Flute
Beam
Shoring exact
placement
varies
Beam
being
shored
Shoring
post
Beam
Camber in pre
composite beam
Level precomposite
Camber in pre
beam
composite beam
CompositeLevel
beamslab after
with the concrete
excessive hasto
concrete
maintain been placed
level slab
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Do not overcamber
Sometimes the camber doesnt come out because
of fixity and overestimation of precomposite loads
Camber in pre
composite beam
Overcambered
Level slabbeam
after with uneven concrete
the concrete has
thickness
been placed
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
General recommendations:
Camber 0.8 precomposite (considers restraint)
Cantilever is unlikely to
Does this beam rotate?
exhibit significant
Is this a column with significant
composite action
stiffness?
(concrete is in tension) Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Cambering uses hydraulic rams or heat. Operator
has to be careful not to buckle the beam. Cambering
is a trial and error process
Beam is pushed beyond elastic limit
to achieve a permanent set. When
hydraulic rams are released, the
beam springs back by the elastic
deformation. The residual set is the
Beam camber. Reference
line (a
string)
Hydraulic Hydraulic
ram ram
Cambering
with
hydraulicProfessor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Cambering with
heat Professor Thomas A. Sabol
UNBRACED LENGTH OF BEAM
Slab edge t
(where occurs)
Bottom of
metal deck
be be
Effective
1 Flange
2
Width
Bottom of
metal deck
be be
Effective
1 Flange
2
Width
1
= span of beam
8
1
be = distance from centerline of beam to beam Use smallest value
2
= Centerline of beam to slab edge
Headed shear
stud prior to
welding
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR TRANSFER
Although not directly related to composite strength
calculations, the deck must also be attached to the
steel framing
Decking usually attached to steel using puddle
welds or poweractuated fasteners
Powderactuated
fasteners fired
through deck into
Puddle welds used to steel attach decking
attach decking to
steel framing Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR TRANSFER
Most failures occur with slab crushing so we usually
assume plastic behavior in both steel and concrete
(i.e., we can fully develop M p in the beam)
Required strength of shear connectors (V),
between point of M + max and M = 0, is the least of
the following (Section I3.2d):
Shear diagram
where
A sa = Area of shear connector shank in. 2
E c = Young's modulus of concrete (ksi)
F u = Specified minimum tensile strength (ksi)
R g = Varies between 1.0 and 0.75 depending on number
of studs and direction of deck flutes
R p = Varies between 1.0 to 0.6 depending on how many
studs are welded in a given flute
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
Parallel
SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Q n)
usually refer
to girders
Condition Rg RP
No decking 1.0 0.75
Decking oriented parallel to the steel shape
wr/hr 1.5 1.0 0.75 Perpendic
wr/hr < 1.5 0.85 0.75 ular
Decking oriented perpendicular to the steel shape
usually
Number of studs occupying the same decking rib
refers to
1 1.0 0.6
beams
2 0.85 0.6
3 or more 0.7 0.6
(See User Note on page 16.198 of the Steel Manual for common values of R g and
R p)
h r = nominal rib height, in.
w r = average width of concrete rib or haunch
(as defined in Section I3.2c), in.
Decking oriented
perpendicular to steel
shape Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Q n)
Direction Direction
of shear of shear
0.5
1.5
min 2 min
min 3 max
Provide shear
Moment Diagram connectors no further
M+max
apart than 8 x slab
thickness
4 min
4 min
6 (min) 
Studs
8 x toal Top of beam flange
slab
thickness
(max)
When composite action is small or a beam has a
point of zero shear (e.g., the middle segment of a
girder loaded at its third points), provide shear
connectors spacing governed by maximum spacing
Maximum spacing < 8 x total slab thickness (36 in.
max.) to prevent vertical separation between slab
and beam flange when slab goes into compression
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER
k
The flange and the web
do not meet at a right
hc
d
angle due to the rolling
process that creates
the wide flange shape.
There is a small radius
k
at the intersection
called a fillet. Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY Not a common
condition  you
must calculate
strees
distribution
Use elastic stress distribution if: based on level of
strain
hc
> 3.76 E ; where = 0.9
tw Fyf
b= PN
Concrete in A c
tension effective 0.85f
width C(from
(doesnt concrete)
contribute
to flexural
strength) T (from steel
t = total beam)
slab Stress
Fy
thickness PNA in Distribution
slab Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
T = A s Fy
d
d/2
Fy
d a T must
Mn = M p = As Fy + t  equal C
2 2 to satisfy
equilibriu
= 0.9 m
PN
t
A
d/2 + t  a/2
Dec
k
T = AsFy
d
d/2
Fy
t 0.85fcbt
Fybftf
C
x bf
tf
Fytw(d2tfx) Fy
d
Fy(As Cs)
tw T
Fy
where:
M u = Factored moment due to loads
from concrete + weight of other
precomposite loads
= 0.9
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
DEFLECTION ESTIMATE
Lower Bound Moment Of Inertia
Moment of inertia will vary with the applied
moment and location of the neutral axis because of
the amount of uncracked concrete
Use of a transformed moment of inertia ( I tr)using
elastic theory will underestimate deflections by
15% to 30%
Lower bound moment of inertia ( I LB) is moment of
inertia at required strength level (i.e., it uses only
the provided shear transfer ( Q n) and enough of
the slab to balance Q n)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
DEFLECTION ESTIMATE
Moment of inertia will vary with the applied
moment and location of the neutral axis because of
the amount of uncracked concrete
Use of a transformed moment of inertia ( I tr)using
elastic theory will underestimate deflections by
15% to 30%
AISC recommends that effective moment of inertia
( I eff) be about 0.75 I tr
a
C = 0.85fcba
hr h c
t
d/2 + t  a/2
Dec
k N. T = As F y
d A. d/2
fy
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1
Equivalent Fy
concrete
Qn
( 2d 3 + d 1 )
d3 = d/2
area =Qn/Fy As d 3 +
tslab
a/2 F
d1 YENA = y
a Q
As + n
F
YENA
ENA y
( 17.7 ) 378.4 1.87
10.3 + 17 . 7 + 7

A s = 10.3 in 2 2 50 2
=
378.4
I s = 510 in 4 10.3 +
50
d = 17.7 in. = 15.17"
Q n = 378.4 k
d 1 = t slab a /2
t slab = 7 in.
a = 1.87 in.
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1
Substitute Y ENA into equation for Lower Bound Moment of Intertia:
2 2
17.7 378.4 1.87
I LB = 510 + 10.3
15.17  + 17. 7 + 7
  15. 17
2 50 2
= 1481in.4
5 ( 1.2 )( 36 ) 4 1728
D LL =
384 ( 29000 )( 1481)
L 36 x 12
= 1.06" Max .Deflection = = 1.2"
360 360
36 x 12
= 408 > 360 O.K .
1.06
AISC Building code
recommends typically limits
limiting LL deflection
deflection to
to L/360
less than 1 for
typical spans Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1
Y2 = tslab
a/2
Different locations
for PNA in beam
web
Different locations
for PNA in beam top
flange
TFL assumes
compression
force is in
concrete only
Ix of
beam
(only)
(Table 3
20)
The design strength for a W21x55 is 473 ftk > 331 ftk OK
Mp
(Table 3
19)
Qn
(Table 3
19)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2
(Table 3
Note that PNA is in 20)
the web
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2
Final design:
Use W21x55 beam with minimum of 34 studs and
camber 1.75 in.
in 4
(Note: Ireq D max =
1060
0.8(2.5 in ) = 1.86 in
in 4
IW 21x 55 1140
(So, use camber of 1.75 in.)
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