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Humanoid Robot

Development of a simulation environment of


an entertainment humanoid robot
Pedro Daniel Dinis Teodoro

Orientador: Professor Miguel Afonso Dias de Ayala Botto


Co-orientador: Professor Jorge Manuel Mateus Martins

Lisboa-September-2007
INTRODUCTION
Goal State of Art Objectives
Guide
The creation of the strong foundations for future
Introduction This thesis was developed inincollaboration
developments with Robosavvy Ltd
humanoid robots.
Set Up and boosted the creation of the Humanoid Robotics Laboratory
Indentification
Simulator of IDMEC-Center of Intelligent Systems, at Instituto Superior
Control Tcnico (http://humanoids.dem.ist.utl.pt/ ).
Results
Conclusions
Video

2
INTRODUCTION
Goal State of Art Objectives
Guide

Introduction
Current commercially available humanoid robots are designed
Set Up to perform motions using open-loop control.
Indentification
Simulator
Control These robots are usually not able to move on uneven terrain
Results
Conclusions
and it is difficult or impossible to get them to perform
Video movements that require instantaneous reaction to momentary
instability.

3
INTRODUCTION
Goal State of Art Objectives
Guide

Introduction
1. The establishment of a real-time protocol communication
Set Up between the PC, using Matlab/Simulink and the robot
Indentification
Simulator
Control 2. The identification of internal and external properties of the
Results
Conclusions
humanoid robot.
Video

3. LQR implementation for


stabilizing the humanoid robot
on a high bar.

4
SET UP
The humanoid Hardware Software
robot Architecture Architecture
Guide

Introduction Bioloid humanoid robot from Robotis.com


Set Up
Indentification
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

CM5 Controller
AX12+ Servo
1 MBps
the maincommunication
controller of theSpeed.
humanoid.
Full
57600feedback
bps to on Position (300o),data
receive/transmite Speed, DC
current, Voltageand
through servos andPCTemperature.
Can be set as an endless wheel.
High Torque servos (1Nm).
5
SET UP
The humanoid Hardware Software
robot Architecture Architecture
Guide

Introduction Humanoid control architecture


Set Up
Indentification
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

6
SET UP
The humanoid Hardware Software
robot Architecture Architecture
Guide

Introduction
Set Up C-MEX S-function written in C to
Indentification
Simulator communicate with the CM-5 throughout
Control UART (universal asynchronous receiver /
Results
Conclusions transmitter).
Video

C program for Atmega128 for completing


the serial communication bridge.

We have now a way to identify the


parameters of the humanoid models
making online experiments.
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IDENTIFICATION
Mechanical DC Servo DC Servo
Properties Properties Identification
Guide

Introduction Mathematical Close Loop Pos Measured


Set Up
Indentification
Model Open Loop Speed signals
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Schematic of joint and link for two different humanoid
Video configurations.

8
IDENTIFICATION
Mechanical DC Servo DC Servo
Properties Properties Identification
Guide

Introduction Mathematical Close Loop Pos Measured


Set Up
Indentification
Model Open Loop Speed signals
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video Possible internal block diagram control of the servos.

9
IDENTIFICATION
Mechanical DC Servo DC Servo
Properties Properties Identification
Guide

Introduction Mathematical Close Loop Pos Measured


Set Up
Indentification
Model Open Loop Speed signals
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

Experiments suggest that the


servos do not have internally Servos have an internal
any angular velocity feedback feedback position control loop
control.

10
IDENTIFICATION
Mechanical DC Servo DC Servo
Properties Properties Identification
Guide

Introduction Mathematical Close Loop Pos Measured


Set Up
Indentification
Model Open Loop Speed signals
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

Dead-zone effect due to Experiments show that the


stiction. In our case this was output estimated velocity error
clearly quantified to be around is proportional to the voltage
7-10% of the full range. supplied to the servo.

11
IDENTIFICATION
Mechanical DC Servo DC Servo
Properties Properties Identification
Guide

Introduction Mathematical Close Loop Pos Measured


Set Up
Indentification
Model Open Loop Speed signals
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

Box Jenkins (2,1,2,1) was


The dynamic characteristics of
found to best approximate the
the servo are well captured by
desired dynamical behavior of
the BJ model.
the servo.

