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Composite Floor

and Roof Slab Systems


Professor Thomas A. Sabol
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Almost all steel framed floors and topped roofs (i.e.


those with concrete vs. those with only metal deck)
are composite systems

Welding shear Headed shear stud Metal deck


connectors (headed prior to welding spanning
studs) perpendicular
to beam
Deck flutes the deck
Headed shear stud spans parallel to the
welded through deck flutes
to the steel beam
Metal deck spanning
perpendicular to beam

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Thickness of concrete slab a function of:


Structural requirements (often not a governing
requirement)
Fire-resistive requirements (often governs)
Type of concrete (lightweight vs. normal weight)
Vibration requirements (benefit of added mass)
Seismic and foundation demands (need to reduce
weight)
Concrete
topping
thickness
Deck
thickness

Metal deck thickness and


typical spans
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Thickness of metal deck a function of:


Structural requirements (spans between beams)
Vibration requirements
Fire rating

Flute

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Fire rating of a metal deck and concrete fill:


Hourly fire ratings are used as a measure of
the ability of the composite deck and slab to
contain a fire and keep it from spreading from
floor to floor.
The fire is defined in ASTM E119 it is a
laboratory standard, not a fire in a real
building

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Fire rating of a metal deck and concrete fill:


For the duration of the fire test, the floor must
carry the design load, not allow a 250 o
temperature rise through the slab, and not
permit flames or hot gasses to penetrate the
assembly.
The building code controls the number of hours
required (see IBC Table 601)
Concrete cover is often controlled by fire rating
required rather than structural requirements.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Fire rating of a metal deck and concrete fill:


110 to 145 to 150
115 pcf pcf

Very common system Often, deck


for Type I-A or I-B fireproofing isnt
construction (the most considered
fire-resistive economical Professor Thomas A. Sabol
COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Section I.3 of the AISC Specification addresses
composite flexural members

Advantages of Composite Construction:


Uses material efficiently: concrete in
compression & steel in tension (web & flange)
Reduces weight and increases stiffness
compared to non-composite: deflection only 20-
30% of non-composite for the same size beam

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION
Advantages of Composite Construction:
Reduces structural depth
Efficiently supports high live loads or high post-
composite dead loads because these are
applied after the steel beam has become
composite with the concrete
Provides greater reliability because stability limit
states are usually not critical

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


SHORED CONSTRUCTION

Prior to development of composite action, total


weight of uncured (i.e. wet) concrete must be
carried by steel beam
Sometimes, the beam is not strong enough and it
must be shored so it does not fail
Metal deck and
concrete fill

Beam

Shoring exact
placement
varies

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


SHORED CONSTRUCTION

Shoring supports the steel beam (i.e. beam


carries no load) because shoring supports
weight of wet concrete until composite action is
available. This usually results in a smaller beam.

Beam
being
shored
Shoring
post

Lower beam must be


strong enough to
support weight of upper
beam Professor Thomas A. Sabol
UNSHORED CONSTRUCTION

If unshored, steel beam alone must have


adequate strength (i.e. M n) to resist all pre-
composite loads (i.e. M u) applied prior to
concrete reaching 75% of its design strength, f c
Metal deck and
concrete fill

Beam

Beam must carry


uncured concrete as a
non-composite steel
member until concrete
reaches 75% of fc

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


UNSHORED CONSTRUCTION

Reasons not to shore:


High expense and difficult construction
logistics make shoring almost always more
expensive than potential savings from
reduced beam weight in shored construction
Creep - Concrete slab always in compression
which can lead to greater long-term
deflections
Therefore, shored steel frame construction is
almost never used. Unshored construction is
usually preferred.
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Usually, the size of beam is based on the pre-
composite condition, but it may not be stiff enough
(i.e. too much deflection).
The composite section usually possesses more than
enough strength to support the superimposed
composite loads.
So, we camber the beam (pre-deflect the beam
upwards)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


CAMBER
Camber allows us to use a more efficient section
Recommended that beams be cambered if 80% of
pre-composite deflection > 1/2" to 3/4" or more
Camber in 0.25 in. increments and limit to about 2.5
in. max. for 30 to 40 ft. long beams
Camber deform beam in
opposite direction of anticipated
dead load deflection
Beam

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


CAMBER
Camber allows use of more efficient sections
Recommended that beams be cambered if 80% of
pre-composite deflection > 1/2" to 3/4" or more
Camber in 0.25 in. increments and limit to about 2.5
in. max. for 30 to 40 ft. long beams

Camber in pre-
composite beam

Level slab after the concrete has


been placed
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Level beams run the risk of excessive concrete due
to ponding of concrete

