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1.3 The positioning concept of automation.
1.3 The positioning concept of automation
Precision in Positioning
Three critical measures of precision in positioning:
1. Accuracy
2. Repeatability
3. Control resolution
4. Payload
1.3 The positioning concept of automation
"How close does the robot get to the desired point
This measures the distance between the specified position, and
the actual position of the robot end effector.
Accuracy is more important when performing off-line
programming, because absolute coordinates are used.
1.3 The positioning concept of automation
How close will the robot be to the same position as the same
move made before.
A measure of the error or variability when repeatedly reaching
for a single position.
This is the result of random errors only.
Repeatability is often smaller than accuracy.
1.3 The positioning concept of automation
Resolution is based on a limited number of points that the robot
can be commanded to reach for.
These are shown here as black dots.
1.3 The positioning concept of automation
Control Resolution (CR)

Defined as the distance between two adjacent control points in the axis
Control points are locations along the axis to which the worktable can
be directed to go Addressable Points

Linear Axis
Control Resolution = CR
1.3 The positioning concept of automation
Control Resolution (CR)
1.3 The positioning concept of automation
The payload is always specified as a maximum value, this can be
before failure, or more commonly, before serious performance loss.
Static considerations,
- gravity effects cause downward deflection of the arm and support
- drive gears and belts often have noticeable amounts of slack
(backlash) that cause positioning errors
- joint play (windup) - when long rotary members are used in a drive
system and twist under load
- thermal effects - temperature changes lead to dimensional changes
in the manipulator
Robot Accuracy and Repeatability

Three terms used to define precision in robotics, similar to numerical

control precision:
1. Control resolution - capability of robot's positioning system to divide the
motion range of each joint into closely spaced points
2. Accuracy - capability to position the robot's wrist at a desired location in
the work space, given the limits of the robot's control resolution
3. Repeatability - capability to position the wrist at a previously taught
point in the work space

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Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.