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Loren Brown
Senior Engineer/Developer
CADWorx & Analysis Solutions
Intergraph Process, Power, & Marine


Technical Support:
Primary Loads Force driven, cause
catastrophic failure.
Weight, Pressure, Point Loads, Uniform Loads,
Hanger Loads, Wind and Wave loads.
Secondary Loads Strain based, cause fatigue
Temperature, Displacements.
W (Weight), WNC (Weight No Contents)
WW (Water-filled Weight)
P (Pressure), HP (Hydrotest Pressure)
T (Temperature), D (Displacement)
H (Hanger Pre-loads), F (Concentrated Loads)
U (Uniform Loads)
Win (Wind), Wav (Wave and Current)
CS (Cut Short or Cut Long)
Available Stress Types in CAESAR II
OPE Operating
SUS Sustained
EXP Expansion
OCC Occasional
HYD Hydrotest
HGR Hanger Design
FAT - Fatigue
Load Case Definition
Operating case contains all loads in the
L1 = W+P1+T1+H (OPE) this is called a basic load case

Sustained Case contains only primary loads.

L2 = W+P1+H (SUS) another basic load case

Expansion Case is the difference between the

operating and sustained cases.
L3 = L1-L2 (EXP) this is called a combination load case
Combination Load Cases
Used to add or subtract results from
previously defined primitive load cases.
Necessary for proper EXP and OCC code stress
Not used for restraint or equipment load
definition, nor for displacement reporting.
Why subtract SUS from OPE?
Why not simply use L3 = T1 (EXP)?
Because the restraint configuration may result in
an incorrect solution.
Nonlinear restraints drive the restraint
Other loads in the system combine to change the
restraint configuration.
Nonlinear Restraints
Stiffness of Restraint changes depending on
position of pipe or forces on restraint.
Uni-directional Restraints (+Y)
Gaps in restraints
Large-rotation rods
Bi-linear Restraints
Force vs. Distance in Nonlinear
Example 1: T1 (EXP)
L3 = T1 (EXP)

This is how the line is modeled in The thermal forces have closed
Caesar II. The gaps are equal on the gap on the right side.
both sides of the pipe. No loads are
yet applied.

Total Displacement for T1 (EXP) = 1 x Gap

Example 2: L1 L2 (EXP)
L2 = W+P1 (SUS) L1 = W+P1+T1 (OPE)

Weight has caused the pipe to close Operating conditions have caused
the gap to the left. This can happen the pipe to close the gap to the
when the pipe pivots about a right, even against the weight force
different restraint. trying to hold it on the left.
Example 2 (cont)
If we subtract the displacements of the SUS
case from OPE we get:
Total Displacement for L1-L2 = 2 x Gap
In a linear system T1 (EXP) = L1 L2 (EXP)
In a nonlinear system this is not guaranteed.
This represents the effect of temperature in the
presence of other loads.
This is a displacement stress range, not starting
from the neutral position.
Occasional Load Cases
For most piping codes (not the offshore
Set up an OPE case that includes the occasional
Subtract the standard OPE case from the OPE that
includes the occasional load. We call this the
segregated occasional load case.
Add the above load case results to the SUS load
case results for the code stress check
Example 3: Occasional Load Cases
Assume we have a uniform load representing a
seismic load, U1.
L1 = W+P1+T1 (OPE) standard operating
L2 = W+P1 (SUS)
L3 = W+P1+T1+U1 (OPE) operating with occasional load
L4 = L1-L2 (EXP)
L5 = L3-L1 (OCC) segregated occasional
L6 = L2+L5 (OCC) * occasional code stress case

* use scalar combination method.

Combination Methods
Used for subtracting two load cases.
Takes the displacements from the referenced cases
and subtracts them.
Then computes forces, moments, and resultant stress
from these displacements.
Used for adding two load cases.
Adds the stresses from the two referenced load cases.
Unlike algebraic the stresses are not recomputed from
Notes on combination methods
Dont use algebraic for adding two load cases.
You cant take credit for occasional loads acting
opposite to operating loads.
Dont use scalar for subtracting two cases.
This results in a lower code stress than actual.
Output Types
Usually reported only for basic load cases
Usually reported only for basic load cases
Reported based on code requirements.
Example 4 Restraint Loads

The algebraic difference between these two conditions will result in a positive
force on the restraint. This is an impossible condition. But the EXP code stress is
correctly computed for this condition.
What to report
Suppress the HGR cases and the segregated
occasional load cases.
Report displacement, force for all primitive
load cases.
Dont report stress for the operating load
This is not true for offshore codes, nor FRP codes,
nor buried pipe codes.
Report only stress for combination load cases.
Using the Hot Modulus of Elasticity
It is required to use the cold modulus of
elasticity for stress computation.
You can reduce restraint loads by use of the
hot modulus of elasticity.
Create identical OPE cases, one with hot
modulus for restraint loads, and one with cold
modulus for use in the combination with SUS
for determining EXP stress.
Using the Friction Multiplier
Friction Multiplier acts on the Mu value
entered on each restraint in the model.
Input 0.0 for no friction and 1.0 for full
Create identical load cases, but change the
value of Friction Multiplier on one of them.
Compare the results in the Restraint Summary
and report the worst-case results.