Level pre-composite
Camber in pre-
beam
composite beam

CompositeLevel
beamslab after
with the concrete
excessive hasto
concrete
maintain been placed
level slab
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Do not over-camber
Sometimes the camber doesnt come out because
of fixity and over-estimation of pre-composite loads

Camber in pre-
composite beam

In most situations, highly Pinned connections allow the


restrained connections should rotation required to flatten-out
Level slab after the concrete has
not be cambered a cambered beam
been placed
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Problem locations: interior columns adjacent to
longer spans, roof beams with large camber
Area around interior column wont deflect. If
camber in adjacent beam doesnt come out,
an unintended low spot at the column may
result
If camber doesnt come out of roof beams,
roof drainage can be impacted unfavorably.
Roof beam Long-span beam with
with excessive camber
excessive (potential high spot)
camber Area around
(potential column
high spot (potential low
that spot) Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
If camber doesnt come out:
Shear connector can protrude above slab
Concrete cover may be unequal or insufficient

Over-cambered beam with protruding shear


connectors Camber in pre-
composite beam

Over-cambered
Level slabbeam
after with uneven concrete
the concrete has
thickness
been placed
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
General recommendations:
Camber 0.8 pre-composite (considers restraint)

pre-composite should only include those loads


likely to be present before composite condition
(e.g., beam self-weight, concrete slab)
When evaluating camber for cantilevered
beams with and withoutRelative
backspan, consider
length of cantilever
actual conditions and backspan will change
apparent deformed shape

Cantilever is unlikely to
Does this beam rotate?
exhibit significant
Is this a column with significant
composite action
stiffness?
(concrete is in tension) Professor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER
Cambering uses hydraulic rams or heat. Operator
has to be careful not to buckle the beam. Cambering
is a trial and error process
Beam is pushed beyond elastic limit
to achieve a permanent set. When
hydraulic rams are released, the
beam springs back by the elastic
deformation. The residual set is the
Beam camber. Reference
line (a
string)
Hydraulic Hydraulic
ram ram

Cambering
with
hydraulicProfessor Thomas A. Sabol
CAMBER

Heat is applied to create


camber on the opposite
site of the desired crown
(i.e., upward camber).

Heat marks go on bottom


side (beams crown
(camber) is to the top)

Cambering with
heat Professor Thomas A. Sabol
UNBRACED LENGTH OF BEAM

Pre-Composite Condition (Positive Moment)


If decking is perpendicular to the beam, it is
usually assumed that the unbraced length is 0
ft.
If decking is parallel to the beam (often applies
to girders) the deck isnt oriented in its
strongest direction. The unbraced length is
then based on conventional bracing
considerations (e.g., location of perpendicular
beams).
Composite Condition (Positive Moment)
Concrete slab braces beam, therefore, unbraced
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
UNBRACED LENGTH OF BEAM

Pre-Composite Condition (Negative Moment)


Bottom flange is in compression (often applies to
cantilevers). The unbraced length is then
based on conventional bracing considerations
(e.g., location of perpendicular beams).
Composite Condition (Negative Moment)
Concrete is in tension and bottom flange is in
compression (often applies to cantilevers). The
unbraced length is then based on conventional
bracing considerations (e.g., location of
perpendicular beams).
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH

How much slab acts as part of the composite


beam? (See Section I3.1a )
Concrete stress decreases with distance from
beam. Concrete over the beam flange is under
greatest stress. Nevertheless, AISC Specification
assumes constant stress over assumed (effective)
width with reasonable accuracy.
Concept of effective width is similar to that used for
t-beams by ACI 318.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH

How much slab acts as part of the composite


beam?
b e is taken on each side of the beam center line.
Effective width is sum of the b e values.

Slab edge t
(where occurs)
Bottom of
metal deck
be be
Effective
1 Flange
2

Width

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH
Slab edge t
(where occurs)

Bottom of
metal deck
be be
Effective
1 Flange
2

Width
1
= span of beam
8

1
be = distance from centerline of beam to beam Use smallest value
2

= Centerline of beam to slab edge

Effective flange width = b e1 + b e2

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


SHEAR TRANSFER
For the metal deck/concrete and the steel beam to
work together effectively, adequate shear transfer
must be provided
Shear connectors studs, headed (Nelson) studs
most common
3/4" most common diameter
Length > 4 stud
Stud
Shear
demand Beam flange
Q

Headed shear
stud prior to
welding
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR TRANSFER
Although not directly related to composite strength
calculations, the deck must also be attached to the
steel framing
Decking usually attached to steel using puddle
welds or power-actuated fasteners

