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Social Studies in Elementary Education

15e
Walter C. Parker & Terence A. Beck

Chapter 11
Social Studies
as the Integrating Core

By: Terence A. Beck, University of Puget


Sound

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter Outline

1. Curriculum Integration

2. Two Examples of Curriculum Integration:


Composing Cooperative Biographies and
Understanding Living Things

3. Understanding the Two Examples

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Key Concepts

Curriculum integration
Scholarly disciplines
Strategy (means)
Goal (end)
Biography
Unifying generalization

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Picture This

Mr. Larson wanted his third grade students to understand something very
importantthat the decisions made by human beings influence the survival
of other living things. This idea was so rich and generative that, if it were
not to be treated superficially, it would require the integration of two of the
third-grade subjects at his school: science and social studies. This was the
only big idea-development project he would attempt before the winter
vacation, so he pulled out all the stops and created a unit using his most
powerful teaching strategies: concept formation, inquiry, and decision
making.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
What do teachers mean by Curriculum Integration?

Some mean reading, writing, literature, art, and music


instruction are focused on social studies subject matter.

Some integrate around a powerful theme, usually a


concept

Others organize around a generalization


Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Definitions

Discipline - An integrated body of teachable knowledge with


its own key concepts and generalizations, issues and methods
of inquiry

Interdisciplinary or Integrated - A curriculum approach that


purposefully draws together knowledge, perspectives, and
methods of inquiry from more than one discipline to develop a
more powerful understanding of a central idea, issue, person, or
event
Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Curricular Integration: Pitfalls

Goals and Strategies


Either/Or Thinking (Putting All the Eggs in One
Basket)
Trivializing Learning
Confusion
A Little Bit of This, a Little Bit of That

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Reflect and Discuss 11.1

Thinking about your schooling experiences to date, when


have you engaged in interdisciplinary study? In what way
were your experiences interdisciplinary? To what extent
did your experiences avoid the pitfalls of curriculum
integration?

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Procedure for Cooperative Biographies

1. Decide on the learning objectives.


2. Select the person about whom children will write their biographies.
3. Introduce the project to students, clarifying the objectives, rationale,
and audience.
4. Help the children learn about the person and keep track of what they are
learning.
5. Help children reflect on the persons life and times and identify key
events in the persons life.
6. Orchestrate the cooperative production of biographies in small groups.
7. Conclude the project.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Cooperative Biographies

Examples of
conceptual
clusters of
persons suitable
for cooperative
biographies

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Reflect and Discuss 11.2

The 12 objectives listed on page 352 are all relevant to a unit on


Cooperative Biographies. Yet, when it comes to objectives, teachers
must be discerning. Focusing on everything can result in students
learning a little about a lot without ever learning a lot about anything.
Thus, more is not always better. Look over the objectives weve
suggested. Based on the grade level you hope to teach, select the
objectives you believe are most important. Why did you choose the
objectives you did?

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Comparing biographies for bias

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Reflect and Discuss 11.3

The cooperative biography unit brings Language Arts into


the service of social studies. Thinking about the
connection between Language Arts and social studies
spelled out in Chapter 10, how might you make Language
Arts and Literacy more equal partners in this unit than
weve done here?

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Planning a Fusion Unit: Ingredients and Procedure

1. Identify a unifying concept or generalization that is


important and powerful.
2. Identify the component concepts.
3. Plan a sequence of learning activities that will help
children construct the unifying generalization.
4. Select teaching strategies that will help children achieve
lesson objectives.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Data-retrieval chart: Living Things

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Understanding the Two Approaches to Curriculum
Integration
Infusion (Supportive) - Aspects of one subject area are inserted
or infused into a second to enhance the learners grasp of the
second.

Fusion - Two or more subject maters are joined together-


synthesized in such a way that a new unified ideas is formed.
Subject matter A and subject matter B are fused to produce C
(C is a powerful idea such as a concept or generalization).

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Infusion (Supportive) Examples

Use the concepts plot and character to better


understand a social event such as the American
Revolution, the Civil Rights movement, and the
Underground Railroad.
Use concepts and skills from mathematics, such as
proportions to make a 3-D paper pie graphs that
display social phenomena.
Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Fusion Example

Voyages of Columbus (more than exploration) but an


exchange of plant life, animal life, and disease between
Eastern and Western Hemispheres- Smallpox and horses
were brought from Europe to America; corn and sugar
were taken from America to Europe. Called Seeds of
Change by the Smithsonian.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Reflect and Discuss 11.4

Examine to the voyages of Columbus example. We suggest that


understanding the event requires you to fuse social studies and
science. What are the concepts a Seeds of Change unit might
teach (think history and biology and anthropology)? Try to
generate a generalization for this unit and compare your
generalization with those of your peers.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved
Discussion Question

The authors present three different approaches to


integration common among teachers (literacy instruction
focused on social studies content; units organized around a
theme; units organized around a generalization). Which of
these approaches is most likely to result in powerful social
studies learning for students? Justify your choice.

Copyright 2017, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Social Studies in Elementary Education, 15e, by Parker and Beck.
All Rights Reserved