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Teachers: Rich
Lesson 1
Behind a successful teacher is his/her
philosophy of education - a set of
beliefs about "what and how"
education and teaching should be.
This determines whether or not he/she
will enjoy and succeeds in his/her
teaching career or leave for another
Intended Learning Outcome

Formulate a personal educational

philosophy that would guide teachers
in their exercise of the teaching
What is Philosophy?
Greek word philo which means love
and sophie which is wisdom
Love of Wisdom
Set of ideas that answer the question
about the nature of reality and about
the meaning of life
What is knowledge?
What is worth
striving for?

What is just, good, right

or beautiful?
Three Branches of
1. Metaphysics
Ontology examines issues related to
nature, or existence or being.
Cosmology is related to nature and
origin of the universe.
2. Epistemology is concerned with the
nature of knowledge( how we come to
know about things, or how we acquire
Three Branches of
3. Axiology relates to value.
Ethics relates to issue in morality and
Aesthetics concerned with beauty
What is Philosophy of
set of related beliefs that influence
what and how students are taught.
Some questions you may
consider in framing your
philosophical statement
What is the purpose of education?
What content and skills should
schools develop?
How should schools teach the content
of the curriculum?
What are the roles of the students
and teachers in the teaching learning
How should learning be assessed?
In education ...
Metaphysics refers to the knowledge
Epistemology - methods of teaching
Axiology - behavior, civility,
appreciation and expression
Roots of
contends reality lies in the consciousness
of our intellect.
Idealists believe that perfect knowledge of
the ideal resides outside humans as an
Absolute or as God.
Idealism envisions schools that are
intellectual center of teaching and learning
where teachers guide the students to
realize their intellectual potential and
appreciate the finest and enduring
achievement of the culture.
Idealist Teachers
believe that the schools are
repositories of eternal truth which
have organized the hierarchical
curriculum in education
believe that on tops of this hierarchy
are the most important subjects that
cultivate abstract thinking -
Philosophy, Theory and Mathematics
Idealist Teachers
believe in the use of Socratic method
- asking probing questions to
stimulate consciousness of students
in discovering knowledge
believe that honking and learning are
the process of brining latent ideas to
consciousness and logic is
encouraged in organizing their
Idealist Teachers
believe that teachers should lead
exemplary lives and be models for
students to imitate
believe that internet can make the
great book accessible to all, but they
insist that technology should be the
means rather than the end in
transmitting knowledge.
Realism advocates reality outside our
Realist believe that:
the objects we perceive exist
independently in our mind;
that whether or not we perceive
these objects, they really exist in
these world.
The purpose of education is to teach
students about the world in which
they live.
The most effective way of learning is
through the curriculum of organized
and classified subject-matter
Realist Teachers
believe that teachers should be
equipped with a wide repertoire of
methods in teaching to achieve their
believe that their primary
responsibility is to bring students'
ideas about the world into reality
Realist Teachers
believe that deductive and inductive
logic, and the scientific method are
reliable means to discover knowledge
believe that the inclusion of non-
academic activities interfere with the
school's primary purpose as the
center of disciplined academic inquiry
Realist Teachers
believe in the us of technology as an
aid in learning; they recommend
computer program to be as "realistic"
and effective as possible.
This evaluates the truth and ideas
according to physical consequences
and practical value.
It emphasizes the need to test the
validity of these ideas by acting on
The best way to validate is using the
scientific method.
Pragmatist Teachers
believe that education is an
experimental process - a method of
solving problems that challenges
people as they interact with the world
believe that children should learn how
to make difficult decisions by
considering the consequences of their
actions on others
Pragmatist Teachers
believe that education should focus in
real-life problems to be prepared to
live fully and effectively in society
believe that students should learn the
process of problem-solving rather
than by being passive learners as
knowledge is being transmitted to
Pragmatist Teachers
believe in collaborative learning
where students share their interests
and problems
believe that interdisciplinary
education is better than
departmentalized curriculum in
believe in taking risk in education to
achieve their goal
Pragmatist Teachers
believe in values-clarification rather
than blindly accepting inherited
believe that communication
technologies such as e-mail and
internet provide opportunities to share
ideas, insights, and experiences
and Theories
Related to
Assert that the primary purpose of
education is to bring student in
contact with the truth by cultivating
their intellect and sense of rationality
or reasoning power.
Proposes study of religion to
encourage ethical behavior.
Perennialist urge the students read
great books works by the historys
finest thinkers and writers.
They oppose inclusion of non
academic subjects in the curriculum.
Rather endorse subject matter
curriculum loaded with cognitive
subjects that develop rationality and
Perennialist Teachers
believe that teachers are the
intellectual mentors and models for
their students
believe that fundamental skills such
as reading, writing, computation and
research be developed starting the
elementary grades to prepare them
for lifelong learning
Perennialist Teachers
believe that subjects with human concern
like history, literature, drama, and art
should be included in the secondary
school curriculum
believe that their role is to sharpen the
students' intellectual powers and enhance
their moral qualities
believe that electronic version of great
books and other classics maybe viewed by
larger audience but this could not be a
substitute for reading the classics
teacher centered philosophy that adheres
to the belief that the basic skills of literacy
and numeracy as well as subject matter
should be developed in school.
History, math, science, languages,
literature are essential subjects in
secondary education
Teachers' must be committed to their
primary academic function to teach
knowledge and skills that will prepare
them to function effectively and efficiently.
Subject matter curriculum should be
cumulative and sequentially arrange.
Do not favor innovative or process-
learning approaches like constructivism.
They adhere more on teacher-directed
Essentialist Teachers
believe that teachers have authority
to discipline students
believe that teachers should have
mastery of the knowledge and skills
they teach
believe in the use of deductive
method of teaching
Essentialist Teachers
believe that students should learn the
believe that only when the students
have mastered the required
competencies can they be promoted
to the higher level
believe that test scores are the basis
for evaluating students' progress
belong to the reform movement that
opposes the traditional education.
They are against:
authoritarian teachers,
book-based instruction,
rote memorization and
authoritarian classroom
They contend that although knowledge
may come from varied sources, the best
way to learn is to explore and engage in
direct experiences.
School should be a laboratory for
Organize schools around the concerns,
curiosity and real world experiences of the
Progressivist Teachers
believe that teachers should posses a
repertoire of learning activities to be
used in the teaching-learning process
like problem-solving, field trips
creative artistic expression and
believe that the child should be free to
develop naturally
Progressivist Teachers
believe that interest motivated by
direct experiences stimulates learning
believe that the teacher is a facilitator
of learning
believe that there should be close
cooperation between the home and
the school
Progressivist Teachers
believe that students' needs, interest
and readiness should be considered
in constructing the curriculum
Social Reconstructionism
rooted on progressivism.
They sought to make the school the
center for larger social reforms.
The school need to investigate and
work to solve social, political and
economic problems and eventually
create a new society.
Social Reconstructionism
People are responsible for their social
condition, and they have power to
control their lives, improve their
human conditions and build a good
and just society.
Education therefore should prepare
the students to meet the demands of
the society.
Social Reconstructionist Teachers

