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17/7/26 Security Level:

Detection and Troubleshooting of GSM RF


Tunnel Faults:
Principle + Tools + Cases + Deliverables

Prepared by: Zhang Xianghua, Hanwei


Reviewed by: Qi Haofeng

www.huawei.com

Oct 31, 2012

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential


Revision History
Date Versio Description Reviewer Author
n
2012-01- Jan 2012 1 How to use M2000 Antenna Fault Wang Chun,Chen Zhang Xianghua
31 version Detection Function is added. Wei,Liu Xiuyu,Jiang (Staff ID: 51668)
2 Add cases of output power is Ying,Yan Yafeng
mismatch after swap sites. ,Liang jian, Zhao
3 Add cases of how to use power meter. jingjing,Qi
4 Description about Wireless Air Haofeng,Gao
Interface and RF Maintenance & Testing Shuliang,Guo
function is added . Hongliang,Ni
5 Add cases of how to resolve VSWR Hongxiang,Zhu
and Intermodulation in the indoor Kan,Chen
coverage system. Ruiqun,Chen Kai,Li
Wenhui,Zhang
Zhenhua,Li Peng,Liu
Fang,Jiang Xueyi.

2012-10- Oct 2012 1 Optimize support capability diagram. Wang Chun,Chen Zhang Xianghua
31 version 2 Add checklist about Antenna fault Wei,Liu Xiuyu,Jiang (Staff ID: 51668)
detection. Ying,Yan Yafeng Han Wei
3 Add checklist about uplink ,Liang jian, Zhao (Staff ID:45967)
interference. jingjing,Qi
4 Add cases about VSWR and Haofeng,Gao
interference. Shuliang,Guo
5 Add new function description of R14. Hongliang,Ni
6 Add priority of each fault mode about Hongxiang,Zhu
antenna fault. Kan,Chen
7 Modify description about crossing Ruiqun,Chen Kai,Li
connection of CPRI. Wenhui,Zhang
Zhenhua,Li Peng,Liu
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Fang,Jiang Xueyi.
Page 2
Abstract
This slide describes the following information:
Principles, schemes, and tools for detecting and troubleshooting GSM radio frequency (RF) path faults
Version information about the host system
Cases involved
Required deliverables
Problem resolution standards and requirements (Path faults must be rectified completely)
In addition, this slide describes the necessities of fixed-length jumpers, tools and requirements for making jumpers at
the site, and the method for installing jumper connectors. This information helps field engineers in preventing
intermodulation interference and site revisiting.

Obtain the relevant guides and tools from the following URL:
http://3ms.huawei.com/hi/group/5803/files.html?html=index2

Note:
The tools mentioned in this document are attached to the corresponding guides. Therefore, you
can obtain these tools from the corresponding guides.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 3


Terminology

Terminology Description

Inter-cell crossed pair The main or diversity antenna feeder


for two cells under a BTS is crossed.

Trunk amplifier A signal amplification system used to


amplify signals for an indoor distributed
base station.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 4


Deliverables and Closed-Loop Requirements
Requirements for Deliverables:
1. Provide the output of problem cells and sites, location results, and location experience
summary for a project based on the following attachment.
2. Handle voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) alarms and locate antenna
intermodulation interference when base stations are swapped.
Requirements for Problem Resolution:
The actual location result is provided for each problem cell and site.

Examples for Test Report on RF Chan.rar

Report Sample for Checking VSWR and Intermodulation Interference.rar

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 5


R&D Support
For detecting and troubleshooting RF tunnel faults, we provide trainings and
7*24 hour technical support. For any problem, contact us and we can
process it on site.
List of R&D technical support engineers

Name ID
Han Wei 45967

Zhang Xianghua 51668

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 6


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 7
Fault Modes of RF tunnels and Current Support Capability
- Diagram 1 Crossed pair of antennas between
External interference and cells: difference between the main 1 Fault of an antenna:
Intra-net frequency antenna level and the diversity antenna
level Difference between the main antenna level
interference and the diversity antenna level
2 Inverse connection of antennas
1)CDMA interference between cells: inter-cell handover 2 VSWR alarm:
detection counters
1)VSWR test
2) Frequency Spectrum 2)Multiple frequency VSWR test
Scanning 3)DTF test
3 Intermodulation interference:
1)Intermodulation interference detect base
1 Crossed pair of on traffic frequency
CPRI between cells: 2)Intermodulation performance test

difference between the main


antenna level and the
diversity antenna level
2 Inverse
connection of CPRI Fault of the connecting
between cells line between modules:
difference between the
inter-cell handover counters main antenna level and
the diversity antenna
level

BBU

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 8


RF Channel Fault Modes and Current Supporting Capabilities
Fault Mode Testing Method Data Source Impact Tool
Faulty connection between DPU/DFCU and TX line Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power. DDPU/DFCU power query results Service will be
TRX interrupted
during the test.

RX line Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels Traffic measurement about the main and OMStar
diversity

Faulty connection between antenna and Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels Traffic measurement about the main and OMStar
Connection fault of antenna

antenna port on the top of the BTS diversity

Faulty connection between RXUs Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels Traffic measurement about the main and
diversity
OMStar

Crossed pair connection of antennas


between cells
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels Traffic measurement about the main and
diversity
OMStar

Cross feeder test(R14 or later version) MML STR BTSCROSFEEDTST Service will be
interrupted
during the test.

Reverse connection of antennas between


cells
Analyze handover counter inter-cell handover counters Revers
eAnalys
e
Crossed pair connection of CPRI between Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels Traffic measurement about the main and
cells diversity

Reverse connection of CPRI between cells Analyze handover counter inter-cell handover counters Revers
eAnalys
e
Faulty connection between DPU/DFCU and Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power DDPU/DFCU power query results Service will be
Downlink channel fault

TRX interrupted
during the test.

VSWR alarm VSWR test One frequency VSWR test MML:STR BTSVSWRTST, and select Service will be
NON_FDR for test type interrupted
during the test.

VSWR test Multiple frequency VSWR test(R13 or later version) MML:STR BTSVSWRTST, and select Service will be
MULTI_ARFCN_NON_FDR for test interrupted
type during the test.

Settle VSWR alarm DTF test(R14 or later version) Start the function from WEBLMT Service will be
interrupted
during the test.

PIM test base on traffic frequency(R13 or later version) MML:STR BTSRFST, and select
Uplink interfern

Intermodulation interference PIMONLINE for test type

Test PIM performance of antenna system PIM performance test (or MML:STR BTSRFST, and select Service will be
later version) PIMOFFLINE for test type interrupted
during the test.
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
CDMA interference CDMA interference test(R13 or later version)
Page 9
MML:STR BTSRFST, and select
External interference CDMAINTEF for test type
Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 10
Antenna connection fault Checklist of Actions must be
implement

Actions must be
Step No Condition Goal
implement
1 Channel Fault
Detection with the Main The most important means to find antenna
unconditional
and Diversity Levels connection fault , it can detect 9 fault modes.
Step 1
2 Crossed Pair Find antenna
Connection Detection connection fault when To find if there is crossed pair connection
During Base Station Newly-built or swap between cells when newly-built or swap sites.
Deployment sites.
3 Reverse Connection of To find if there is reverse connection of
Antennas Between Cells unconditional
Step 2 antenna between cells.

4 Determining Path There is abnormal


Faults Based on Traffic about traffic
statistics related to To
Statistics Related to analyze if there is other antenna connection
Step 3
Balance Between Uplink fault expect the fault that has found in step 1
balance between uplink and step
Signal Level and Downlink 2.
signal level and
Signal Level downlink signal level

Step 4 5 summary unconditional Solve the problem that has found in the step
before and summarize how to improve.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 11


Step to analyze antenna connection
fault
Step1 Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity
Levels and Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base
Station Deployment
1 To find if there is antenna connection fault by by analyze the measurement counters
that main level and diversity level of MR
2 When newly-built or swap a site, we can use Crossed Pair Connection Detection During
Base Station Deployment to find if there is crossed pair connection and solve the problem on site ,
then can reduce the times of go to site.
Step 2 Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
1 We can find if there is reverse connection of antennas between cells by analyze handover
counters and project parameters, then decide if we should go to site solve the problem by KPI.
2 We can find if there is reverse connection of antennas between cells by making call
test on site when newly-built or swap a site.
Step 3 Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics
Related to Balance Between Uplink Signal Level and Downlink
Signal Level
When we find there is abnormal of traffic statistics related to balance between uplink
signal level and downlink signal level , first we can analyze by step 1 and step 2, if the problem is
still exists, we can analyze if there is problem of the tower amplifier or the configuration of tower
amplifier is wrong, or find if the power configuration is incorrect.
Step 4 Summary: Solve the problem that has found in the step before and summarize how
to improve.
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 12
Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 13
Detection Scheme for Channel Fault
Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Principle
Normally there should be no great difference between the main and diversity levels of each TRX. By analyzing the difference
between the main and diversity levels, sort out the TRXs with comparatively great difference between main and diversity levels.
Then detect specific fault points of an antenna feeder by referring to the data configuration and distribution rules of the TRXs that
have great difference between the main and diversity levels. It is not support when the cell is Multi-Site Cell.
Important Notice
1 For a single antenna feeder, the main and diversity levels differ greatly. In this case, no troubleshooting is required.
2 If a repeater is used, since the repeater has no diversity reception, there must be a great difference between the main and
diversity levels. In this case, no troubleshooting is required.
3 If it is difficult to find the root cause because of the traffic of TRX is low, we can use SET GCELLCHMGBASIC to switch on
the FACTORYMODE and analyze again.
4 When we resolve the crossing pair connection of antenna, we suggest to do some test on site to find which antenna is
crossing pair connection first.
Tools and Guides
MainDivAnalyse Antenna Faults check item of OMSTAR Antenna Fault detection function of M2000

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 14


Obtaining Data Source
Traffic measurement systems vary with NE types (such as BSC6000 and BSC6900) and
sources.
NE Version Source Traffic Calculation Advantages/Disadvantag
Measuremen es
t System
BSC600 All versions Traffic S4501, S4502 and Main level (dBm) = 10 *
0 measurement data S4503 log10 (S4502/S4501) - 120
of the entire Diversity level (dBm) = 10
network from the * log10 (S4503/S4501) -
M2000 120
Description because
the unit of s4502 s4503
is 0.1mW, after operation,
the result is -120.

