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Effects in the concerned areas

1.It completely disrupts the normal day to day life

2.It negatively influences the emergency systems
3.Normal needs and processes like food, shelter, health,
etc. are affected and deteriorate depending on the
intensity and severity of the disaster.
Generally, disasters are of two types Natural and Manmade.

Based on the devastation, these are further classified into major/minor natural disaster and
major/minor manmade disasters. Some of the disasters are listed below
Major natural disasters:
Minor natural disasters:
Cold wave
Heat waves
Mud slides
Major natural
disasters: Flood Cyclone Drought Earthquake
Minor natural disasters: Cold wave Thunderstorms Heat
waves Mud slides Storm
Major manmade disaster:
Setting of fires
Pollution due to prawn cultivation
Chemical pollution.
Minor manmade disaster:
Road / train accidents, riots
Food poisoning
Industrial disaster/ crisis
Environmental pollution
Major manmade disaster: Setting of fires, Epidemic, , Deforestation,
Pollution due to prawn cultivation , Chemical pollution., Wars
Minor manmade disaster: Road / train accidents, riots, Food poisoning
Industrial disaster/ crisis ,Environmental pollution
The Disaster Management Cycle
Comparison of Damage Caused by Three
Recent Disasters
Disaster Warning
Key parties that play major roles in the disaster
management process, especially in disaster
Local governments
National governments
Regional institutions and organizations
International bodies
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
The private sector
The media
The scientific community
Channels Used for Disaster Warning
Radio and Television
Telephone (Fixed and Mobile)
Short Message Service
Satellite Radio
GIS and Remote Sensing in Disaster Management
When snow on a mountain melts or when a river or a
lake of some sort overflows causes floods.
Other causes can include flooding from water
displacement, such as in a landslide, the failure of a dam,
an earthquake induced tsunami, a hurricanes storm
surge or melt water from volcanic activity.
Coastal areas are occasionally flooded by high tides
caused by severe winds on ocean surfaces, or by tsunami
waves caused by undersea earthquakes.
A flood that rises and falls rapidly with little or no
advance warning is called a flash flood. Flash floods
usually result from intense rainfall over a relatively small
Flood management

Mapping of the flood prone area.

Land use control
Construction of engineered structures
Flood control
Notable floods
A cyclone is an meteorological phenomena in which
an area of low pressure characterized by inward
spiraling winds that rotate counter clockwise in the
northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern
hemisphere of the earth.
Polar cyclone
Polar low
Typical cyclones are the worst natural hazards in the tropics.

They are large revolving vortices in the atmosphere extending

horizontally from 150-1000 km and vertically from the surface from
12-14 km. These are intense low-pressure areas.

Strong winds spiraling anti-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere

blow around the cyclone center at the low level.

At the higher levels, the sence of rotation is just opposite to that at

the lower level. They generally move 300-5000 km per day over the

While moving over the ocean, they pick up energy from the warm
water of the ocean and some of them grow into a devastating
On an average, about 5-6 tropical cyclones form in the
Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea every year out of
which 2-3 may be severe.
The main dangers from cyclones are very strong winds,
torrential rains and high storm tides.
Most of the causalities are caused by coastal inundation
by storms tides. This is often followed by heavy rainfall
and floods. Storm surges cause the greatest destruction.
Although one cannot control cyclones, the effects of
cyclones can be mitigated through effective mitigation
policies and strategies. A brief description of the same is
described below.
Land Slides and Mitigation Measures
Landslides are occurring phenomena in the Himalayan region.

In the recent years, however, intensive construction activity and

the destabilizing forces of nature have aggravated the problem.

Landslides occur as a result of changes on a slope, sudden or

gradual either in its composition, structure, ,hydrology or
vegetation. The changes can be due to geology, climate
,weathering, changing land use and earthquakes.

A significant reduction- in the hazards caused by landslides can

be achieved by prevention the exposure of population and
facilitates to landslides and by physically controlling the
Development programs that involve modification of the
topography, exploitation of natural resources and change in
the balance load on the ground should not be permitted.

Some critical measures that could be undertaken to prevent

further landslides are drainage measures, erosion control
measures such bamboo check-dams, terracing, jute and coir
netting and rock control measures such as grass plantation,
vegetated dry masonry walls, retaining walls and, most
importantly, preventing deforestation and improving

Disasters cannot be totally prevented. However, early warning

systems, careful planning and preparedness on part of the
vulnerable community would help in minimizing the loss of
life and property due to these disasters.
Disaster management strategies
Need to make sure that risk assessments and
vulnerability reduction measures are taken into account
in different fields, such as environmental management,
poverty reduction and financial management.

Second, it is essential to note that current development

practices do not necessarily reduce community
vulnerability to disasters indeed, ill-advised and
misdirected development practices may actually
increase disaster risks.

A considerable challenge remains in raising awareness

of this concern and to influence and enhance existing
development projects, poverty reduction strategies and
other programmes to systematically reduce disaster