Powder-actuated
fasteners fired
through deck into
Puddle welds used to steel attach decking
attach decking to
steel framing Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR TRANSFER
Most failures occur with slab crushing so we usually
assume plastic behavior in both steel and concrete
(i.e., we can fully develop M p in the beam)
Required strength of shear connectors (V),
between point of M + max and M = 0, is the least of
the following (Section I3.2d):

V = 0.85 f' cA c Compressive strength of concrete


V = A sF y Tensile strength of steel
V = Q n Total nominal strength of shear studs
where A c = area of concrete within effective slab width (in 2)
A s = area of steel cross section (in 2)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR TRANSFER
Uniform
load
M0
Beam
n* = required
number of
shear studs
from M+max to
M+ma
M0
*For most beams (e.g. x
those with symmetric
uniform loads), total If two or more
number of studs studs per flute are
required for a beam is required, the
2n and they are additional studs
evenly distributed are added starting
along the length of at the supports
the beam. and working
toward the middle Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR TRANSFER
Symmetr
ic point
loads
M0 Beam
n = required
number of
shear studs
from M+max to M+ma
M0 x

Shear diagram

Note that the shear diagram


shows no shear in this region
(theoretically, no shear connectors
are required), but minimum
spacing of shear connectors Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Q n)

No -factor for strength of studs.


Nominal strength of shear connector is:
Qn = 0.5 Asa f ' c Ec Rg Rp Asa Fu (Eq. I8-1)

where
A sa = Area of shear connector shank in. 2
E c = Young's modulus of concrete (ksi)
F u = Specified minimum tensile strength (ksi)
R g = Varies between 1.0 and 0.75 depending on number
of studs and direction of deck flutes
R p = Varies between 1.0 to 0.6 depending on how many
studs are welded in a given flute
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
Parallel
SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Q n)
usually refer
to girders
Condition Rg RP
No decking 1.0 0.75
Decking oriented parallel to the steel shape
wr/hr 1.5 1.0 0.75 Perpendic
wr/hr < 1.5 0.85 0.75 ular
Decking oriented perpendicular to the steel shape
usually
Number of studs occupying the same decking rib
refers to
1 1.0 0.6
beams
2 0.85 0.6
3 or more 0.7 0.6

(See User Note on page 16.1-98 of the Steel Manual for common values of R g and
R p)
h r = nominal rib height, in.
w r = average width of concrete rib or haunch
(as defined in Section I3.2c), in.
Decking oriented
perpendicular to steel
shape Professor Thomas A. Sabol
SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Q n)

SHEAR CONNECTOR STRENGTH (Q n) for one


stud per rib in the weak position (see next
slide) f' c Qn
(ksi) (pcf) (kips)
3.0 110 17.2 3/4" A36 studs
14517.2
Most common stud
diameter and
4.0 110 17.2
concrete strength
14517.2
Table I3-21 of the
Specification
gives values for
other conditions

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


Weak and Strong Stud Positions

Deck flutes usually have a stiffening rib that requires


stud be located to one side or the other
Stud strength can be a function of position
Weak position typically assumed unless otherwise
indicated (since specific placement not usually specified)
Stiffening
rib in deck
flute

Direction Direction
of shear of shear

Stud in the Stud in the


strong weak
More position position
concrete to
support stud
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
Concrete Cover and Thickness

0.5
1.5
min 2 min
min 3 max

Ignore concrete in the flute


(rib) unless the rib is parallel
to beam (e.g. a girder
condition -- typically about
50% of the concrete is
available in this case)
Metal deck flutes (ribs)
perpendicular to beams

Metal deck flutes


Metal deck flutes (ribs) (ribs)
perpendicular to beams Partial parallel to beam
Framing
(girder)
Plan Professor Thomas A. Sabol
NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

For uniform loads, a uniform spacing of studs shows


similar performance compared with a spacing that
follows the statical shear distribution (i.e. VQ Ib )
therefore we use uniform spacing for uniform loads

For Point Loads - Number of connectors between load


and nearest point of zero moment must be sufficient
to develop M +max at point load.
Provide at required
number of connectors
over this distance
P Key
M=0
concept
for girder
Moment Diagram M+max design
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

In areas of zero shear, the maximum spacing of studs


would usually govern
Provide at required
number of connectors
over this distance
P P
M=0

Provide shear
Moment Diagram connectors no further
M+max
apart than 8 x slab
thickness