BSC690 All versions Traffic S4556 and S4557 Main level (dBm) = 10 * If the count is too small, you may judge
0 measurement data log10 (S4556) - 120 incorrectly.
of the entire Diversity level (dBm) = 10
network from the * log10 (S4557) - 120
M2000

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 15


OMSTAR Tool
OMSTAR has the function of exporting fault points based on the difference between the main and diversity levels. OMSTAR are
recommended for automatic analysis of antenna feeder faults.
OMSTAR V500R001 is recommended for BSC6000, and OMSTAR V500R006 is recommended for BSC6900.
The release of OMSTAR is as follows:

Fault information in
details, we
can
OMSTAR inspection results are displayed in the "81 Antenna Faults" inspection item, as shown in the following figure:
resolve the fault by
this information.

For tools and detailed instructions, see Guide on How to Detect Faults in the Antenna System.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 16


Tool Instructions
Basic Steps

Step 1 Analyze the data by running the macro in the tool after collecting busy hour traffic measurement data in the
last one or two days.
Step 2 The analysis results indicate the difference between the main and diversity levels of each TRX based on BSC cells,
and mark TRXs with a greater difference by using different colors, as shown in the following figure.
Step 3 To analyze a specific fault point, refer to data configuration and summarized rules.
For tools and detailed instructions, see Guide on How to Detect Faults in the Antenna System.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 17


Mode of Channel Fault Detection with
the

Main and Diversity Levels


The following table describes the fault points and accuracy rate that can be
detected in the current channel fault detection with the main and diversity levels.
BTS Type Fault Mode No of Fault Mode Accuracy Rate
Faulty connection between TRX and
BTS3012 Fault Mode 1 Higher than 90%
DFCU/DDPU

BTS3012 Fault of main/diversity antenna feeder Fault Mode 2 Higher than 90%

Crossed pair connection of main/diversity of two


BTS3012 Fault Mode 3 Higher than 90%
cells
Crossed pair connection of main/diversity of two
BTS3900 Fault Mode 4 Higher than 90%
cells

BTS3900 Fault of antenna feeder connected to a module Fault Mode 5 Higher than 90%

Incorrect configuration of RXU


BTS3900 Fault Mode 6 Higher than 90%
transmitting/receiving mode

BTS3900 Faulty connection between RXUs Fault Mode 7 Higher than 90%

There is a small difference between the main and This is an auxiliary


BTS3012/BTS3900 diversity levels of the TRXs, but both main and Fault Mode 8 judging method that fails
diversity levels of the TRXs are very low. to locate precisely.

Crossing connection of CPRI This issue is


BTS3900 only happened when there is more than 2 Fault Mode 9 Higher than 90%
RXUs in one cell.
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 18
Fault Mode 1: Connecting Line from BTS3012 to the
DFCU/DDPU Fails
Summary: For some TRXs on the DFCU/DDPU, the main antenna level is more than 6 dB higher than the diversity
antenna level (for dual-antenna sites). ---Main is higher means RXD is fault, Diversity is higher means RXM is fault.

Main is higher Diversity id higher Normal



Typical case: No.30 TRX in cell B of the A site, The fault occurs because the RF connector on the DFCU that is
connected to No.30 TRX comes off.

TRX: #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! RXD is


Cell: =XXXB, =501
TRX: - - 11.3529374 11.3529374 fault
=502 84.1285807 95.4815181 5 5
TRX: - - 2.23120318 2.23120318
=503 82.7684919 84.9996951 8 8
TRX: - 0.61555216 0.61555216
-83.795518
=509 84.4110702 8 8
TRX: - 1.40037547 1.40037547
-83.311275
=510 84.7116505 2 2
TRX: #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., =511
LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 19
Fault Mode 2: Feeder from BTS3012 to an ANT Port on the
DFCU/DDPU Fails
Summary: On all TRXs, the main antenna level is higher than the diversity antenna level. Or, on all TRXs, the diversity
antenna level is higher than the main antenna level (for dual-antenna sites). The difference between the main antenna
level and diversity antenna level is greater than 6 dB. ---Main is higher means Diversity is fault, Diversity is higher
means Main is fault.

Main is higher Diversity is Normal


higher
Typical case: Cells 4 and 6 in A Site. All faults are caused by too large standing waves on the joint between the
jumper and feeder of the diversity antenna. No standing wave alarm is reported because the BTS version is too low.
After the BTS version is upgraded, the VSWR alarms can be reported normally.

Diversit
TRX: - - 23.0609893 23.0609893 y is
Cell: =XXX2 =636 68.5333659 91.5943552 7 7 fault
TRX: - - 18.2957597 18.2957597
=637 68.6124426 86.9082023 2 2
TRX: - - 17.5689420 17.5689420
=669 61.2771685 78.8461106 9 9
TRX: - - 18.6456478 18.6456478
=670 61.6098383 80.2554861 2 2

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 20


Fault Mode 3: Crossed Pair of Main and Diversity Antennas
in two Cells of BTS3012
Summary: In the same site, the problem that the main antenna level is higher than the diversity antenna level or the
diversity antenna level is higher then the main antenna level exists in at least two cells (for dual-antenna sites). The
difference between the main antenna level and the diversity antenna level is greater than 6 dB.

Typical case: Cells 5 and 6 in the A site. After confirming with field engineers, we find that the fault occurs because
the jumpers in sector 5 and jumpers in sector 6 are inversely connected.

Cell: =XXX5 TRX: =688 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!


TRX: =689 -71.945 -80.5929 8.647901 8.647901
TRX: =692 -73.5111 -79.931 6.419927 6.419927
Cell: =XXX6 TRX: =694 -77.23 -84.4321 7.202051 7.202051
TRX: =695 -76.1717 -82.2533 6.081665 6.081665
TRX: =696 -74.179 -80.2387 6.059695 6.059695

Main is higher Diversity is higher Normal



HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 21
Fault Mode 4: Crossed Pair of Main and Diversity Antennas
in two Cells of BTS3900
Summary:
1. When two MRFUs are available in the cell and the cell is not concentric cell: Great difference between the main antenna level and
diversity antenna level exists in at least two cells in the site. On one MRFU, the main antenna level is higher than the diversity antenna
level for all TRXs. On the other MRFU, the diversity antenna level is higher than the main antenna level for all TRXs (for dual-antenna
sites). The difference between the main antenna level and diversity antenna level is greater than 10 dB.
LABEL=XXX5 TRX Index=694 -75.357 -88.748 13.391 13.391
TRX Index=695 -73.3164 -86.6357 13.3193 13.3193
TRX Index=696 -72.3318 -85.0377 12.7059 12.7059
TRX Index=697 -74.9627 -63.1661 -11.7966 11.7966
TRX Index=698 -74.2168 -62.4526 -11.7642 11.7642
TRX Index=699 -76.2578 -64.2335 -12.0243 12.0243
LABEL=XXX6 TRX Index=700 -76.0838 -90.3464 14.2626 14.2626
TRX Index=701 -74.1798 -89.4889 15.3091 15.3091
TRX Index=702 -73.9436 -88.1454 14.2018 14.2018
TRX Index=703 -80.0928 -70 -10.0928 10.0928
TRX Index=704 -80.7734 -69.7056 -11.0678 11.0678
TRX Index=705 -80.693 -68.5507 -12.1423 12.1423
2. When only one MRFU is available in the cell and the cell is not concentric cell: Great difference between the main antenna level
and diversity antenna level exists in at least two cells in the site. In addition, for all TRXs in the problem cells, the main antenna level is
higher than the diversity antenna level or the diversity antenna level is higher than the main antenna level (for dual-antenna sites).The
difference between the main antenna level and diversity antenna level is greaterTRX than 6 dB.
LABEL=XXX5 -82.64 -100.89 18.251 18.251
Index=471
TRX
-69.19 -91.865 22.672 22.672
Index=472
TRX
-76.01 -87.784 11.77 11.77
Index=473
TRX
LABEL=XXX6 -67.31 -80.324 13.015 13.015
Index=474
TRX
-69.77 -82.093 12.326 12.326
Index=475
TRX
Typical case: Diversity antennas in cells 5 and 6 of the Chemistry Institute of Chinese Academy
-68.59 -83.918
of Sciences site 15.327 15.327
are inversely connected.
Index=476
Main is higher Diversity is higher Normal
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HuaweiConfidential Page 22
Fault Mode 4: Crossed Pair of Main and Diversity

Antennas
Summary: in two Cells of BTS3900
3. When two MRFUs are available in the cell and the cell is concentric cell: Great difference between the main antenna level and
diversity antenna level exists in at least two cells in the site, and there is the same characteristic exists in all these cells that the main
antenna level is higher than the diversity antenna level for all TRXs in the MRFU, The difference between the main antenna level and
diversity antenna level is greater than 10 dB. If the characteristic exists in only one of the MRFUs, that means there is crossed pair
connection under the combiner. If the characteristic exists in all of the MRFUs, that means there is crossed pair connection above the
combiner.

Typical case: There is crossed pair connection between the overlaid subcell of the cells in site A.

Main is higher Diversity is higher Normal


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 23


Example for Locating the Main or Diversity Crossed Pair
for Two Cells Under a BTS
According to the DT result, there are BCCH frequencies serving cells 30011 and 30012 in cell 30012.
This indicates that the main antenna connected to the BCCH TRX in cell 30011 and the diversity
antenna connected to a non-BCCH TRX in 30012 are crossed.

Wrong configuration Correct configuration

TCH BCCH
30012 30011

TCH TCH
30011 30011

BCCH BCCH
30012 30012
BCCH TCH
30011 30012

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 24


Fault Mode 5: One Antenna in a Cell of BTS3900 Fails
Summary:
1.When two MRFUs are available in the cell: Great difference between the main antenna level and diversity antenna level

exists in only one cell in the site. On one MRFU, the main antenna level is higher than the diversity antenna level. On the other
MRFU, the diversity antenna level is higher than the main antenna level (for dual-antenna sites). The difference between the
main antenna level and diversity antenna level is greater than 10 dB.
---Antenna of RXU the TRXs diversity is higher of which is fault.
LABEL=XXX2 TRX Index=694 -75.357 -88.748 13.391 13.391
- -
TRX Index=695 13.3193 13.3193
73.3164 86.6357
- -
TRX Index=696 12.7059 12.7059
72.3318 85.0377
- - -
TRX Index=697 11.7966
74.9627 63.1661 11.7966
- - -
TRX Index=698 11.7642
74.2168 62.4526 11.7642
- - -
TRX Index=699 12.0243
76.2578 64.2335 12.0243
2. When only one MRFU is available in the cell: Great difference between the main antenna level and diversity antenna
level exists in only one cell in the site. In addition, for all TRXs in the problem cell, the main antenna level is higher than the
diversity antenna level or the diversity antenna level is higher than the main antenna level (for dual-antenna sites). The
difference between the main antenna level and diversity antenna level is greater than 6dB.