believe that the school is the ideal

place to begin alleviating social
believe in using project method and
problem-solving method in teaching
believe that research is an effective
means in solving problems of society
Social Reconstructionist Teachers

believe that the intellectual,

emotional, and personal needs of the
students should be considered in the
learning process
believe that teachers must model
democratic principles
emphasizes the subjectivity of the
human experience.
Asserts that the purpose of education
is to help students find the meaning
and directions of their life.
Jean-Paul Sartre often quoted the
phrase existence precede essence.
We create our essence by making our
personal choices.
We create our own definition and
make our own essence by making
personal choices in our lives.
Existentialist Teachers
believe that the purpose of education
is to awaken our consciousness
about our freedom to choose and to
create our own self-awareness that
contributes to our identify
Existentialist Teachers
believe that students should be
trained to philosophize, to question,
and to participate in dialogues about
the meaning of live
believe that self-expression, creativity,
self-awareness, and self-
responsibility should be developed in
the students
Existentialist Teachers
believe that open classrooms
maximize freedom of choice
believe in self-directed instruction
believe that students should decide
what they want to learn and when to
learn it
An Exercise to
Determine Your
5- Strongly Agree
4- Agree
3- Neither Agree nor Disagree
2- Disagree
1- Strongly Disagree
1.A school curriculum includes the
essentials that the students should
2.A school curriculum deals with time-
tested ideas.
3.Field trips, internships, and practicum
connect classroom theories to the
real world.
4.Schools should develop among the
students the ability to solve social
5. The student should decide what he
wants to learn and when to learn it.
6. Students could be promoted to the
higher level only when they have
mastered the key materials.
7. Schools should develop students'
ability to think, analyze, and reason
8. Teachers must emphasize to the
students the relation of their learning
to real world.
9. School should teach students how to
recognize problems in society and
work for the solutions to alleviate
10. Students who do not want to study
should not be forced to do so.
11. Teachers should require students to
work hard and master academic
lessons taught to merit grades.
12. Learning should be appreciated for
its own sake. It is not about solving
problems and memorizing facts.
13. The experiences and needs of the
students should be considered in
preparing the curriculum.
14. Schools should develop among the
students respect for ethnic and racial
15. The purpose of school is to help
students understand themselves and
find their own place in the world.
16. To be able to compete in the global
village, schools must raise standards
for academic requirements to produce
competent graduates.
17. Teachers must prescribe the use of
Great Books because they contain
insights related to the issues at
18. Schools should include
opportunities for social interaction in
the curriculum.
19. Schools should develop political
literacy among the students so they
can use it to improve the quality of
20. The primary function of the school
is too provide students options and
choices to decide for themselves.
21. Schools must encourage students
to memorize basic facts about people
and events that shaped history.
22. The teacher's main objective is to help
students unlock the insights gained over
time, so they can learn from the great
thinkers of the past.
23. Students should be active participants in
the learning process.
24. Teaching means identifying a new
list of great books relevant to the
present times which would prepare
students to create a better society
than their ancestors.
25. Teachers should assist the students
in discovering themselves and
developing their own personal values,
even when those values conflict with
others values.
Interpreting your response
Essentialism Perennialism Progressivism Existentialism

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ___________

Personal Teaching Philosophy

A statement of beliefs and attitudes

relative to:
purpose of education & role of
definition of teaching
nature of pedagogy
student learning & assessment
Your philosophy of
education is your
"window" to the
world and
"compass" in life.
What does philosophy of education
contain or include?
the human person, the learner in particular
and the educated person
what is true and good and therefore must
be taught
how a learner must be taught in order to
come close to the truth
what is true and good and therefore must
be taught
how a learner must be taught in order to
come close to the truth
My Own Philosophy of Education

Now that you analyzed the important

philosophies and theories on education,
develop your own philosophies of
education stating what you think the
purpose of schooling/education is; how
subject be taught; what do you need to
know about statements to be able to teach
the. Include your idea of a good teacher.
Formulate one which you think will be your
guiding light in your future career.