Shear Diagram Key


concept
for girder
design
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

Minimum center to center spacing along beam is 6


(where is stud diameter) and minimum center to
center transverse spacing along beam is 4. If
Formed Deck: 4 either direction.
Studs require min. 1" lateral concrete cover (except
where deck is used)
of stud < 2.5 t f if not over webs

4 min

May stagger studs if 6 min Studs


beam is too narrow Top of beam flange
this can squeeze in a
few more studs over a
given distance. Multiple Studs in a Row (or
Flute) Professor Thomas A. Sabol
NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

4 min

6 (min) -
Studs
8 x toal Top of beam flange
slab
thickness
(max)
When composite action is small or a beam has a
point of zero shear (e.g., the middle segment of a
girder loaded at its third points), provide shear
connectors spacing governed by maximum spacing
Maximum spacing < 8 x total slab thickness (36 in.
max.) to prevent vertical separation between slab
and beam flange when slab goes into compression
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
NUMBER, SPACING AND COVER

When decking runs perpendicular to the beam, studs


are installed based on the flute spacing in the deck,
typically 12 in. on center
When decking runs parallel to the beam (e.g., a
girder), the stud spacing is independent of the deck
flute spacing and 6 x stud diameter would govern
If flutes are
perpendicular to
beam, flute
spacing
establishes stud
spacing
If flutes are parallel to
beam, stud spacing is
independent of flute
spacing Professor Thomas A. Sabol
PARTIALLY COMPOSITE BEAMS

If fully composite section has moment strength M n*,


but you only need M n* where < 1.0, you can
provide enough studs just to reach M n*
A partially composite beam will have fewer than the
maximum number of studs required to develop
the full composite strength of the beam and slab
system: same beam and slab but fewer studs =
lower moment strength
Partially composite beams are the most common in
actual building design
It is recommended that > 25%
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
PARTIALLY COMPOSITE BEAMS

Many designers will provide studs at 12 in. on center


in metal deck, even if design requires fewer,
because:
Reduces construction errors by keeping things
consistent
Provides added flexural strength at a nominal
cost (i.e. studs are less expensive than
strengthening the beam later)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


FLEXURAL CAPACITY Key
conce
pt
Flexural capacity of composite section may be governed
by:
Tensile strength of beam,
Compressive strength of concrete slab or
Strength of shear connectors.

The least of these values establishes the limit state that


governs the design

Composite section cannot transfer more shear than can be


developed by the shear connectors if the shear
connectors have less strength than the concrete slab or
the beam, then this will establish the limit on the flexural
state of the composite section. Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
If web is slender and in compression, it may buckle.

Use plastic stress distribution in the composite section if:


hc
3.76 E
Wide flange
tw Fyf sections with Fy
50 ksi satisfy this,
so you may
assume entire
h c = distance between toes of fillet d-2k
section yields

k
The flange and the web
do not meet at a right

hc
d
angle due to the rolling
process that creates
the wide flange shape.
There is a small radius
k

at the intersection
called a fillet. Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY Not a common
condition -- you
must calculate
strees
distribution
Use elastic stress distribution if: based on level of
strain

hc
> 3.76 E ; where = 0.9
tw Fyf

Superimpose elastic stresses and effect of shoring must


be considered.

The elastic stress distribution requirement applies most


frequently when built-up members are used (e.g. plate
girders) and relatively thin plates are used.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


FLEXURAL CAPACITY
Calculating the moment capacity of a composite section is
a function of plastic neutral axis (PNA) location.
Steel beam
Possible plastic neutral axis locations: weaker
than
Neutral axis in the concrete slab concrete
Neutral axis in top flange of beam slab
Neutral axis in web of steel beam

b= PN
Concrete in A c
tension effective 0.85f
width C(from
(doesnt concrete)
contribute
to flexural
strength) T (from steel
t = total beam)
slab Stress
Fy
thickness PNA in Distribution
slab Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY

Plastic Neutral Axis in Concrete Slab:


Concrete in b = effective width
tension 0.85fc
(doesnt a/2
C = 0.85fcab
a
contribute to t
flexural
PN
strength) A d/2 + t - a/2

T = A s Fy
d
d/2
Fy

d a T must
Mn = M p = As Fy + t - equal C
2 2 to satisfy
equilibriu
= 0.9 m

(Note: If a > t, then PNA is not in slab and you need to


revise your assumptions and recalculate the flexural
capacity.) Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
If deck is used, the methodology to calculate the flexural
capacity is the same except the slab is elevated above the
beam flange by the height of the deck ( h r). Adjust
Concrete
in
geometry.
compressi
Concrete in
on
tension (below 0.85fc
PNA) a a/2
C = 0.85fcab
hr hc