TRX
LABEL=XXX1 -82.64 -100.89 18.251 18.251
Index=471
TRX
-69.19 -91.865 22.672 22.672
Index=472
TRX
-76.01 -87.784 11.77 11.77
Index=473

Main is higher Diversity is higher Normal


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. HuaweiConfidential Page 25
Fault Mode 6-1: The Transmitting/Receiving Mode of one Module
of BTS3900 Is Wrongly Configured
Summary: For all TRXs of one module in the cell, the main antenna level is more than 10 dB higher than the
diversity antenna level (for dual-antenna sites).
Typical case: For all TRXs of one module in B cell of A site, great difference exists between the main
antenna level and the diversity antenna level. This problem occurs because the transmitting/receiving mode of
the module is wrong configured. Specifically, the transmitting/receiving mode is configured to 1TX+1RX during
the intermodulation test and this configuration is not rolled back after the test. After modifying this configuration
to Single Feeder (1TX+2RX), the difference between the main antenna level and the diversity antenna level
restores to normal.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 26


Fault Mode 6-2: The Transmitting/Receiving Mode of one Module
of BTS3900 Is Wrongly Configured
Summary: For all TRXs of one module in the cell, the main antenna level is more than 10 dB higher than the
diversity antenna level (for dual-antenna sites).
Typical case: The difference between the main antenna level and the diversity antenna level is normal, but
after rectifying two M900 RXUs and M1800 RXUs to a COBCCH CELL, the Main level of all TRXs of M1800
RXUs are higher than Diversity level . When analyzing the configuration, we find that the Send Receive
Mode of M1800 RXUs is configured as Double Feeder(1TX+2RX), but from the antenna connect in
practice, the Send Receive Mode should be configured as Single Feeder(1TX+2RX).
M1800 is
abnormal
Sum:s4501: Sum:s4502: Sum:s4503:
Dif of Main
NE Cell TRX Main Level Div Level and Div Abs of dif
KABSC5B Cell:LABEL=10A, CellIndex=307 TRX:TRX Index=1313 86439 50720633 864672 -92.3153 -109.999 17.68333 17.68333
TRX:TRX Index=1314 80589 46902270 805977 -92.3508 -110 17.64871 17.64871
TRX:TRX Index=1315 78826 43812850 788784 -92.5507 -109.997 17.44643 17.44643
TRX:TRX Index=1316 80702 48263008 808132 -92.2327 -109.994 17.76132 17.76132




TRX:TRX Index=1317
TRX:TRX Index=1318
Combiner
113772
103564
1.23E+08
1.15E+08
1138746
1036487
-89.6499
-89.5558
-109.996
-109.996
20.3462
20.44065
20.3462
20.44065
TRX:TRX Index=1331 50278 1.89E+08 2.75E+08 -84.2598 -82.6239 -1.63584 1.635835
TRX:TRX Index=1332 246826 1.45E+09 1.71E+09 -82.3021 -81.5922 -0.70992 0.709921
TRX:TRX Index=1333 298531 1.89E+09 2.26E+09 -81.98 -81.2081 -0.77191 0.771915
TRX:TRX Index=1334 353505 2.17E+09 2.61E+09 -82.1166 -81.3238 -0.79284 0.792842
TRX:TRX Index=1335 298905 1.75E+09 2.08E+09 -82.3223 -81.5708 -0.75154 0.751535
M900 M180
TRX:TRX Index=1336 236176
0
1.39E+09 1.64E+09 -82.2905 -81.5754 -0.71507 0.715075

M900 is
normal

Main is higher Diversity is higher Normal


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 27


Fault Mode 7: The Connecting Line Between Two MRFUs on the
BTS3900 Fails
Summary: For all TRXs of one MRFU in the cell, the main antenna level is more than 10 dB higher than the
diversity antenna level (for dual-antenna sites). The levels of the main and diversity antennas of the other
MRFU, however, are normal.

Main is higher Diversity is higher Normal



Typical case: Of the two modules in one cell of A site, for all TRXs of one module, the main antenna level is
more than 12 dB higher than the diversity antenna level. For the other module, the levels of the main and
diversity antennas are normal. Through detection, it is discovered that the receiving line between the two
modules is not connected. After connecting the receiving line, the difference between the main antenna level
and the diversity antenna level restores to normal.

TRX: - 2.72419351 2.72419351


-75.844143
Cell: =XXX3 =195 73.1199495 1 1
TRX: - - 0.88489268 0.88489268
=196 75.3536322 76.2385249 9 9
TRX: - - 33.4174739 33.4174739
=215 75.9703878 109.387862 6 6
TRX: - - 32.7282933 32.7282933
=216 75.1245195 107.852813 7 7

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 28


Fault Mode 8: For Some TRXs in the Cell, Both the Main Antenna
Level and the Diversity Antenna Level Are too Low
Summary: For some TRXs in the cell, both the main antenna level and the diversity antenna level are lower
than -98 dBm (for dual-antenna sites).
Note: This can only be used as a supplementary means but cannot be used for precise judgment.

Typical case: In the A site, the RSSIs of both the main antenna and the diversity antenna of No.11 TRX are
lower than -100 dBm. The levels of the main and diversity antennas of other TRXs, however, are normal.
Through data analysis, we find that the problem occurs because the receiving mode of No.11 TRX, which
should be configured to Dividing Receiver, is wrongly configured to Independent Receiver.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 29


Fault Mode 9 Crossing connection of CPRI
Summary: There are 2 RXUs in one cells, The difference between the main antenna level and diversity
antenna level of all TRXs in this cell is less than 6 dB, but the difference of uplink level of all TRXs in each
RXU is greater than 5db, and there are more than 2 cells has this situation in the same site.
Typical case: CSSR of one site is very low, After analyze we find there is crossing connection of CPRI
between two cells of this site. The difference
between the
main antenna
level and
diversity
average level of antenna level
Cell trx S4501 S4502 S4566 S4567 Main Div Diff uplink of all TRXs in
19 0 11137 37985488 181499 178427 -84.6715 -85.3489 0.677394 this cell is low.
19 0 13456 199375742 298442 262162 -78.2924 -82.3545 4.062052
19 1 14401 57875823 277095 284324 -83.959 -83.7776 -0.1814
19 1 16037 76259407 337381 320519 -83.2283 -83.9544 0.726117
19 2 18832 90078519 361552 361997 -83.2028 -83.692 0.489248
the difference
19 2 18303 104821997 388538 378485 -82.4207 -82.4449 0.024202 -79.7037 of uplink level
19 3 5205 8133742 48739 50572 -88.0613 -89.1582 1.096921 of all TRXs in
19 3 2119 5794284 19737 20555 -85.6313 -85.3255 -0.30583 each RXU is
19 4 4861 7044340 45165 46933 -88.3889 -89.4997 1.110826 high.
19 4 3361 3063403 32150 33905 -90.4026 -89.6192 -0.78348
19 5 1375 1007479 13086 13246 -91.3507 -93.2135 1.862852
19 5 6117 9042924 59560 63964 -88.3023 -88.26 -0.04234 -85.4599
20 6 2536 3138966 38141 36407 -89.0736 -90.6934 1.619771
20 6 2687 5246517 43957 40141 -87.094 -88.2346 1.140631
20 7 16909 40264875 251166 232801 -86.2319 -88.2078 1.975932
20 7 19235 68183696 301649 294768 -84.5041 -85.833 1.328896
20 8 16769 65320630 264268 255270 -84.0946 -85.9931 1.898491
20 8 18590 49323181 292035 297128 -85.7623 -86.3236 0.561269 -82.8401
20 9 10096 77480692 239128 233803 -81.1496 -80.9332 -0.21636
20 9 8326 64992054 200266 213739 -81.0758 -80.1069 -0.96883

20 10 11861 115861451 283698 284495 -80.1018 -80.3455 0.243652

20 10 9596 100897802 240777 247793 -79.7821 -79.2282 -0.55392

20 11 12103 113365689 287899 288854 -80.2841 -79.9641 -0.32002


20 11 9461 70945147 230532 242228 -81.2501 -80.068 -1.18214 -77.2946

uplink level is high Uplink level is low

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 30


Case of triggering or recovering alarm automatically by using
threshold alarm function of M2000
Description of setting By setting the threshold of difference between

main and diversity level to trigger or recover alarm.


Application scenario It is recommend that there is somebody on site to
check the fault. For a instance, when adding a new site or troubleshooting on site.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 31


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 32
Introduction about the function of Crossed Pair Connection
Detection During Base Station Deployment(R14 or later
version)
Principle

Alternate and test of TX channel at the same site. Only one TX channel in each round is
test and the other antenna channels receive the transmitted signal through VSWR
channels. Based on the principle that the antenna isolation in the same sector is lower than
that in the different sector, the antenna channel that is connected to the current
transmission channel can be found. By analyzing whether the antenna channel that is
connected to the current transmission channel is the same as the antenna channel initially,
crossed pair connection can be detected.
Attention
1 It can only detect if there is crossed pair connection between send
channel and receive channel when there is only one send channel in the cell.
2 The service will interrupt during the test.
3 This function does not apply to the scenario where RAN sharing or
baseband handover is adopted.
The following RF modules support this function
Module Types Support crossed pair Support crossed pair connection
connection dictation (one dictation (two or more modules
module in one cell/sector) in one cell/sector)

RRU3926 No Yes
RRU3240/RRU3942 NO -
RRU3828/RRU3928/RRU3841 Yes -
RRU3929/RRU3829/RRU3908 V2 Yes Yes
MRFUe/MRFU V2/GRFU V2/ MRFU V2a/GRFU V2a/MRFU V3 No Yes

MRFUd/WRFUd/LRFUe Yes Yes

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 33


Operation guide about the function of Crossed Pair
Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
1 Start the crossed pair connection detection function by running the following MML command: STR
BTSCROSFEEDTST, and usually parameter use the default parameter.If there is a filter installed on site , we
should input the Minimum Frequency and Maximum Frequency.

