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9B Fit and healthy

9B Fit and healthy

How fit are you?

Food for fitness

Caring for your health

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9B Fit and healthy

How fit are you?

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9B How fit are you?

What does it mean to be fit?


If you are fit, your body is well set up for exercise.
For exercise your muscle cells need energy.
Where does this come from?
oxygen carbon dioxide

respiration

water
glucose
energy

Which organ systems provide the things you need for


respiration?

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9B In out in out...

Stand up and feel your ribs! Can you feel these


movements when you breathe in and out?

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9B Breathing and respiration

Explain these observations about breathing and


respiration.

You need to breathe faster


and deeper when you run.

Athletes tend to have big lungs.

Smokers often cannot run as fast as non-smokers.

If you are fit, your breathing rate returns to normal


quickly after exercise.

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9B Know your pelvis from your elbow

A joint is a place where two or more bones meet.


Joints allow us to move.

shoulder
shouldera
Name these joints.
elbowb

Which are ball-and- hip


hipc
socket joints? wristd
fingere

Which are hinge joints? kneef

ankle
g

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9B Knees up!

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9B Bend it!

Muscles can only contract (get shorter)


or relax (when they can be pulled longer again).

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9B Antagonistic muscles

What are your muscles doing when you bend your arm?
Are they contracting or relaxing?
muscle group bending the arm straightening the arm
biceps contracting relaxing
triceps relaxing contracting

The biceps and triceps are an antagonistic pair of


muscles. What does this mean?

Muscles can only pull, not push. So one muscle pulls the
bone one way, and the paired muscle pulls it back again.

Which muscle contracts when you straighten your leg?

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9B Hot and sweaty

Contracting is hard work for muscles. They get hot.


Respiration releases energy so that they can work.
Look at these thermal images. The hot areas of the body
are red. Which exercise belongs with which image?
armsit-ups
swimming
press-ups
cycling
wrestling
sit-ups arm wrestling press-ups swimming cycling

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9B Fit and healthy

Food for fitness

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9B Good for you?

Figs are bad for you. They are


full of sugar and contain little
seeds which can get stuck in
Figs are good for you. They
your teeth. They are full of
contain lots of vitamins. The
calories and even make some
sugar in figs is all natural and
people need to go to the toilet!
they help food pass through
Avoid figs for a healthy diet!
your system. Figs are perfect
for a healthy diet!

Who do you think is right? Why?

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9B Healthy diet

Apples are a healthy food. Would


apples be healthy if they were all
you ever ate?

Are there foods so unhealthy


you should not eat them at all?
Why might someone avoid a
particular food?

A healthy diet contains a good mixture of different


nutrients. What are the seven types of nutrient?

Explain why a breast-feeding mother needs a different


diet from a housebound elderly man.

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9B Vitamins and minerals

We need vitamins and minerals for our bodies to be healthy.


Match each one below to the effect caused if it is missing
from the diet.

vitamin or mineral effect if missing


vitamin A unhealthy
night skin
blindness
vitamin B weak bones
unhealthy and teeth
skin
vitamin C night blindness
scurvy
iron anaemia
calcium scurvybones and teeth
weak

What foods provide these vitamins and minerals?

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9B Cooked to death?

What happens to vitamin C when you cook vegetables?


vegetable vitamin C score
raw

cooked at 60 C for 1 min

cooked at 60 C for 5 min

cooked at 60 C for 10 min

cooked at 100 C for 1 min

cooked at 100 C for 5 min


cooked at 100 C for 10 min

Which has more effect cooking time or temperature?


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9B Fit and healthy

Caring for your health

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9B How risky?

1 in 5 1 in 100
What is the chance of
1 in 600 000 1 in 900 000
these things happening? 1 in 120 526 770
chance of...

winning the lottery jackpot this week if 1 in 120 526 770


you buy one ticket
being killed in a car accident this year 1 in 600 000
getting cancer if you are a smoker 1 in 5
getting cancer if you are a non-smoker 1 in 100
being struck by lightning this year 1 in 900 000

So how risky is smoking?


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9B Smoking

What damage does cigarette smoke do to you?


cilia

mucus
carries dust and
microbes

Smoking kills cilia


dirtyyour
Cilia clean lungs!
lungs.
Chemicals that cause
cancer creep into your
In the alveoli, Your
Yourheart beats
heart beatsto
blood. Carbon
oxygen goes into push blood
faster andcarrying
your
monoxide stops your
your blood. oxygen
bloodaround your
pressure
blood carrying oxygen. body.
Tar coats your alveoli. rises heart havoc!

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9B Alcohol

Alcohol is a depressant.
What does this mean?
Alcohol slows down the activity in
your brain. It makes you feel
relaxed. It can make you dizzy or
even unconscious if you drink a lot.
Alcohol is addictive and some people end up
drinking too much, too often.
Too much alcohol damages the liver, causing cirrhosis.
It also causes brain damage.
What are the dangers of alcohol, apart from brain and
liver damage?
How can you avoid these dangers?

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9B Alcohol

How much alcohol is in these drinks?

1 unit 2 units 1 unit 2 units 1 unit 2 units

An adult man should drink no more than 21 units per week.


A woman should drink no more than 14 units per week.
How many small glasses of wine is that?

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9B Illegal drugs

Illegal drugs are harmful.


Thats why theyre illegal.
Why do people use illegal drugs?
Match the drug to the danger below.
drug danger
marijuana
steroids can make you sterile, moody and bad tempered

cocaine
marijuana causes smoking-related illnesses and memory loss, large
and heroin doses can cause mental illness
steroids
ecstasy nausea, overheating, dehydration, brain damage and death;
tablets may contain other poisons
ecstasy
cocaine the most dangerous illegal drugs every year many addicts
and heroin die

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9B Health quiz

1. Proteins are needed by the body for


a) growth and repair of tissues
b) a quick energy boost when you are tired
c) stopping you falling asleep in science lessons.

2. Overcooking vegetables can be bad for your health


because...
a) cooking allows poisons to build up in vegetables and
makes them all taste like Brussel sprouts
b) the heat destroys some of the vitamins
c) you will burn your mouth when you eat them.

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9B Health quiz

3. Exercise that raises your heart rate is good for you


because
a) it makes it easier to find your pulse
b) it strengthens the heart muscle
c) it cleans out the arteries as the blood is forced through
more quickly.
4. A doctor advised a very overweight patient not to go
jogging. Which would not be a good reason for her advice?
a) it could put a strain on your knees
b) you dont have a good sense of direction could get lost
c) it could put a strain on your heart.

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9B Health quiz

5. Is cannabis legal?
a) yes, provided you only have a small amount for your
own personal use
b) yes, provided you only smoke it in certain areas
c) no, cannabis is still illegal in the UK.

6. How much ecstasy can you take before you risk brain
damage and even death?
a) one tablet
b) one tablet every week
c) one tablet every month.

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