PN
t

A
d/2 + t - a/2
Dec
k
T = AsFy
d

d/2
Fy

(Note: If a > h c, then PNA is not in slab and you need to


limit the compression strength to C = 0.85 f cbh c. If PNA is
no lower than t , you can assume PNA is in the slab to
calculate M .) Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
Ccon
Neutral Axis in Top Flange of Beam:
c
b Cste
y is depth
0.85fc
of steel in 0.85fcbt el
compressi
on
t C
Fy
y N.A bf Fybfy
.
d-y T
Fy(As - bfy)
Fy
Tstee
l
As a first guess, we assume neutral axis is at base of
flange:
C = 0.85 f ' c b t + Af Fy
Not all
of the T = ( As - Af ) Fy
steel is
in
tension
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
Neutral Axis in Top Flange of Beam: Ccon
c
Cste
b el
0.85fc
0.85fcbt
t C
Fy
y N.A bf Fybfy
.
d-y T
Fy(As - bfy)
Fy Tsteel

C = C conc + C steel = T steel = T Note: T = C to


satisfy
equilibrium

But if C > T with assumed PNA at base of flange, then our


assumption is wrong and PNA is not at base of flange.
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
Ccon
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
c
Neutral Axis in Top Flange of Beam: Cste
b el
0.85fc
0.85fcbt
t C
Fy
y N.A bf Fybfy
.
d-y T
Fy(As - bfy)
Fy Tsteel

Setting C = T and solving for M n:


0.85 f ' c b t + Fy b f y = Fy As - Fy b f y T
Fy As - 0.85 f ' c bt
C y=
2 Fy bf
t y d

Mn = M p = 0.9
0.85 f ' c bt + y + 2 Fy bf y + Fy As - y

2
2 2

Professor Thomas A. Sabol
FLEXURAL CAPACITY
Neutral Axis in Web of Steel Beam
b
0.85fc

t 0.85fcbt
Fybftf
C
x bf
tf
Fytw(d-2tf-x) Fy
d
Fy(As -Cs)
tw T
Fy

Where C s = F y[( b ft f) + t w(d-2 t f- x )]

Using equilibrium and summing moments about the


PNA, one can solve for M n (derivation not shown).

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


Inadequate slab
FLEXURAL CAPACITY means that strength
of concrete slab is less
than tensile strength
Limit States of Composite Beams Based ofStrength
on Relative steel of
Components

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


FLEXURAL CAPACITY
(Assuming Beams Without Shoring)
The bare steel section must have enough strength
to resist weight of uncured concrete and other pre-
composite loads (i.e., pre-composite dead and live
loads).
If uncured composite section will support incidental
construction loads, it is recommended that an
allowance for 10 20 psf be included as a pre-
composite live load.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


FLEXURAL CAPACITY
If the decking is judged not provide bracing for the
compression flange, L b must be considered in
designing the beam. Otherwise, L b = 0.
To avoid yielding the beam, it is recommended that
for pre-composite condition:
This is Z for
M u < F yZ the steel
beam alone

where:
M u = Factored moment due to loads
from concrete + weight of other
pre-composite loads
= 0.9
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
DEFLECTION ESTIMATE
Lower Bound Moment Of Inertia
Moment of inertia will vary with the applied
moment and location of the neutral axis because of
the amount of uncracked concrete
Use of a transformed moment of inertia ( I tr)using
elastic theory will underestimate deflections by
15% to 30%
Lower bound moment of inertia ( I LB) is moment of
inertia at required strength level (i.e., it uses only
the provided shear transfer ( Q n) and enough of
the slab to balance Q n)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
DEFLECTION ESTIMATE
Moment of inertia will vary with the applied
moment and location of the neutral axis because of
the amount of uncracked concrete
Use of a transformed moment of inertia ( I tr)using
elastic theory will underestimate deflections by
15% to 30%
AISC recommends that effective moment of inertia
( I eff) be about 0.75 I tr

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


DEFLECTION ESTIMATE
Transformed Moment Of Inertia
be
Effective
f width of concrete is
transformed (reduced) to
equivalent width of steel
based on ratio of n = Es/Ec
(i.e., bef/n)