2 After the detection is complete, it will show if there is crossed pair connection. If there is crossed pair
connection between two cells, the information that which channels are connected in one cell actually is
also be shown.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 34


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 35
Introduction to the Solution of Detecting Inverse Connection of
Antennas Between Cells Through Inter-Cell Handovers
Principle

According to the engineering parameter table and GSM Cell to GSM Cell Outgoing Handover Measurement, find the cells where no overlapping coverage area exists but handovers exist.
Attention The easiest and the most efficacious to fond inverse
connection of Antennas between cells is to use MS with test function to
do some test on site. It is recommend to
resolve it on site directly when add
a new site by using MS.
In the coverage of the corresponding B2
azimuth on the site, you can check
whether the CI values of cells are
consistent with the expected values
using the test MS.
For example, the CI and azimuth of three cells are as follows:

A2B2
Cell 1: CI as 2014 and azimuth as 300
Cell 2: CI as 2015 and azimuth as 70 For example
Cell 3: CI as 2016 and azimuth as 140
During fault detection, it is found that azimuth values
A1 There are handovers betweenA1 and
300, 70, and 140 correspond to CI values 2016,
2015, and 2014 respectively. Obviously, the antennas
B2 but there are not overlapping coverage
of cell 1 and cell 3 are connected reversely. area between A1 and B2 , and there are
overlapping coverage area between A2 and B2.
There are handovers betweenA2 and
C1 but there are not overlapping coverage
area between A2 and C1 , and there are
overlapping coverage area between A1 and C1.
Then we can conclude that there are inverse
connection of antennas between A1 and A2.
C1

Related Tool and Guide

ReverseAnalyse

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 36


Judgment About Inverse Connection of Antennas Between
Cells
The correctness of the engineering parameters has a great effect on the final calculation result. To reduce
wrong judgment, you are recommended to select the sites that have more Sum reverse adjacent cells.
If two sites have the same reverse neighboring cells, you are recommended to select the site that have
more Sum Handover requests handover to reverse adjacent cells

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 37


Tool Instructions
Basic Steps
Step 1 Sort engineering parameters into the formats specified in the tool.
Step 2 Collect the busy hour traffic measurement data in one hour. If the format of traffic
measurement is different from the two formats specified in the tool, convert it into the format
specified in the tool.
Step 3 After analyzing data, use the tool to export the inversely connected sites, and sort
these sites according to neighboring cells in the opposite direction.
The correctness of the engineering parameters has a great effect on the final calculation
result. To reduce wrong judgment, you are recommended to select the sites that have more
Sum reverse adjacent cells and more Sum Handover requests handover to reverse
adjacent cells
For tools and detailed instructions, see <<Guide on How to Detect Faults in the
Antenna System>>.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 38


Typical Case 1

According to the handover counters, the cell1 has eight reverse neighboring cells, four of which are marked in the
preceding figure. Other cells in this site also have reverse neighboring cells. The field engineers troubleshoot the
cells in this site and find that antennas of three cells in this site are inversely connected in counterclockwise manner.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 39


Typical Case 2

According to the handover counters, the cell4 has six reverse neighboring cells, four of which are marked in the
preceding figure. Cell 6 in this site also has reverse neighboring cells. The field engineers troubleshoot the cells in
this site and find that antennas of cells4 and cell6 of this site are inversely connected.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 40


Typical Case 3

According to the handover counters, the cell3 has two reverse neighboring cells. Cell 1 in this site also has reverse
neighboring cells. The field engineers troubleshoot the cells in this site and find that antennas of cells1 and cell3 in
this site are inversely connected.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 41


Typical Case 4

According to the handover counters, cell4 has two reverse neighboring cells. Cell6 in this site also has reverse
neighboring cells. The field engineers troubleshoot the cells in this site and find that antennas in cell4 and cell6 in
this site are inversely connected.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 42


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 43
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to
Balance Between Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level
Principles
In a favorable system, the uplink signal level and downlink signal level must be balanced under the coverage areas. When the uplink signal level
and downlink signal level are balanced, the maximum path loss for the uplink and downlink is the same. If the uplink signal level and
downlink signal level are unbalanced, the BTS hardware or antenna system may be faulty.
Determining Method and Standards
The counter Uplink-and-Downlink Balance Measurement per TRX(MR.BalanceOrig.TRX) for Measurement of TRX Performance(TRX) is used to
analyze whether the uplink signal level and downlink signal level are balanced.
The standards for determining the balance between the uplink signal level and the downlink signal level are described as follows:
The uplink signal level and downlink signal level are unbalanced (The downlink signal level is poor or the uplink signal level is strong) when:
Percentage of uplink and downlink balance class 1 + Percentage of uplink and downlink balance class 2 > 15%
The uplink signal level and downlink signal level are unbalanced (the downlink signal level is strong or the uplink signal level is poor) when:
Percentage of uplink and downlink balance class 11 > 30%
In normal situations, the uplink and downlink balance class is 6, that is, 0 dB. The statistics of uplink and downlink balance present normal
distribution. The following figures show the balance between the uplink signal level and the downlink signal level and the imbalance between
the uplink signal level and the downlink signal level respectively for reference.

Statistic result of Uplink-and-downlink Balance that is normal


Statistic result of Uplink-and-downlink Balance that is abnormal
Sum:S462A:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-
Downlink Balance Level = 1)
Sum:S462A:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-
Sum:S462B:Number of MRs (Uplink-and- Downlink Balance Level = 1)
Downlink Balance Level = 2)
Sum:S462B:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-
Sum:S462C:Number of MRs (Uplink-and- Downlink Balance Level = 2)
Downlink Balance Level = 3)
Sum:S462D:Number of MRs (Uplink-and- Sum:S462C:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-
Downlink Balance Level = 4) Downlink Balance Level = 3)
Sum:S462D:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-
Sum:S462E:Number of MRs (Uplink-and- Downlink Balance Level = 4)
Downlink Balance Level = 5) Sum:S462E:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-
Sum:S462F:Number of MRs (Uplink-and- Downlink Balance Level = 5)
Downlink Balance Level = 6)
Sum:S462F:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-
Downlink Balance Level = 6)
Sum:S462G:Number of MRs (Uplink-and- Sum:S462G:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-
Downlink Balance Level = 7) Downlink Balance Level = 7)
Sum:S462H:Number of MRs (Uplink-and- Sum:S462H:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-
Downlink Balance Level = 8) Downlink Balance Level = 8)

Sum:S462I:Number of MRs (Uplink-and- Sum:S462I:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-


Downlink Balance Level = 9) Downlink Balance Level = 9)
Sum:S462J:Number of MRs (Uplink-and- Sum:S462J:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-
Downlink Balance Level = 10) Downlink Balance Level = 10)

Sum:S462K:Number of MRs (Uplink-and-


Sum:S462K:Number of MRs (Uplink-and- Downlink Balance Level = 11)
Downlink Balance Level = 11)
Page 44

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential


Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to
Balance Between Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal
Level---Affecting Factors
Factors Affecting the Balance Between Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level
Faults in paths and hardware are mainly located on:
a. RF front modules (such as DDPUs) and TRX modules (such as DTRUs). In normal situations, TRX
faults lie in certain hardware version or certain batches of TRX hardware.
b. Repeaters. There are various types of repeaters that bring gains to uplink and downlink. If there is
no gain on the uplink or downlink, the uplink signal level and downlink signal level are unbalanced.
c. TMA. Some TMAs amplify only uplink signals. If this type of TMA is installed on a network, the
parameter Antenna Tributary Factor must be configured on the Huawei BSC LMT. If Antenna
Tributary Factor is not configured or if Antenna Tributary Factor is configured but the uplink
amplifier of the TMA is faulty, the uplink signal level and downlink signal level are unbalanced.
d. Antenna feeders. There are small jumpers, lightning arresters, conversion adapters, and antenna
between the cabinet top port and the antenna. On some occasions, power splitters and combiners
are also required between the cabinet top port and the antenna system. The installation
engineering quality of the preceding devices may affect data transmission and reception of BTSs,
resulting in imbalance between the uplink signal level and the downlink signal level.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 45


Special Case1: After Swapping, Combiner Faults Result in Poor
Downlink Signal Level and High Call Drop Rate
Symptom: Cell B experiences a high call drop rate after BTSs in place A are relocated.
Cause: After swapping, combiner faults result in poor downlink signal level and high call drop rate.
Analysis: According to the analysis of traffic statistics, the uplink signal level is normal and the main and
diversity difference is small, but the uplink signal level and downlink signal level are unbalanced seriously
because the uplink signal level is high and the downlink signal level is low. According to the analysis of DT

Combiner
results, the downlink signal level is low and a large number of calls are dropped when the timing advance (TA)
value is zero. After the problem is located by sites, the problem is caused by combiner faults. After the
combiner is replaced, the call drop rate returns to normal.
faults

After change combiner

Call drops

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 46


Special Case 2: Incorrect Configurations for TMA Results in
Poor Downlink Signal Level
Symptom: After BTS A with a tower-mounted amplifier (TMA), the uplink signal level and downlink signal level are unbalanced
and the downlink signal level is poor.
Cause: The parameter Antenna Tributary Factor is not configured during TMA configuration. As a result, after swapping, the
uplink signal level is much higher than the downlink signal level and the traffic statistics related to balance between the uplink
signal level and the downlink signal level deteriorates.
Analysis: Configure Antenna Tributary Factor based on the TMA gain when configuring the TMA. Typical lose of the line is
4dB. When the TMA gain is 12 dB, Antenna Tributary Factor should be about 8. When the TMA gain is 24 dB, Antenna
Tributary Factor should be about 20. When the TMA gain is 32 dB, Antenna Tributary Factor should be about 28. The
uplink signal level and downlink signal level are balanced after Antenna Tributary Factor is adjusted from 4 to 9 based on the
TMA gain.
Attention: For some special type of TMA, it is bypass for RRU/RUF working on special band. In this situation, the TMA
doesnt work for the RRU/RFU.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 47


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 48
Downlink Channel Fault Checklist of Actions must be
implement
Actions must
Step No Condition Goal
be implement
1 Downlink
Channel Fault When downlink quality of BTS3012 To find if the line between TX and
Step 1 Detection Based series sites is abnormal. DDPU or DFCU of BTS3012 series
on Power sites is installed normally.

2 Downlink
Channel Fault When downlink quality of BTS3900
series sites that there is 2 RXUs in To find if the downlink channel is
Step 2 Detection Based abnormal of BTS3900 series sites.
on Downlink Level one cell.

