing some degree of

A layer of accumulated solids, called sludge, forms at the

bottom of the tank and is periodically removed.

In drinking-water treatment, coagulants are added to the

water prior to sedimentation in order to facilitate the
settling process, which is followed by filtration and other
treatment steps.

In modern sewage treatment, primary sedimentation

must be followed by secondary treatment (e.g.,
trickling filter or activated sludge) to increase
purification efficiencies.

Sedimentation is usually preceded by treatment using

bar screens and grit chambers to remove large objects

Colloidal suspensions of fine solids may be removed by filtration through fine physical
barriers distinguished from coarser screens or sieves by the ability to remove particles
smaller than the openings through which the water passes.

Other types of water filters remove impurities by chemical or biological processes described
What is water disinfection?

Water disinfection means the removal, deactivation or killing of pathogenic


Microorganisms are destroyed or deactivated, resulting in termination of growth and


When microorganisms are not removed from drinking water, drinking water usage will
cause people to fall ill.

Sterilization is a process related to disinfection. However, during the sterilization process

all present microorganisms are killed, both harmful and harmless microorganisms.
Water softening

Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal
cations in hardwater.

The resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of
plumbing. Water softening is usually achieved using lime softening or ion-exchange
A trap is A device which is used to prevent sewer gases from
the buildings.

The traps are located below or within a plumbing fixture and retains
small amount of water.

The retaining water creates a water seal which stops foul gases going
back to the building from drain pipes

All plumbing fixtures such as sinks, washbasins, bathtubs and toilets

are equipped with traps.
Types of Traps:-
Gully Trap




Floor Trap or Nahini Trap

Intercepting Trap

Grease Trap

Bottle Trap
Gully Trap:-
These traps are constructed outside the building to carry waste water
discharge from washbasin, sinks, bathroom etc.

These are deep seal traps, the depth of water seal should be 50 mm

It also prevents the entry of cockroach and other insects from sewer line
waste pipes carrying waste water.
P Trap:-
This trap is used with Indian water closet (ORISSA Pattern)

The traps are made from cast iron or UPV sheet.

This trap also has water seal and prevents entry of foul gases to the house.
The 'P' trap - normally with a screw joint half way along so that:
The trap can be easily removed without disturbing the pipework when it is
necessary to remove a blockage.
The outlet can be adjusted through something like 270 in the horizontal plane
to accommodate the position of the horizontal waste pipe connected to it.
A disadvantage of the 'P' trap is that it requires a fair amount of room around the
waste outlet.
S Trap:-
This trap is similar to P trap

It is used for fixing water closets in toilets.

The only difference between P trap and S trap is that P trap is used for
outlet through the wall where as S trap is used for outlet through the floor
The 'S' trap - normally with a screw joint half way along so that:
The trap can be easily removed without disturbing the pipework when it is
necessary to remove a blockage.
The outlet can be adjusted through something like 270 in the horizontal
plane to accommodate the position of the vertical waste pipe connected to it.
Like the 'P' trap, the 'S' also requires a fair amount of room around the waste
Q Trap:-

This trap is used in toilet under water closet. It is almost similar to S

trap and is used in upper storey other than ground floor.
Floor Trap or Nahini Trap:-

This trap is provided in the floor to collect

waste water from washbasin, shower, sink
and bathroom .

These are available in cast iron or UPVC

material and have removable grating (JALI)
on the top of the trap.

The minimum depth of water seal should

50 mm.
Intercepting Trap:-

This trap is provided at the last main hole of building sewerage to

prevent entry of foul gases from public sewer to building sewer.

It has a deep-water seal of 100 mm.

Grease Trap:-

This trap is a device to collect the grease contents of waste and can be
cleaned from the surface. This is generally used in food processing unit.
Bottle Trap:-

This trap is used below washbasin and sinks to prevent entry of foul gases.