If some of the concrete in


the decking is in
compression, an effective
width of 50% may be used
when doing the
transformation (only
applies when flutes are
Transformed moment of inertia
parallel (Itr)beam
to the of (e.g.,
the composite section can be
girders)
calculated using parallel axis theorem
using the transformed properties
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
DEFLECTION ESTIMATE
Lower Bound Moment Of Inertia
Full elastic analysis involves many
assumptions, so, as an alternative, AISC offers
the use of Lower Bound Moment of Inertia
Q n
ILB = I s + As ( YENA - d 3 ) + ( 3 1 ENA )
2 2
d + d - Y
Fy
Equivalent concrete area
=Qn/Fy a/2
C
d1 Location of
effective
T d3 Concrete flange
d force Qn from
Distance
ENA resultant tension
YENA
force (for full
tension yield) to
top of steel
(usually,Professor
d/2) Thomas A. Sabol
DEFLECTION ESTIMATE

Y ENA = distance from bottom of beam to elastic neutral axis


(ENA)
Qn
As d 3 +
( 2d 3 + d 1 )
Fy
= Qn
As +
y F

Equivalent concrete area


=Qn/Fy a/2
C
d1
Location of effective
d3 Concrete flange
T force Qn
d
ENA
YENA

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 1

Design a composite beam to satisfy the following requirements.


Assume beams at 10' center to center, L = 36, 4" lightweight
concrete + 3" deck (t = 7). Steel is ASTM A992 (i.e. F y = 50 ksi)
DL = 0.78 klf, LL = 1.2 klf , F y = 50 ksi, f' c = 3 ksi

Factored Loads: w u = 1.2 (0.78) + 1.6 (1.2) = 2.86klf


2.86klf (36) 2
Moment: Mu = = 462.7 ft - k
8
Effective Flange Width: L=
36
2( 36 12 )
b= = 108" Governs
8 Center of beam
b = 2( 5 12 ) = 120" spacing is 10/2
= 5
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1
Try a W18 x 35 As = 10.3 in 2
Where is plastic neutral axis? Assume that PNA is in
slab. As Fy
a= Note:
0.85 f ' c b really it
is
10.3 in.2 (50ksi)
= because
0.85 (3 ksi) (108in.) a < t-3
Since a < t, the PNA
Concrete = 1.87in. is in concrete slab
in
b=
compressi
Concrete effective
on
in tension width a/2

a
C = 0.85fcba
hr h c

t
d/2 + t - a/2
Dec
k N. T = As F y
d A. d/2
fy
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1

What is available strength assuming full composite action?


d a
Mn M p = As Fy + t -
2 2
17.7 1.87 1
= ( 0.9 ) 10.3 ( 50 ) + 7 -
2 2 12
= 576.1ft -k > 462.7ft -k O.K .
Composite section may be oversized because M n is much
greater than M u. We may be able to reduce the steel section,
but we still have to check its ability to support the pre-
composite loads (i.e. the loads prior to development of
composite action).

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 1
Design of Studs
Use Q n = 17.2 k for f' c = 3 ksi (weak position) lightweight
concrete and =3/4"
What is magnitude of force used to establish the number of
studs for shear transfer? Select minimum of:
(a) 0.85 f' cab = 0.85 (3) (1.87) (108) = 515 k
or
(b) A sF y = 10.3 (50) = 515 k Mu
or d a
(c) +t -
2 2
462.7 ft - k x 12in / ft
Q n = = 372.3k Governs
17.7 in 1.87in (assuming you
+7- use only the
2 2 minimum number
of studs no
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
longer assuming
EXAMPLE 1

This beam is an example of a partially composite section. A


fully composite section would require sufficient studs to
transfer at least 515k but only 372k is required to transfer
shear due to design loads. Amount of composite action is
about 72% (i.e. 372/515 = 0.72)
Minimum number of required studs on each side of beam
centerline is:
372.3k Say, 22 studs each side of beam
nmin = = 21.65 centerline or a total of 44 studs
17.2k

Note that actual Q n is 22(17.2k) = 378.4k


This value is used later in the deflection calculations.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 1
Compare strength of W18x35 against loads present before
composite section is developed (i.e. pre-composite condition) :
Weight of
concrete slab
w conc = 52 ( 10' ) = 0.52klf
psf
Assumed
DL' = 0.78 - 0.52 = 0.26 klf construction
Superimpos psf live load
20 x 10'
ed dead w u = 1.2( 0.52 klf ) + 1.6
load (not 1000
used in this = 0.94 klf
check 0.94 klf ( 36') 2
because it is Mu = = 152ft -k
8
applied
when the M p = 249 ft - k
< 152 ft - k
OK
composite
strength is
A W18x35 is OK for non-composite loads
available)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1 Camber is
based on DL
only in this
case

Service load deflection before composite section forms:


w = 0.52klf
5(0.52)(36) 4 1728
D= = 1.29"
384(29000)(510)
36' x 12 L
= 325 > 240 OK
1.29 325
A W18x35 has significant pre-composite dead load
deflection, but we can camber out most of this (or we could
upsize the beam).
Typically, anything
below L/240 for DL
only is considered
too flexible
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1

How much camber is required?


