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International Relations


Zahid Mehmood Zahid
National Officers Academy (NOA),

Recommended Books

(1) “Globalization of World Politics: An introduction to
international relations”
John Baylis, Steve Smith, Patricia Owens

(2) “International Relations” 10th edition
Joshua S. Goldstein & John C. Pevehouse

• The definition and Scope of IR
• The Nation State System
• Evolution of International society

It is an atheistic discipline with less regards to morality. it also has its own jargons and principles. IR analysis necessitates IR sense Analysis of an event requires you to think in terms of IR. . Like all other disciplines.

System. (Indo-Pak) . (1) Individual. How does IR operate … Stay objective and analyse objectively. (Iran-Saudi) It has certain levels of analysis. & (3) Int. (2) State. (Pak-Saudi & Indo-Pak relations). IR connects the Past with present and predicts the future.

IR is the branch of Political Science. History of IR and what is it all about…? IR is relatively a new field of study whose origins - post-WWI era. IR became an academic discipline in 1919 when university of Aberystwyth established department of Int. Politics. .

separatism etc. Also analyses inter and intra-state conflicts. militancy. terrorism. Cont… It is about methods and Frameworks for understanding the world. Wars are the bread & butter of IR. violence. .

Jeremy Bentham .Restricted Definition of IR “Official relations among states”.

Comprehensive Definition: “IR encompasses much more than relations among nation states and International organizations and groups. at various levels. It includes variety of transnational relationships. above and below the state level in the international system” Palmer and Perkins .

IMF. Ingredients of IR. BRICS. Nuclear Proliferation & WMDs.terrorism & militancy. Balance of Power. War and Diplomacy. and many more. . ASEAN) National power & National Interest. Economic organizations (World Bank. Political & social issues . Foreign policies.

In 21st century. ASEAN. . economic and social through institutions like UNO.dealing with war and peace. scope covers govt to govt relations . ECO. political. Others see IR as about cross-border relations of all kinds. SCO. Scope of IR Few say. EU etc. few focus on globalized relationship through Banks and MNCs.

Fields IR deals with … Politics. It expands your understanding beyond domestic horizon. criminology. . Why study IR? First. diplomacy. very few other subjects cover such a broad range of topics. nuclear proliferation. history. globalization. economics. terrorism. and human rights etc. security. Secondly. Law.

Afghanis. Indians. and Russians? What is sovereignty? Are all states equal? If Yes. Think Critically …! Why do we identify ourselves as Pakistanis. Iranians. Why US and Russia seem to be intervening in many parts of the world? .

. Evolution of Nation State System Nation “A large body of people united by common history. culture. inhabiting a particular state or territory”. State “a sovereign political entity with a governance system. territory. and its inhabitants”. identity. or language.

with population sharing a common culture. Nation State System “A pattern of political life in which people are separately organized into sovereign states and interact with one another”. and language. history. . Nation State A nation state has defined territory with a sovereign government.

The nation-state is a recent phenomenon. Modern Nation State System. Where state is supposed to protect its citizens from wars and economic threats. For the protection of national interests these nation States use methods like diplomacy and wars. .

Where has this come from? .

Groups life started near water concentrations Tribes Social & physical needs grew – marriages and children etc.000 years. Feudalism agrarian industry gave way to feudalism.5 million years ago. Evolution of Nation State System Cave era Individual society 2. few says 10. .

Rise of Nation State System Prior to the 500s. People used to identify themselves with their region or feudal lord. . Feudalism was a not only an economic system but also was a political system. nation-states did not exist in Europe.

these towns started demanding independence from local lords. Over time. This led to the development of trade routes b/w East & West. . Crusade wars and decline of Feudalism After Crusades wars European soldiers returned home with tales of the wealthy Muslims. later on towns and cities began to develop along these routes.

. few kings wanted to have control over religious affairs to get absolute power. But. Rise of the Modern Nation-State System During 16th and 17th centuries Holy Catholic Church was ruling the West. Henry VIII broke away from the Pope and established an independent Protestant church in the 1530s. In England.

. Austria. Catholics could not defeat Protestants. including Germany. and Spain. Sweden. France. Thirty Years Sectarian War 1618-1648 The war involved almost entire Europe. The treaty that ended the war – called the Treaty of Westphalia 1648.

.Treaty of Westphalia stated. including religion. and Spain shook pope and became nation states. “sovereign ruler of a state has power over nation and state. France.” Resultantly. Germany. England.

established the constitution of modern world politics. in other words. . Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Treaty was meant to settle conflicts. Treaty. especially conflicts over religion. Pope referred to the Westphalian treaty as ‘Null. Sin’.

Westphalian treaty is also known as “peace of exhaustion” because war had bankrupted the waring parties. NSS evolved. Cont… Over the course of time. int. and mutual trade etc. Law. diplomacy. brought democracy. .

Elements of Westphalian Peace Sovereignty: The notion that every state has the right of self-rule over its people and territory. (Nepal = USA) Non-intervention: no interference was permitted in the affairs of other state. Only sovereign states could enter into relations. Legal Equality: All states are equal as sovereign member of the International community. .

. The UN Charter Chapter 1: Purposes and principles Article: 2 (1) The organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its member states. Article: 2 (4) All members shall refrain in their relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state ….. .

with two objectives.Religion. Outcomes of Treaty 1. Treaty Favoured secularism and ensured religious freedom. Since the empire was catholic and protestant reformation had begun in 1517-1521 under Martin Luther King Sr. .

2.Nationalism Nationalism entered into Europe after the Westphalian Treaty. Identifying papacy as anti-Christ. Cont… I. Prior to that feudals and kings used to think in terms of religion. II. Discovering Jesus and salvation by faith. .

The principle of autonomy does not allow exploitation of the weaker by major states. . no matter how powerful. do not have the right to intervene into other sovereign countries. Other states. Significance of Nation State System Each state can decide the best for its people with out external pressures.

Globalization: WTO. Growing interdependence. ASEAN) Humanitarian intervention: in Libya. Non-state-actors like ISIS. Boko Haram. MNCs . Drone strikes. it faces the challenges from. Regional Integration (EU. World Bank.Challenges faced by NSS in contemporary World Today. Intra-state conflicts: Syria. IMF. Yemen & Afghanistan.

How do you see the role of state in the future. Explain significance and scope of IR in a changing world. Explain the salient features of modern nation state system. given that that globalization and MNCs are undermining state authority? . Questions to attempt.