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Chapter 8:

Skeletal Muscle
EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY
Theory and Application to Fitness and
Performance, 5th edition
Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley

Presentation revised and updated by


MOHD SANI MADON (PhD)
ALI MD NADZALAN
UPSI 2015
(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Objectives
Draw & label the microstructure of skeletal
muscle
Outline the steps leading to muscle
shortening
Define the concentric and isometric
Discuss: twitch, summation & tetanus
Discus the major biochemical and
mechanical properties of skeletal muscle fiber
types
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Objectives
Discuss the relationship between skeletal
muscle fibers types and performance
List & discuss those factors that regulate the
amount of force exerted during muscular
contraction
Graph the relationship between movement
velocity and the amount of force exerted during
muscular contraction
Discuss structure & function of muscle spindle
Describe the function of a Golgi tendon organ
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Skeletal Muscle
Human body contains over 400 skeletal
muscles
40-50% of total body weight
Functions of skeletal muscle
Force production for locomotion and breathing
Force production for postural support

Heat production during cold stress

Muscle actions
Flexors (Decrease joint angle)
Extensors (Increase joint angles)

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Connective Tissue Covering
Skeletal Muscle
Epimysium
Surrounds entire muscle
Perimysium
Surrounds bundles of muscle fibers
Fascicles
Endomysium
Surrounds individual muscle fibers
External lamina
Just below endomysium
Sarcolemma
Muscle cell membrane (c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Connective
Tissue
Covering
Skeletal
Muscle

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Satellite cell

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Sarcolemma: Muscle cell membrane
Myofibrils Threadlike strands within muscle
fibers
Actin (thin filament)
Myosin (thick filament)
Sarcomere
Z-line, M-line, H-zone, A-band & I-band

Fig 8.2
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Microstructure of
Skeletal Muscle

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Microstructure of
Skeletal Muscle
Within the sarcoplasm
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Storage sites for calcium
Transverse tubules
Terminal cisternae
Mitochondria

Fig 8.3
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Within the
Sarcoplasm

(c)
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reserved.
The Neuromuscular Junction
Where motor neuron meets the muscle
fiber
Motor end plate: pocket formed around
motor neuron by sarcolemma
Neuromuscular cleft: short gap

Ach is released from the motor neuron


Causes an end-plate potential (EPP)
Depolarization of muscle fiber Fig 8.4
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Neuromuscular Junction

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Muscular Contraction
The sliding filament model
Muscle shortening occurs due to the movement of
the actin filament over the myosin filament
Formation of cross-bridges between actin and
myosin filaments Power stroke
1 power stroke only shorten muscle 1%
Reduction in the distance between Z-lines of the
sarcomere

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The Sliding Filament Model

Fig 8.5
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Actin & Myosin Relationship
Actin
Actin-binding site
Troponin with calcium binding site
Tropomyosin
Myosin
Myosin head
Myosin tails

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Actin & Myosin Relationship

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Energy for Muscle Contraction
ATP is required for muscle contraction
Myosin ATPase breaks down ATP as fiber
contracts
ATP ADP + Pi
Sources of ATP
Phosphocreatine (PC)
Glycolysis
Oxidative phosphorylation

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Sources of ATP for Muscle
Contraction

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Excitation-Contraction
Coupling
Depolarization of motor end plate (excitation)
is coupled to muscular contraction
Nerve impulse travels down T-tubules and causes
release of Ca++ from SR
Ca++ binds to troponin and causes position
change in tropomyosin, exposing active sites on
actin
Permits strong binding state between actin and
myosin and contraction occurs

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Excitation-
Contraction
Coupling

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Steps Leading to Muscular
Contraction

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Biochemical properties
Oxidative capacity
Type of ATPase
Contractile properties
Maximal force production
Speed of contraction
Muscle fiber efficiency

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Fiber Typing
Gel electrophoresis: myosin isoforms
different weight move different distances

1 2 3 4 5
+
Type I
Type IIA 1 Marker
Type IIx 2 Soleus
3 Gastroc
4 Quads
5 - Biceps
_
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Fiber Typing
Immunohistochemical:
Four serial slices of muscle tissue
antibody attach to certain myosin isoforms