Normally, we camber a section if the pre-composite deflection is
greater than about 0.5 to 0.75 in. And we camber in 0.25in.
increments.
Therefore, camber in this case is at most 1.25 in. ( pre-composite =1.29
in. initial deflection).
AISC recommends camber be based on 0.8 pre-composite = 1.03, so
use 1 in. of camber
Camber
1.0
Beam

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 1

Service Live Load Deflection After Composite Section


Lower Bound I: Q n
I LB = I s + As ( YENA - d 3 ) + ( 2d 3 + d 1 - YENA )
2 2

Equivalent Fy
concrete
Qn
( 2d 3 + d 1 )
d3 = d/2

area =Qn/Fy As d 3 +
tslab

a/2 F
d1 YENA = y
a Q
As + n
F

YENA
ENA y
( 17.7 ) 378.4 1.87

10.3 + 17 . 7 + 7
-
A s = 10.3 in 2 2 50 2


=
378.4
I s = 510 in 4 10.3 +
50
d = 17.7 in. = 15.17"
Q n = 378.4 k
d 1 = t slab a /2
t slab = 7 in.
a = 1.87 in.
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1
Substitute Y ENA into equation for Lower Bound Moment of Intertia:
2 2
17.7 378.4 1.87
I LB = 510 + 10.3
15.17 - + 17. 7 + 7
- - 15. 17
2 50 2


= 1481in.4

5 ( 1.2 )( 36 ) 4 1728
D LL =
384 ( 29000 )( 1481)
L 36 x 12
= 1.06" Max .Deflection = = 1.2"
360 360
36 x 12
= 408 > 360 O.K .
1.06
AISC Building code
recommends typically limits
limiting LL deflection
deflection to
to L/360
less than 1 for
typical spans Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 1

Final design recommendations are:


W18x35 with 44 - 3/4diameter studs. Camber beam
1.0

Note: For a complete design, you must list


the beam size, the total number of studs,
and the amount of camber.
This is
important!

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2
Design composite beam for the following loads using AISC
Manual

L = 45' Beams spaced 10o.c.


F y = 50 ksi f' c = 4.0 ksi
3" deck + 4.5" hardrock ( = 145 pcf)

DL slab= 0.075 ksf


DL beam weight = 0.008 ksf (assumed)
DL all other = 0.010 ksf (ceiling, floor, MEP, etc.)

LL = 0.1 ksf (unreduced)

Line loads on beam


Total dead load = 0.093 ksf (10 ft) = 0.93 klf
Total live load = 0.10 ksf (10 ft) = 1.0 klf Professor Thomas A. Sabol
Concrete
EXAMPLE 2 slab plus
beam
Construction loads weight
Construction dead load = 0.083 ksf (10 ft) = 0.83 klf
Construction live load = 0.020 ksf (10 ft) = 0.20 klf

Determine required flexural strength


w u = 1.2(0.93 klf ) + 1.6(1.0klf ) = 2.72 klf
2.72klf (45 ft ) 2
Mu = = 688ft - k
8
Determine b eff
The effective width of the concrete slab is the sum of the
effective widths for each side of the beam centerline

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


Note use of 2
EXAMPLE 2 to account for
bef on both
Determine b eff sides of beam
(1) One-eighth of the beam span
45 ft
(2) = 11.3ft
8

(2) One-half the distance to centerline of adjacent beam


10ft
(2) = 10.0ft controls
2

(3) One-half the distance to edge of slab (N.A.)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2
Using the figures on pages 3-30 and 3-31 and the tables
starting on page 3-156 of the AISC Steel Manual , we can
significantly simplify the effort required to design the beam.

Y2 = tslab
a/2

Different locations
for PNA in beam
web

Different locations
for PNA in beam top
flange

TFL assumes
compression
force is in
concrete only

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2
Using the figures on pages 3-14 and 3-15 and the tables
starting on page 3-158 of the AISC Steel Manual , we can
significantly simplify the effort required to design the beam.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2
Calculate moment arm for concrete force measured from
top of steel shape ( Y 2):
Assume a = 1 (this is often a reasonable first guess)
a 1
Y 2 = t slab - = 7.5" - = 7.0"
2 2