It should be implement when newly-


3 Settle built or swap a site. And it should To find if VSWR is abnormal and to
Step 3 problem about be implement when there is VSWR solve the VSWR alarm.
VSWR alarm alarm.
To avoid the downlink KPI problem
Step 4 4 Power match It should be implement when swap caused by the power between before
sites. swap and after swap is mismatch.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 49


Step to analyze downlink channel
fault
Step1 Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
For BTS3012 series sites , if there is downlink KPI problem such as downlink HQI is low or
call drop rate is high ,we can use this method to detect if the problem is caused by the fault that
connection between TX and DDPU/DFCU is fault, or DDPU/DFCU.
Step2 Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on
Downlink Level
For BTS3900 series sites that there is 2 RXUs in a cell, if there is downlink KPI problem
such as downlink HQI is low or call drop rate is high ,we can use this method to detect if the
problem is caused by the fault of downlink channel of RXU.
Step3 Settle problem about VSWR alarm
1 When newly-built or swap a site, we should use VSWR test to find if VSWR of each send
channel if normal .If the VSWR is abnormal we can use DTF test function to find the point that cause
the abnormal of VSWR. We can also use SiteMaster to find the point that cause the abnormal of VSWR
if we have SiteMaster . When settle the problem on site , we need to check the connection of each
jumper joint , and check if there is shelter before the antenna. When there is combiner or hybrid
coupler we need to also check if isolation is abnormal.
2 For daily maintenance , we should use the same method which is described as above to
settle VSWR problem when there is VSWR alarm.
Step4 Power match
Before swap sites, we need to do power match to ensure the power after swap is the same
as it is before . And we should check if the power is mismatch when there is KPI problem such as
downlink HQI decrease ,call drop rate increase after swap sites.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 50


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 51
Detecting Downlink tunnel Faults Through Power Query
and Comparison
Principle
Determine whether the output power of each TRX is correct. Or, check whether the insertion loss
between a TRX and the ANT port is consistent with the expected value by querying the power of the
cavity corresponding to the DFCU. In this way, you can determine whether the TRX is faulty, the
connecting line between the TRX and the DFCU is faulty, or the DFCU is faulty.
This function is only used for BTS3012.

Insert loss= the forward transmit


power of the DDPU/DFCU -the
transmit power of a TRX.

For example: If we have


calculated the insert loss from
DTRU to DFCU is 7db, which is
higher than the expected value
3db, then we can conclude that
the connecting line between the
TRX and the DFCU.

Related Tool and Guide

<<Guide on How to Detect Faults in the Antenna System>>

Page 52
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Insertion Loss and Power Query
Insertion Loss
The insertion loss of DFCU is about 3 dB
The insertion loss of DFCB is about 2 dB
If DTRU uses broadband combining and dcom, the insertion loss is about 8 dB (formula: 3.5 (broadband
combining) + 3.5 (dcom) + 1 (DDPU) = 8 dB.
If the DTRU does not use broadband combining and only uses dcom, the value of insertion loss is about
3.5 (dcom) + 1 (DDPU)=4.5 dB.
If the DTRU has an independent transmitting part and does not use dcom, the insertion loss is about 1
dB.
Instructions

The BSC6000 queries power by using the internal maintenance function "test bts performance " in LMT

The BSC6900 queries power by running the internal MML command " tst btsperf"
For details, see the <<Guide on How to Detect Faults in the Antenna System>>

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 53


Typical Case: No.11 TRX of A site

No.1 TRX is allocated to No.1 DFCU and No.11 TRX is allocated to No.4 DFCU. When the downlink power control and
downlink DTX is disabled, test the idle timeslots on No.0 TRX and No.11 TRX. According to the test result, the insertion
loss from the DTRU to the DFCU is about 3 dB and the insertion loss of No.11 TRX is 7 dB. This problem persists after
the DFCU is reset. Therefore, the reason for the problem may be that the DFCU or the connecting line between the
DFCU and the DTRU fails.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 54


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 55
Detecting Downlink tunnel Faults Through Average
Downlink Level
Principle
After disabling the baseband frequency hopping, power control, and DTX of the cell, enable TRXs in the cell to transmit signals at full power. Then, in the original measurement report, calculate the average level received by the MS from various TRXs. If great difference exists
between the downlink level of TRXs on tunnel A and the downlink level of TRXs on tunnel B, you can determine that the antenna corresponding to tunnel A or to tunnel B is faulty.
Detectable Faults

You can use this solution to detect the fault of an antenna in the call or crossed pair of antennas between two cells in the same site.

Related Tool and Guide


BTS3012

BTS39
<<Guide on How to Detect Faults in the Antenna System>>

00

These TRXs are configured on


These TRXs are configured on
tunnel A
tunnel B
Downlink level is high Downlink level is low

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 56


Detecting Downlink tunnel Faults Through Average
Downlink Level Remarks
Remarks
The difference between the downlink level of tunnel A and the downlink level of tunnel B can also be shown by the
difference between the uplink main antenna level and the uplink diversity antenna level. Currently, however, the
counters of the main and diversity antennas are first calculated according to the unit of mW and then converted to
the unit of dBm. Counters calculated in this way may be different from that calculated directly according to the unit
of dBm. Sometimes, this difference cannot be reflected by the current calculation method.
Therefore, in most cases you are recommended to detect downlink tunnel faults through the difference between the
main antenna level and the diversity antenna level. For a cell where you doubt downlink tunnel faults may exist, you
can use this tool to analyze the measurement report again to check whether downlink tunnel faults exist in the cell.

Difference between Difference between Main Difference between Main


antenna level and diversity antenna level and diversity
tunnel A and tunnel B antenna level is great if we antenna level is low if we
is great. use the unit of dbm. use the unit of mW.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 57


Tool Instructions
Basic Steps
Step 1 Trace the RSL signaling of a cell by collecting measurement reports.
Step 2 Save the signaling into a .txt (BSC6000) file or a .csv (BSC6900) file.
Step 3 Specify the file paths to be analyzed and downlink DTX marks, and analyze data with
the tool.
Step 4 After analyzing data with the tool, export average downlink levels of the TRXs and
their main and diversity levels, as shown in the following figure:
Step 5 Locate the fault point by referring to the data configuration.
For tools and detailed instructions, see <<Guide on How to Detect Faults in the
Antenna System>>.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 58


Typical Case: Cell 4 of ASite
Difference between downlink level of tunnel A and downlink Difference between downlink level of tunnel A and downlink
level of tunnel B in cells 4 and 5 before troubleshooting level of tunnel B in cells 4 and 5 after troubleshooting

Tunnel A of C
Tunnel A of Cell4.

Tunnel B of Cell4. Tunnel B of Ce

Tunnel A of Cell5.
Tunnel A of Ce

Tunnel B of Cell5.
Tunnel B of Ce

Conclusion: The diversity antenna of cell 4 and main antenna of cell 5 are inversely
connected.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 59


Typical Case: Cell 3 of A Site
Difference between downlink level of tunnel A and downlink Difference between downlink level of tunnel A and
level of tunnel B in cell 3 before troubleshooting downlink level of tunnel B in cell 3 after troubleshooting

Conclusion: The main antenna of cell 1 and main antenna of cell 3 are inversely
connected.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 60


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 61
VSWR test, and multi-ARFCN VSWR test
Description
By VSWR test we can find the accurate VSWR of send channel when newly-built or swap a
site , or there is VSWR alarm. On the other hand , because the VSWR is not the same value
between different frequency , we can use multi-ARFCN test to test the VSWR value of different
frequency.
Attention
Starting a VSWR test for a BTS will interrupt the ongoing services on both the local and peer ends of
the BTS. The more ARFCN we select , the test time is more. A multi-ARFCN-non-FDR VSWR test
may last for hours
Operation guide
Left is NON_FDR VSWR test, right is multi-ARFCN-non-FDR test.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 62


DTF test(R14 or later version)
Principle
Infuses a signal into the downlink channel of the RRU or RFU. Detects the signal reflected
back on the feedback tributary of the channel. Compares the frequency domain and time domain
of the infused and reflected signals to obtain the VSWRs and positions of the reflection points.
Shows the information about the VSWRs of the reflection points by using a graphical user
interface (GUI) .
attention
The DTF test for the antenna VSWR will interrupt the services on the tested channel. It is
temporarily used only for the RRU3926 in R14 version.
Test result description
The horizontal axis shows the distance from the test port to the reflection points. The vertical
axis shows the VSWR. The spike in the red circle is the fault point.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 63


DFT testOperation guide
Remote operate on BSC WEBLMT
On the BSC LMT, click Monitor. On the Monitor Navigation Tree, unfold GSM Monitoring and double-
click DTF Test

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 64


DFT testOperation
Local operate on BTS SMT

guide
On the GBTS SMT, double-click DTF Test

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 65


Case-antenna fault cause VSWR alarm
Description
There is VSWR alarm in A site, the VSWR alarm threshold is 1.5, but VSWR is 1.08
when we use VSWR test to test VSWR value.
Root cause
The VSWR value is not the same between different ARFCN, VSWR of some ARFCN is greater
than 1.5 cause VSRW alarm.
Course of settle the alarm
When do NON_FDR VSWR test, the VSWR is 1.08. Because The VSWR value is not the same between different
ARFCN. When do multi-ARFCN-non-FDR test we find some of the ARFCN is greater than 1.5. After check
antenna connection on site and fixed the jumper the VSWR alarm disappeared.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 66


Case of troubleshooting VSWR in indoor coverage system site
Description: The VSWR of one indoor coverage system site is normal but there is VSWR alarm in this site. We finally find
that the coupler is broken, and the isolation of the coupler is decrease, it causes power leak between two port and
VSWR increase. After change the 3db coupler ,the VSWR become normal.
Troubleshooting
Antenna feeder system : There is 2 MRRU that is connect to indoor coverage system antenna after combining through a 3dB
coupler. So if the coupler is broken, the isolation of 3dB coupler decrease , the power of one RRU is leaked to another RRU, it cause
the VSWR alarm.
How to check : We modify power level of one RRU to 0,and another RRU is 4, and observe the VSWR after starting TRX idle timeslot
test.
Check the VSWR When the power level of board 0 is 0, the VSWR is 1.8. When the power level of board 1 is 4, the VSWR is 25.
When the power level of board 0 is 4, the VSWR is 25. When the power level of board 1 is 0, the VSWR is 1.8.
Conclusion The VSWR of MRRU power is high is normal , and the VSWR of MRRU power is low is high, we can conclude that the
isolation of 3db coupler become low.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 67


Case-There is shelter made of metal before the
antenna cause VSWR alarm
Description
There is VSWR alarm in one site.
Root cause
There is shelter made of metal 30cm before
antenna, it cause the VSWR alarm.
Course of troubleshooting Wire
step1 We use VSWR test function and find netting
VSWR is 1.90, it is greater than the requirement.
step2 We use DTF test function of

SiterMaster and find the fault point is out of the


antenna, then we find the wire netting before
the antenna and only 30cm near to the
antenna.
step3 To find if the VSWR alarm is caused by

the wire netting we adjust the azimuth of the


antenna and do VSWR test again. Finally find
VSWR alarm is caused by the wire netting.