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Muscle Tissue: Rat Diaphragm

Type 1 fibers - dark Type 2b fiber - dark


antibody: BA-D5 Antibody: BF-F3

Type 2x fibers - light/white Type 2a fibers - dark


antibody: BF-35 antibody: SC-71
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Individual Fiber Types
Fast fibers Slow fibers
Type IIx fibers Type I fibers
Fast-twitch fibers Slow-twitch fibers
Fast-glycolytic Slow-oxidative
fibers fibers
Type IIa fibers
Intermediate fibers
Fast-oxidative
glycolytic fibers

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Muscle Fiber Types

Fast Fibers Slow fibers


Characteristic Type IIx Type IIa Type I
Number of mitochondria Low High/mod High
Resistance to fatigue Low High/mod High
Predominant energy system Anaerobic Combination Aerobic
ATPase Highest High Low
Vmax (speed of shortening) Highest Intermediate Low
Efficiency Low Moderate High
Specific tension High High Moderate

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Comparison of Maximal Shortening
Velocities Between Fiber Types

Type IIx

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Fiber Types and Performance
Power athletes
Sprinters
Possess high percentage of fast fibers
Endurance athletes
Distance runners
Have high percentage of slow fibers
Others
Nonathletes
Have about 50% slow and 50% fast fibers
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Endurance and resistance training
Cannot change fast fibers to slow fibers
Can result in shift from Type IIx to IIa fibers
Toward more oxidative properties

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Training-Induced Changes in
Muscle Fiber Type

Fig 8.13
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Aging is associated with a loss of muscle
mass
Rate increases after 50 years of age
Regular exercise training can improve
strength and endurance
Cannot completely eliminate the age-related loss
in muscle mass

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Types of Muscle Contraction
Isometric
Muscle exerts force without changing length
Pulling against immovable object
Postural muscles
Isotonic (dynamic)
Concentric
Muscle shortens during force production
Eccentric
Muscle produces force but length increases

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Isotonic and Isometric
Contractions

Fig 8.14
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Muscle twitch
Contraction as the result of a single stimulus
Latent period
Lasting only ~5 ms
Contraction
Tension is developed
40 ms
Relaxation
50 ms

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Muscle Twitch

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Force Regulation in Muscle
Types and number of motor units recruited
More motor units = greater force
Fast motor units = greater force
Increasing stimulus strength recruits more &
faster/stronger motor units
Initial muscle length
Ideal length for force generation Fig 8.17
Nature of the motor units neural stimulation
Frequency of stimulation
Simple twitch, summation, and tetanus

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Relationship Between Stimulus
Frequency and Force Generation

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Length-
Tension
Relationship

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Simple Twitch, Summation,
and Tetanus

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Force-Velocity Relationship
At any absolute force the speed of movement
is greater in muscle with higher percent of
fast-twitch fibers
The maximum velocity of shortening is
greatest at the lowest force
True for both slow and fast-twitch fibers

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Force-Velocity Relationship

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Force-Power Relationship
At any given velocity of movement the power
generated is greater in a muscle with a higher
percent of fast-twitch fibers
The peak power increases with velocity up to
movement speed of 200-300 degrees/second
Force decreases with increasing movement
speed beyond this velocity
Power decreases beyond this velocity because
force decreases with increasing movement speed

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Force-Power Relationship

Fig 8.20
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Receptors in Muscle
Muscle spindle
Changes in muscle length
Rate of change in muscle length
Intrafusal fiber contains actin & myosin, and
therefore has the ability to shorten
Gamma motor neuron stimulate muscle spindle to
shorten
Stretch reflex
Stretch on muscle causes reflex contraction
Fig 8.21
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Muscle Spindle

Fig 8.21
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Receptors in Muscle
Golgi tendon organ (GTO)
Monitor tension developed in muscle
Prevents damage during excessive force
generation
Stimulation results in reflex relaxation of muscle

Fig 8.22
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Golgi Tendon Organ

Fig 8.22
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