Enter Manual Table 3-19 with the required strength and Y 2


= 7.0 in. Select a beam and neutral axis location that
indicates sufficient available strength
Select a W21x50 as a trial beam.
When PNA Location 5 (BFL), this composite shape has an
available strength of This is our
M n = 769 ft-k > 688 ft-k OK required
strength for the
composite beam
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2
From Table 3-19:
Y2 = 7.0
in.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2
Check the beam deflections and available strength
Check the deflection of the beam under pre-composite
conditions, considering only the pre-composite dead
loads as contributing to the deflection (i.e. no pre-
composite live load)
Limit pre-composite to a maximum of 2.5 in. to facilitate
concrete placement
4 klf ft 4 in 3 / ft 3
5w DL l 5(0.83 )(45 ) (1728 ) in 4
Ireq = = = 1060
384 E D 384(29000ksi )2.5 in
From Manual Table 3-20, a W21x50 has I x = 984 in4, so
the member does not satisfy the deflection criterion
under construction loads
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2

Check the beam deflections and available strength

Ix of
beam
(only)

(Table 3-
20)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2

Using Manual Table 3-20, revise the trial member


selection to a W21x55, which has I x = 1140 in4

Check selected member strength as an unshored beam


under construction loads assuming adequate lateral
bracing through the deck attachment to the beam
flange.
Calculate the required strength
1.4 DL = 1.4(0.83 klf ) = 1.16 klf
1.2DL + 1.6LL = 1.2(0.83 klf ) + 1.6(0.2 klf ) = 1.32 klf
1.32 klf (45 ft ) 2
Mu = = 331ft - k Governs
8

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2

The design strength for a W21x55 is 473 ft-k > 331 ft-k OK
Mp

(Table 3-
19)

For a W21x55 with Y 2 = 7.0in, the member has sufficient


available strength when the PNA is at Location 6 and
Q n = 292kips
Y2 = 7.0
M n = 767ft-k > 688 ft-k OK in.

Qn

(Table 3-
19)
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2

Check a (were we right to assume a = 1 in?)


Qn 292kips
a= = = 0.716 in

0.85fc' b 0.85(4 ksi )10ft (12in / ft )


0.716 in < 1.0 in OK (we are close and required concrete
compression area is less than we assumed)
In some
situations you
Check live load deflection need to go back
and recalculate
LL= /360 = [(45ft)12in/ft]/360 = 1.5in
strength

Lower bound moment of inertia for composite beams is


tabulated in Manual Table 3-20.

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2

For a W21x55 with Y 2 = 7.0in and the PNA at Location 6,


I LB = 2440 in4
3 3
5w LL l 4 5(1.0klf )(45ft ) 4 (1728in / ft ) in
D LL = = 4 = 1.3
384 EILB 384(29000ksi )2440in

1.3in < 1.5in OK


Y2 = 7.0
in.

(Table 3-
Note that PNA is in 20)
the web
Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2

Determine if beam has sufficient shear strength


45 ft
Vu = (2.72klf ) = 61.2 k
2
Vn = 234 k > 61.2k OK

Determine the required number of shear stud connectors


Using perpendicular deck with one in. diameter weak
stud per rib (per foot) in normal weight 4 ksi concrete,
Q n = 17.2 k/stud
Q n 292 k
= k / stud
= 17 studs on each side of the beam
Qn 17.2

Total number of shear connectors = 2(17 studs) = 34 studs


Professor Thomas A. Sabol
EXAMPLE 2

Check spacing of shear connectors


Since each flute is 12in, use one stud every flute,
starting at each support, and proceed for 17 studs on
each end of the span (checking to make sure maximum
spacing is satisfied).
(Usually, the designer would simply require one stud
per foot without trying to save the 4 or 5 extra studs for
a 22.5 ft half span.)
6 d stud < 12 in < 8 t slab, therefore shear stud spacing
requirements are met
The studs are to be 5 in. long, so they will extend a
minimum of 1.5 in. into the slab

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


EXAMPLE 2

Final design:
Use W21x55 beam with minimum of 34 studs and
camber 1.75 in.

in 4
(Note: Ireq D max =
1060
0.8(2.5 in ) = 1.86 in
in 4
IW 21x 55 1140
(So, use camber of 1.75 in.)

Professor Thomas A. Sabol


Design Summary

1. Determine pre-composite and composite loads for


strength evaluation (factored loads) and serviceability
evaluation (unfactored loads)
2. Determine required strength of beam supporting pre-
composite loads (using factored loads)
3. Check deflection of pre-composite beam using
unfactored loads and establish initial camber
recommendation
4. Check beam under composite loads (factored) and
determine required number of studs
5. Check deflection under composite loads (unfactored)
6. Summarize design recommendations
Professor Thomas A. Sabol