Original Azimuth
azimuth after adjust

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 68


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 69
Introduction of Power Matching
Objective
keep the antenna power and signal coverage level of each cell unchanged after
GSM network swapping, so that traffic distribution and network performance will not
be affected due to change of the transmit power.
Criterion
0 The antenna power -post swap The antenna power -pre swap 0.2 dB
Attention
1. To perform power matching during swapping, obtain all data related to power
matching, such as module power setting, combiner information, and transmit power
at the top of the BTS cabinet.
2. Measure the transmit power at the top of the BTS cabinet for a typical BTS at the
site and carry out field surveys and verifications for the products, module
information, and combiner information provided by customers during field
measurement.
3. Please operate the step by reference the document and tools as the following
hyperlink:
http://3ms.huawei.com/hi/group/5803/file_423137.html

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 70


Procedure of feedback and auditing for Power Matching
problem:

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 71


Power Testing Procedure without lock non-BCCH TRX
1 Before testing, please prepare the power
meter, the dummy load and sensor of 900M/1800M
you can connect the equipment correctly in advance.
Please note that the sensor of 400-1000MHz
should be chosen when testing the 900M site,
and 1700-2100M should be chosen to test 1800M cell.
2 Lock the cells need to be test.
3 Disconnect the BTS output and the feeder,
then connect the BTS output to the input of
power meter,Note that the output of both
BTS and power meter can't connect to
feeder, just connect to dummy load.
4 Unlock the cell, and read the power value,
and pls note the white arrow of sensor
should point to the power meter output.
5 After get the power value, we can disconnect
the BTS and power meter, and reconnect the
BTS to the feeder.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 72


Case: Mismatch Power Deteriorates Coverage Effect After
Swapping
Symptom: When a BTS cluster at a site is relocated, the signal level range statistics of the DT result
show that the percentage of high signal levels after swapping is lower than that before swapping. This
problem needs to be resolved for proceeding with swapping.
Cause:
1. When power matching is performed during swapping, the reference power information provided before
swapping contains only transmit power at the top of the BTS cabinet, and does not contain BTS
model, module type, combiner model, combining mode, and relevant information. As a result, power
matching cannot be calculated and verified theoretically because of incomplete information.
2. The transmit power at the top of the BTS cabinet provided before swapping is used for power matching,
and no sampling data is measured for verification. As a result, the reference data is incorrect and is
not found in time.
Subsequent Handling Suggestions:
1. To perform power matching during swapping, obtain all data related to power matching, such as module
power setting, combiner information, and transmit power at the top of the BTS cabinet.
2. Measure the transmit power at the top of the BTS cabinet for a typical BTS at the site and carry out field
surveys and verifications for the products, module information, and combiner information provided by
customers during field measurement.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 73


Case: Combiner Used After Swapping Results in High Call Drop
Rate
Symptom: After BTSs in place A are relocated, the cell covering two tunnels experiences a high call
drop rate.
Cause: After swapping, the combiner is used but the module power does not change. The insertion
loss of the combiner decreases the coverage areas, and therefore call drops increase.
Analysis: According to the analysis of traffic statistics, call drops are caused by Um interface faults.
According to the analysis of signaling, call drops are caused by no neighboring cell available due to
low signal level. According to the further analysis, the combiner used after swapping decreases the
coverage areas which results in a high call drop rate.

G30321: combiner
G312: There is repeater in this
was added after
cell, and combiner was added
swap
after swap
G321: combiner G311: combiner
G323: G313
Outdoor swap The problem is
was added after is added after
swap Outdoor
resolved after
the combiner is
removed.

G30311: There is repeater in


this cell, and new combiner
The entrance of was added after swap
tunnel
The entrance of
tunnel

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 74


Case : Downlink coverage decrease about 2~3db after swap
Symptom Downlink coverage decrease about 2~3 db was found in DT test after swap.
Root cause
1 Reflect expressions offered by customers is incorrect, and we have found the power is 1db greater than its standard but we didnt modify the expression.
2 Not equalize the difference cause by line loss and the change of reading data mode.
Course of troubleshooting
1 Not equalize the difference cause by line loss and the change of reading data mode.After equalize the power is correct.

2 After doing test , we found power of our module is almost equal


the standard value, but the power of module before swap is
higher than the standard value.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 75


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 76
Classification of Uplink Interference
Uplink interference falls into the following categories:
Intra-net frequency interference
CDMA BTS interference

Device intermodulation interference

External interference such devices as an interference unit

Repeater interference

Uplink interference is reflected by uplink interference fringes, which are uplink


background noise in the idle state of BTS measurement. The system obtains the
number of idle channels on interference fringes every five seconds. At the end of
the measuring period, the system divides sampling times by the accumulated
values of all data in sampling points in this period, and obtains the average
number of idle channels at all levels of interference fringes during the measuring
period.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 77


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 78
Uplink InterferenceChecklist of Actions must be implement
Actions must be
Step No Condition Goal
implement
To find if there is interference
Step 1 1 Analyze interference It must be implement in in cells by analyze interference
band performance counter daily maintenance. band performance counter.
It must be implement when
newly-built or swap a site. To find if the interference is
2 PIM interference Cells that has been found caused by PIM interference and
detection function there is interference in solve the PIM interference.
Step 2 cells in step 1.
3 Method to reduce the It must be implement when Establish some rules to deduce the
PIM interference when PIM interference rate when newly-
newly-built or swap a site. built or swap a site.
install antenna.
Analyze the cells there is To find if there is intra-net
Step 3 4 Analyze intra-net uplink interference after frequency interference.
frequency interference processed by step 2.
5 CDMA interference The cells that there is
detection To find if there is external
possibly external
Step 4 6 Frequency Spectrum interference after analyzed interference and find the
Scanning and uplink interference ARFCN.
in step 1.
frequency scanning.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 79


Step to analyze uplink interference
Step 1 Analyze interference band performance counter
Analyze interference band performance counter ,if sum rate is higher than a threshold, for
example , the sum rate from interference band 3 to interference band 5 is higher than 15% or the sum rate
from interference band 4 to interference band 5 is higher than 10%,we will conclude that there is uplink
interference in this cell. Then we analyze if the interference band rate is high in busy time and become
low in idle time or the rate is high the whole day or become high abruptly . If the sum rate is higher in
busy time and become low in idle time , we conclude that there is maybe PIM interference or intra-net
frequency interference. And it maybe a external interference if the sum rate become high abruptly.
Step 2 PIM interference analyze
1 When newly-built or swap sites, on one hand we can establish some rules to deduce PIM
interference when install antenna, on the other hand, we can use PIM interference detection to find if
there is PIM interference and solve it on site.
2 For daily maintenance , we can analyze the cells where there is PIM interference or
intra-net interference that analyzed in step 1. We can analyze these cells by using PIM interference
detection to find PIM interference, if there is not PIM interference, go to step step3.
Step 3 Analyze intra-net frequency interference
We can modify ARFCN to avoiding intra-net interference . Ordinary speaking , we will modify
ARFCN all network , not only one cell or some cells.
Step 4 Analyze external interference
When there is intra-net frequency interference, firstly we can use CDMA interference
detection to find if there is CDMA interference, then we can use Frequency Spectrum Scanning and uplink
frequency scanning to find the character of external interference.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 80


Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 81
Antenna Intermodulation Interference
Principles: Intermodulation interference is mainly caused by antenna systems. If the intermodulation products
of transmission signals fall in the receive band and if the level is high, signals within the receive band may
cause interference.
Location method: Identify the cells with large difference between the interference band during off-peak hours
and the interference band during peak hours based on the traffic statistics. During off-peak hours, send idle
timeslots to these cells using the BSC LMT. Compare the interference bands before and after idle timeslots
are sent. If the interference band increases to 3, 4, or 5, the uplink interference may be caused by the antenna
system. In this situation, locate the faults in the antenna system (including repeaters) at the site. If cells are
connected to repeaters, you have to locate faults in repeaters.
For GSM13.0 version or later version, We can use online/offline PIM test function to detect this fault.
For details about how to locate faults in the antenna system at the site, see the GSM Antenna Intermodulation
Fault Locating Guide.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 82


Online Antenna Feeder PIM Test(R13
or late version) - Function Description
Basic principles
When multiple carriers are transmitted on the same antenna feeder port
with antenna feeder PIM, the intermodulation product (level) is generated
in the receiving band. The intermodulation product is a broadband signal.
You can check whether there is antenna feeder PIM by analyzing the uplink
receiving level difference in cells during off-peak hours between scenarios
with all carriers transmitting full power in the downlink and scenarios with
some carriers transmitting power.
During the online antenna feeder PIM test, perform 10-second sampling of
states for six times in the following sequence: power-transmitting, non-
power-transmitting, power-transmitting, non-power-transmitting, power-
transmitting, and non-power-transmitting, as shown in the following figure.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 23


Online Antenna Feeder PIM Test -
Operation Method
Operate the Web LMT or M2000 to trigger the test and display the result.
Step 1: Run STR BTSRFTST in the MML window of the BSC6900 LMT to start
the offline intermodulation interference test. Set Test Type to PIMONLINE
(online antenna feeder PIM test).
Note: You can stop the test at any time by running STP BTSRFTS during the
test.