0.06217 z
TF
z 2 1.469 z 0.5544

12
SIMULATOR
The humanoid SimMechanics Virtual Reality
model simulator animation
Guide

Introduction The humanoid is treated as a three body serial chain in an


Set Up
Indentification
inverted pendulum configuration.
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

13
SIMULATOR
The humanoid SimMechanics Virtual Reality
model simulator animation
Guide

Introduction The system is underactuated, being the motion of the legs and
Set Up
Indentification
torso prescribed in order to stabilize the full body of the
Simulator humanoid above the high bar.
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

14
SIMULATOR
The humanoid SimMechanics Virtual Reality
model simulator animation
Guide

Introduction
Set Up
Indentification Parent-Child hierarchy
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

15
CONTROL
Equations of State-Space Linear Quadratic
motion model Regulator
Guide

Introduction b c
The equations
m l of
motion
l l cos q for a
n k k k
m d min( b ,c )
Set Up ij
k j
k
a j
a
b i c j j i
b c
d 1
Indentification generic n-link underactuated
I , i j
Simulator
inverted pendulum deduced from
k

m m , i j
Control ji ij

Results the Euler-Lagrange


n
k
equations. a

Conclusions
g
i
m l cos q
k i a 1
k a

b 1
b

Video n
hi Ci m ij ,
j i
2
n k k
min( b ,c )
Ci mk lblc q d
k i b i c 1 j i d 1
b c
sin qd min( b ,c ) , iff min( b, c) 1
d 1
n k k b c

m ij mk lblc q d min( b ,c )
k i b i c i j i d 1
b c

m11 m12 m1n q1 1 h1 1 sin qd min( b ,c ) , iff min( b, c) 1
m d 1
21 m22 m2 n q 2 2 h2 2
and

lc i k
mnn q n n h3 n li i
mn1 mn 2 li i k 16
CONTROL
Equations of State-Space Linear Quadratic
motion model Regulator
Guide

Introduction
Set Up
Indentification
in order to use linear control algorithms, the system dynamics
Simulator is linearized, using a first order Taylor's expansion at the
Control vertical unstable equilibrium, q=[/2,0,0]T and q =[0,0,0]T.
Results
Conclusions
Video
x Ax Bu

0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 1
A
74 . 2389 117 . 8764 0 .0028 0 0 0


State-space vector
81.5857 348.7777 76.0776 0 0 0

230.9113 215.8591

7.3471 0 0 0 x q1 , q2 , q3 , q1 , q 2 , q3
0 0 2
0 0

0 0
B l (mm) lc (mm) m (g) I (gcm2)
176 . 2065 97 . 5517 Link 1 (Arms) 143.6 68.7 367.6 7890.7
527.7831 467.2635
Link 2 (Torso) 115.8 57.5 981.5 32898.6
467.2635 697.9566 Link 3 (Legs) 184.0 116.3 576.4 11328.0

Physical properties
17
CONTROL
Equations of State-Space Linear Quadratic
motion model Regulator
Guide

Introduction
Set Up analyzing the zeros and poles
Indentification
Simulator of the system, it can be
Control concluded that system is a
Results
Conclusions non-minimum phase one
Video

Linear Quadratic Regulator


was chosen, which provides
a linear state feedback
control law for the system

u k T x
Wothout With
Angle Angle
compensation compensation
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RESULTS
Ideal Servo Gyro Servo
servo resolution resolution dead-zone
Guide

Introduction
Set Up
Indentification
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

19
CONCLUTIONS
Achieved Control Recommendations
Guide

Introduction This project has successfully achieved the creation of the strong
Set Up
Indentification
foundations for future developments in humanoid robots.
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

20
CONCLUTIONS
Achieved Control Recommendations
Guide

Introduction LQR strategy was successfully applied in the stabilization of


Set Up
Indentification the humanoid on a high-bar although only in simulation and
Simulator without the nonlinearities of the servos.
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

21
CONCLUTIONS
Achieved Control Recommendations
Guide

Introduction
Set Up
Indentification
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video
New
nonlinear
controller
New
(e.g. Sliding
nonlinear
mode
model
control)
containing
New the dynamics
gyroscope and
nonlinearities
of the servos

22
VIDEO

Guide

Introduction
Set Up
Indentification
Simulator
Control
Results
Conclusions
Video

23
Humanoid Robot
Development of a simulation environment of
an entertainment humanoid robot
Pedro Daniel Dinis Teodoro

Orientador: Professor Miguel Afonso Dias de Ayala Botto


Co-orientador: Professor Jorge Manuel Mateus Martins

Lisboa-September-2007