Step 2: The whole test lasts about 60 seconds. The BTS reports the
progress every 10 seconds. When the test is complete, the test result is
displayed in the MML window, and the test result and the original data
for achieving the result are saved in the OMU by the BSC.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 27


Offline Intermodulation Interference Test(R13 or
late version) - Function Description
Basic principle
When the signals of RF frequencies f1 and f2 are sent simultaneously on the
specified antenna feeder port, check whether the levels of the 3rd order, 5th
order, 7th order and higher-order intermodulation products that fall into the
receiving band in the range from f1 to f2 can meet the requirements.
The counter decision thresholds of 3rd order, 5th order, and 7th order
intermodulation products can be set.
The counter decision threshold of higher-order (higher than 7) intermodulation
products is the same as that of the 7th order.
Restrictions
Carriers in other modes cannot be configured on the corresponding TRX module
of an antenna feeder port.
There is no critical alarm on the corresponding TRX module of an antenna feeder
port.
During the test, the entire cell is out of service. Before the test starts, the BTS
instructs the BSC to trigger the inter-cell service switchover.
The high test frequency f1 and low test frequency f2 must fall into the band that
is supported by the module.
For a multi-carrier module, the bandwidth between f1 and f2 must meet
bandwidth requirements for instantaneous transmission.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 15


Offline Intermodulation Interference Test
- Operation Method (Remote)
Operate the Web LMT or M2000 to trigger the test.
Step 1: Run STR BTSRFTST in the MML window of the BSC6900 LMT
to start the offline intermodulation interference test. Set Test
Type to PIMOFFLINE (offline intermodulation interference test).

Note:
You can stop the test
at any time by
running STP BTSRFTST
during the test.

Step 2: When the test is complete, the test result is displayed on the LMT. The
test result and the original data for achieving the result are saved in a file by
the BSC.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 18


Offline Intermodulation Interference
Test - Operation Method (Local Terminal)
Step 1: Run PIM Offline Test on the SMT to start the test.
Step 2: When the test is complete, the SMT displays the test result.
Note: You can stop the test at any time by clicking Stop during the
test.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 21


Case of troubleshooting indoor coverage system site
Description There is a distinct increase of the rate of interfere band 4 and band 5 in one indoor coverage system
site in busy time, there is intermodulation interfere in this site and we should to resolve this problem on site.
Troubleshooting Because two send signaling is coupled to one signaling by a 3dB coupler, we first connect the
output port of 3db coupler to a low intermodulation load, then observe the real-time interfere band after starting
TRX Idle Timeslot Test, if rate of interfere band 4 and 5 is high, we can conclude that there is intermodulation
interfere before 3dB coupler, and if there is only interfere band 1 and 2, there is interfere after 3dB coupler.
Because there is only interfere band 1 and 2, we do the same action at the following connect point. By this means
that we check the connect point one by one and find the connect point that cause intermodulation interfere.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 88


Case-Intermodulation interference is caused by the
shelter made of metal in front of the antenna
Description : Sum rate of Interference band from 3 to 5 in a indoor system site is high in busy
time and low in idle time, there is probably intermodulation interference in this site.
Troubleshooting By using PIM test function and find there is intermodulation interference .
Then we found that there is a billboard made of metal on site. The interference band
become normal after we adjust the azimuth of the antenna.

Antenn
a

Billboard made of
metal

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 89


Special description-Intermodulation interfere
between Multi-Mode
Causes
Intermodulation interfere between multi mode is ordinarily caused by the intermodulation products of one
mode affect RX band of other mode when these modules of different mode use the same antenna feeder.
How to detect
If we want to find if the interfere is caused by GSM to UMTS/LTE, we can do TRX idle timeslot test in GSM and monitor
RTWP in UMTS/LTE. If there is a obvious increase of RTWP after we do TRX idle timeslot test in GSM, we can conclude that the
interfere is caused by GSM.
If we want to find if the interfere is caused by UMTS/LTE to GSM, we can do downlink load simulation test
in UMTS/LTE and monitor interfere band in GSM. If there is a obvious increase of interfere band 4 and 5 after
we do downlink load simulation test, we can conclude that the interfere is caused by UMTS/LTE.

Co antenna feeder by Multi


Co antenna feeder Mode and Multi Frequency
by using SDR co combiner
module
IM2

G/U/L Triple- Triple-band


band Combiners
900 Combiners
G/U LTE G/L
900 800 1800
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 90
Special description-case of intermodulation interfere between multi mode
Description
The MRRU use two send channel, GSM is configured in channel A and UMTS is configured in channel
B. The RTWP is high in some site, after troubleshooting, we find it is caused by intermodulation
interfere between multi mode.
Procedure of analyse
Frequency 83 and 124 of GSM is configured on channel A, and unlink frequency 2850(910MHz+/-2.2MHz) of UMTS is configured on
channel B. RTWP of main is high and diversity is normal in UMTS. The unlink frequency scan result of GSM is shown as the left
picture, the level of frequency from 98 to 108 is high and bandwidth is 2.2MHz , the 11th order intermodulation product of frequency of
83 and 124 that in GSM is in 910.6M(frequency 103),and bandwidth is 2.2MHz, it is in RX band of UMTS and cause the RTWP
increase. Because the intermodulation product is not in GSM bandwidth, there is no interfere in GSM.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 91


You are advised to use fix-length jumpers. Jumpers must be
made in compliance with relevant standards.
The standards for making jumpers are as follows. After you make jumpers by following these standards, there
is a low probability that intermodulation interference occurs.
(1) Quality assurance of fixed-length jumpers: According to the feedback from Huawei MPE System
Department, the third-party fixed-length jumpers must comply with VSWR and intermodulation specifications,
that is, the VSWR is lower than 1.15 and PM is lower than -153 dBc. If the jumpers comply with the preceding
specifications, there is a low probability that jumpers with potential faults are made at the site.
(2) If onsite conditions are permitted, use fix-length jumpers as much as possible. If onsite conditions are not
permitted, make jumpers at the site.
(3) Make jumpers at the site by following the slide and guide released at http://support.huawei.com. In
addition, ensure that the VSWR is lower than 1.5. Otherwise, the jumpers made at the site are not qualified.
The reference documents are the DIN Angle and Straight Male Connector Installation Instruction
and Jumper Installation Instruction.

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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Experience in Making Jumpers in Norway
In normal cases, it takes 10 to 15 minutes to make jumper connectors at the site. This has a great impact on services.
To resolve the problem, take the following measures:
Determine to use fix-length jumpers with a step of 0.5 m.
Purchase fix-length jumpers of Rosenberger instead of Andrew, which reduces jumper costs by over 35%.
Deliver fix-length jumpers by sites.
During swapping, the swapping team carries the backup material package to ensure swapping schedule and quality.
Ensure the quality of jumper connectors by following the standard operation procedure. The standard operation
procedure not only involves the operations for making jumper connectors, but also involves the project tools and
reasonable determination method as well as a simple test for final verification. In Norway, each subcontractor is
requested to use specified engineering tools. If non-specified engineering tools are used, replace them with the
backup tools and charged by subcontractors. By doing this, engineering quality can be ensured.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 105


Standards for Installing Jumpers
The standards for installing jumpers are as follows. After you install jumpers by following these
standards, there is a low probability that intermodulation interference occurs.
(1) Hold the external conductor, align it with the DIN connector, manually tighten it, and then tighten it
by using a wrench. The four actions are very important, especially the action of aligning the external
conductor with the DIN connector.
(2) In the previous phase, five to six persons have performed tests of tightening an external conductor
by hands and a wrench, there is only a difference of 10 to 20 N. Therefore, the torque wrench is not
required.
For details, see the Jumper Installation Instruction.

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Assemble step of antenna

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Assemble step of antenna

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Norway Project Experience in Preventing
Site Revisiting
Regarding site service verification in Norway, some operations are
performed by subcontractors at the site, while the remaining operations
are remotely performed by Huawei or partners, such as checking whether
each cell processes services, performing VSWR tests, and performing
intermodulation tests. Partners perform modification at the site only after
any problems are found. This type of test can be performed in the phase-
out period, for example, when partners edit site documents. In this way,
site visiting time is not prolonged, the overall site construction quality is
ensured, and frequent site visiting is prevented.

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Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 110
Intra-Network Co-Channel and
Adjacent Channel Interference
Principles: Based on network planning, a GSM network system multiplexes limited resources within a certain area.
The cells use the same frequency are separated by space distances, preventing mutual interference. In practice,
co-channel and adjacent channel interference cannot be prevented permanently because of insufficient frequency
resources, inappropriate multiplexing protection distance, and complex RF signal propagation. Intra-network co-
channel and adjacent channel interference is the main interference of GSM networks.
Location method: Identify the top N cells with high interference bands according to the analysis of traffic statistics
related to interference bands during peak hours. Then, analyze the 24-hour interference band change curve for
the top N cells. If the interference band is high during peak hours and the interference band is low during off-peak
hours, intra-network co-channel and adjacent channel interference or antenna intermodulation interference
occurs. After excluding the antenna intermodulation interference, you can determine that intra-network co-channel
and adjacent channel interference occurs.
Solution: Perform network optimization or frequency replanning.

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Contents
Detection Schemes
Antenna connection fault
Actions must be implement
Channel Fault Detection with the Main and Diversity Levels
Crossed Pair Connection Detection During Base Station Deployment
Reverse Connection of Antennas Between Cells
Determining Path Faults Based on Traffic Statistics Related to Balance Between
Uplink Signal Level and Downlink Signal Level

Downlink Channel Fault


Actions must be implement
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Power
Downlink Channel Fault Detection Based on Downlink Level
Settle problem about VSWR alarm
Power match

Uplink Interference Detection and Tools


Actions must be implement
Intermodulation interference
Intra-net frequency interference
External interference
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CDMA Interference
Principle: In most cases, CDMA interference occurs when a BTS of China Mobile is too close to a
BTS of China Telecom and some BTS antennas face each other, or two indoor coverage antennas are
close to each other, as shown in the following figure. It is also possible that a CDMA repeater exists in
the antenna direction.

Positioning method: The level of interference is not related to the busy/idle state of traffic. Sweep
frequencies with a sweeper. The waveform is characterized by very high background noise
within the frequency band below 890MHz.

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CDMA Interference
Troubleshooting Methods for CDMA Interference
Install a CDMA filter (frequency range: 825 MHz to 880 MHz) on a BTS rack.
For a fiber optic repeater with an outdoor antenna, it is recommended that a
CDMA filter is mounted at the antenna port (this is not an easy job when too
many antennas are used).
For an indoor antenna, adjust the mounting position of the antenna to ensure
that the distance between the antenna and the antenna of China Telecom is
not less than one meter.
Use high band frequencies to replace the low band frequency points (including
the E-GSM frequencies) that interfere with cells. Check whether the
interference with the cells changes.
For detailed troubleshooting methods, see <<Guide to Rectifying Uplink
Interference Faults>>.

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CDMA Network Interference Detection(R13 or
late version) - Feature Description
Basic principles
The CDMA interference to the GSM uplink can be decreased by modifying the
diminution factor of the tower mounted amplifier or adjustable attenuator in
other receiving channels, which is called CDMA interference suppression.
Delta: refers to the uplink receiving level average difference of the operating
frequencies in the idle channels when the CDMA interference suppression is
performed and not performed.
The BTS determines whether the CDMA network interference occurs by
comparing the Delta and the decision threshold.
Operating frequencies for comparison: If the number of operating frequencies
is greater than 8, 8 operating frequencies most adjacent to the CDMA band are
used for the decision. Otherwise, all configured operating frequencies are
used. If an operating frequency Delta exceeds the decision threshold, the
CDMA network intermodulation exists. Otherwise, the CDMA network
intermodulation does not exist.

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CDMA Network Interference
Detection - Operation Method
Step 1: Run STR BTSRFTST in the MML window of the BSC6900 LMT to start the
CDMA network interference detection.
Note: You can stop the test at any time by running STP BTSRFTS during the test.

Step 2: When the test is complete, the test result is displayed in the
MML window, and the test result and the original data for achieving
the result are saved in the OMU by the BSC for further analysis.

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External Interference From Such Devices
as an Interference Unit
Principle
External intentional interference is released intentionally. Experience indicates that
intentional interference occurs near a military region, a government agency, a hospital or a
gas station.
Positioning Method
The level of interference is unrelated to the idle/busy state of the traffic, and persists over a
period of time. An interference spectrum has a strong background noise and a wide band,
with the level 1020 dB higher than a noise level during normal operation, and may cover
the frequency band with a range of 860 MHz to 970 MHz.
For GSM13.0 version or later version, We can use Frequency Spectrum Scanning function
to detect this fault.

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External Interference From such Devices
as an Interference Unit
Troubleshooting Method
By using a network management system, check the influence range and
occurrence time of the interference, and judge the possible location of the
interference source by referring to the characteristics of neighboring devices.
During the period with the strongest interference, carry a portable
spectrometer and a Yagi antenna, and arrive at the top of the building where
the cells are interfered. Set the frequency range of the spectrometer to the
uplink working frequency, and point the Yagi antenna to different directions.
Observe the amplitude of interference signals on the portable spectrometer.
Locate the direction with the strongest interference, and locate interference
source with a three-point localization method.
Report the details to the Radio Administration Department for proper
coordination and solutions.

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Repeater Interference
Principle
Repeater interference is the most common uplink interference. Repeater
interference includes RF repeater interference and fiber optic repeater
interference.
An RF repeater functions as a broadband amplifier that amplifies the entire
mobile uplink and downlink frequency band to implement signal coverage.
An RF repeater may be legal or illegal. If not configured properly, a legal RF
repeater interferes with a BTS; however, most RF repeater interferences are
generated from a mini repeater or an illegal RF repeater.
A fiber optic repeater is used to extend signals with an optical fiber. This
repeater produces strong background noise that interferes with frequency
spectrums, and affects a wide area. Therefore, a call drop occurs in this
area, and some subscribers cannot use their mobile phones.
Positioning Method: Sweep frequencies with a sweeper. The waveform is
characterized by high background noise within the frequency band below
890MHz.

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Repeater Interference
Positioning Method
Occupying the entire uplink, an RF repeater interferes with a wide range of
frequency band and has an unstable amplitude.
The interference spectrum of a fiber optic repeater is 20 dB30 dB higher than
an ordinary noise level. The interference band falls in the uplink bands that
range from 890 MHz to 909 MHz, affects a wide area, and occupies the entire
uplink with a stable amplitude.
For GSM13.0 version or later version, We can use Frequency Spectrum
Scanning function to detect this fault.

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Repeater Interference
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting for a wireless repeater
Troubleshooting for an optical-fiber repeater

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Case for Interference Troubleshooting -
Repeater Interference
For cells of a BTS (SJGHM328) in a residential area, a busy-hour interference fringe
remained level 5, and the proportion of level 45 interference fringes was close to 100%.

The repeater manufacturer adjusted the uplink gain and checked whether the power of the
repeater matched that of the primary device. After the operation, the level-5 interference
disappeared, and the proportion of level 45 interference fringes was reduced to 0.

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Analyze interference by using frequency scan
function
Principle Using the timeslot of idle frame to scan the uplink level of frequency has been
set before.
Operating guide
1. By using Set Frequency Scan of WEBLMT or SET GCELLFREQSCAN MML
command to start frequency scan. Select all frequency of P-GSM and E-GSM when
the module is 900M.
2. By using the Require Frequency Scan of WEBLMT to get the result of frequency
scan.
3. Make a chart whose content is the uplink level of each frequency using the
information that get in step 2.
4. Find the interference by analyzing the chart.

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Online Frequency Spectrum Scanning(R13 or
late version) - Feature Description
Basic principles
When the online frequency spectrum scanning starts, the system measures the uplink
receiving level of the test frequency periodically. The frequency and occasion are
calculated according to the frequency hopping sequence during normal operation. The
scanning result is not affected by the normal operation of other carriers in the same
timeslot in the cell, as shown in the following figure.

Only the tested timeslot of tested carrier is out of service during the online frequency
spectrum scanning.

Page 38
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Online Frequency Spectrum Scanning
- Operation Method
Attention:

1 The service of test channel will be interrupt during the test and the max task number is

20 that can be started on one time.

2 You can replay the spectrum by frequency chart review tool after install the Offline
tools.
Step 1: Start the BSC6900 LMT for monitor operations, and then choose Monitor > GSM
Monitor > Spectrum Scan Monitoring. The frequency spectrum time domain scanning
starts.

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 40
Online Frequency Spectrum
Scanning - Operation Method
(Continued)
Step 2: After the offline spectrum scanning starts, the Spectrum Scan
Monitoring page is displayed on the Monitor Data tab. The maximum and
average levels of main and diversity are displayed. The reported frequency
level ranges from -110 dBm to -47 dBm.

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 41
Offline Frequency Spectrum Scanning(R13 or late
version) - Feature Description
Basic principles
To periodically measure the uplink receiving level of the specified
frequency in real time, you must specify the band range [f1, fk] to be
scanned and the tested carrier. The test timeslot is optional. If the
timeslot is not specified, the carrier-level scanning is performed. If the
test timeslot is specified, the channel-level scanning is performed.
Channel-level scanning: refers to the scanning of frequencies one
after another of the specified band by using the single timeslot of the
single carrier.
Carrier-level scanning: refers to the scanning of frequencies one
after another of the specified band by using all channels of the single
carrier.

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 29
Offline Frequency Spectrum Scanning -
Operation Method (Remote)
Step 1: On the Monitor tab on the BSC6900 LMT, click GSM Monitoring in the Monitor Navigation
Tree pane, and then double-click Spectrum Scan Monitoring. The Spectrum Scan Monitoring
dialog box is displayed. In the Monitor Item drop-down list, select Off-line Spectrum Scan, and then
specify relevant information as required. Click Submit. The remote offline spectrum scanning starts.

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 33
Offline Frequency Spectrum
Scanning - Operation Method (Remote)
Continued
Step 2: After the remote offline spectrum scanning starts, the Spectrum Scan
Monitoring page is displayed on the Monitor Data tab. The maximum and average
levels of main and diversity are displayed. The reported frequency level ranges
from -110 dBm to -47 dBm.

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 34
Offline Frequency Spectrum
Scanning - Operation Method (Local)
Step 1: Start the LMT for cell operations, and then double-click the Frequency
Scan command on the right. In the displayed window, specify relevant
information as required, and then click Start. The local offline spectrum
scanning starts.

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 35
Offline Frequency Spectrum
Scanning - Operation Method (Local)
Step 2: After the local offline spectrum scanning starts, the scanning data is
Continued
displayed in the Frequency Scan Result Display window. The maximum and
average levels of main and diversity are displayed. The reported frequency level
ranges from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.

Copyright 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 36
Appendix-FAQ

Question Why is the result of intermodulation interfere different between using TRX idle
timeslot test and using intermodulation interfere test tool? What is the rate that the result is the
same between these two method?
Answer These 2 methods are different test method, there is not the possibility that the result
is strictly the same in theory. TRX idle timeslot test is based on the frequency and power of
current configuration, the standard of judgment is the difference after the test. intermodulation
interfere test tool is based on the frequency of 3rd 5th 7th 9th intermodulation interfere and
fixed power, the standard of judgment is the isolation of intermodulation interfere product dB
c or absolute level. There is upper 95% that the result is the same between these two
method.

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Attachment

Guide to How to Detect Faults in the Antenna System.rar

Vswr.rar

Uplink interference.rar

Report Sample.rar

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Appendix-Tool Efficiency Estimation
Manual
Subitem Tool Execution Time Intervention Deliverable Remarks
Time

Main and The OMStar is used to collect data


30 min/BSC Description of detecting path
diversity level and create analysis tasks. For
(The analysis faults for main and diversity
analysis and OMStar, automatic data import and
OMStar time varies with 10 min levels in the Report Sample
antenna reverse data analysis are time-consuming,
the number of for Detecting RF Path Faults
connection but the fault point can be analyzed
BSCs) for XXX Project.
analysis automatically.

Compared with the tool, manual data


1 to 3 min/faulty Description of detecting path
analysis is time-consuming because
Main and cell (the analysis faults for main and diversity
traffic statistics need to be manually
diversity level MainDivAnalyse 3 to 5 min/BSC time varies with levels in the Report Sample
obtained from the M2000 and the
analysis the number of for Detecting RF Path Faults
fault point needs to be analyzed
faulty cells) for XXX Project.
manually.

Description of detecting
Inter-cell reverse connection by
Adjusting the traffic statistical format
antenna reverse 5 to 15 performing inter-cell
DownlinkAnalyse 3 to 5 min/BSC and engineering parameter format is
connection min/faulty cell handovers in the Report
time-consuming.
analysis Sample for Detecting RF
Path Faults for XX Project.

Description of BTS
Analysis of
intermodulation interference Processing the swapped BTS
intermodulation
About 30 check result in the Report information and tracing signaling
interference IntferBandAnalyse 1 min/BTS
min/BTS Sample for Checking VSWR during problem location are time-
during
and Intermodulation consuming.
deployment
Interference for XX Project.

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Thank you
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