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Introduction to

CMOS VLSI
Design

CMOS Transistor Theory


Outline
Introduction
MOS Capacitor
nMOS I-V Characteristics
pMOS I-V Characteristics
Gate and Diffusion Capacitance
Pass Transistors
RC Delay Models

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 2
Introduction
So far, we have treated transistors as ideal switches
An ON transistor passes a finite amount of current
Depends on terminal voltages
Derive current-voltage (I-V) relationships
Transistor gate, source, drain all have capacitance
I = C (V/t) -> t = (C/I) V
Capacitance and current determine speed
Also explore what a degraded level really means

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 3
MOS Capacitor
Gate and body form MOS capacitor
Operating modes Vg < 0
polysilicon gate
silicon dioxide insulator
+
Accumulation - p-type body

Depletion (a)

Inversion 0 < Vg < Vt


depletion region
+
-

(b)

V g > Vt
inversion region
+
- depletion region

(c)

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 4
Terminal Voltages
Mode of operation depends on Vg, Vd, Vs Vg
+
Vgs = Vg Vs +
Vgs Vgd
Vgd = Vg Vd - -
Vs Vd
Vds = Vd Vs = Vgs - Vgd -
Vds +

Source and drain are symmetric diffusion terminals


By convention, source is terminal at lower voltage
Hence Vds 0
nMOS body is grounded. First assume source is 0 too.
Three regions of operation
Cutoff
Linear
Saturation

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 5
nMOS Cutoff
No channel
Ids = 0

Vgs = 0 Vgd
+ g +
- -
s d

n+ n+

p-type body
b

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 6
nMOS Linear
Channel forms
Current flows from d to s
V > Vt
e- from s to d Vgd = Vgs
gs
+ g +
- -
Ids increases with Vds s d
Vds = 0
n+ n+
Similar to linear resistor p-type body
b

Vgs > Vt
Vgs > Vgd > Vt
+ g +
- - Ids
s d
n+ n+
0 < Vds < Vgs-Vt
p-type body
b

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 7
nMOS Saturation
Channel pinches off
Ids independent of Vds
We say current saturates
Similar to current source

Vgs > Vt
g Vgd < Vt
+ +
- -
s d Ids

n+ n+
Vds > Vgs-Vt
p-type body
b

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 8
I-V Characteristics
In Linear region, Ids depends on
How much charge is in the channel?
How fast is the charge moving?

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 9
Channel Charge
MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor
while operating in inversion
Gate oxide channel
Qchannel =

gate
Vg
polysilicon + +
gate source Vgs Cg Vgd drain
W
Vs - - Vd
channel
tox n+ - + n+
SiO2 gate oxide
Vds
L
n+ n+ (good insulator, ox = 3.9) p-type body
p-type body

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 10
Channel Charge
MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor
while operating in inversion
Gate oxide channel
Qchannel = CV
C=

gate
Vg
polysilicon + +
gate source Vgs Cg Vgd drain
W
Vs - - Vd
channel
tox n+ - + n+
SiO2 gate oxide
Vds
L
n+ n+ (good insulator, ox = 3.9) p-type body
p-type body

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 11
Channel Charge
MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor
while operating in inversion
Gate oxide channel
Qchannel = CV
C = Cg = oxWL/tox = CoxWL Cox = ox / tox
V=
gate
Vg
polysilicon + +
gate source Vgs Cg Vgd drain
W
Vs - - Vd
channel
tox n+ - + n+
SiO2 gate oxide
Vds
L
n+ n+ (good insulator, ox = 3.9) p-type body
p-type body

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 12
Channel Charge
MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor
while operating in inversion
Gate oxide channel
Qchannel = CV
C = Cg = oxWL/tox = CoxWL Cox = ox / tox
V = Vgc Vt = (Vgs Vds/2) Vt
gate
Vg
polysilicon + +
gate source Vgs Cg Vgd drain
W
Vs - - Vd
channel
tox n+ - + n+
SiO2 gate oxide
Vds
L
n+ n+ (good insulator, ox = 3.9) p-type body
p-type body

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 13
Carrier velocity
Charge is carried by e-
Carrier velocity v proportional to lateral E-field
between source and drain
v=

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 14
Carrier velocity
Charge is carried by e-
Carrier velocity v proportional to lateral E-field
between source and drain
v = E called mobility
E=

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 15
Carrier velocity
Charge is carried by e-
Carrier velocity v proportional to lateral E-field
between source and drain
v = E called mobility
E = Vds/L
Time for carrier to cross channel:
t=

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 16
Carrier velocity
Charge is carried by e-
Carrier velocity v proportional to lateral E-field
between source and drain
v = E called mobility
E = Vds/L
Time for carrier to cross channel:
t=L/v

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 17
nMOS Linear I-V
Now we know
How much charge Qchannel is in the channel
How much time t each carrier takes to cross

I ds =

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 18
nMOS Linear I-V
Now we know
How much charge Qchannel is in the channel
How much time t each carrier takes to cross
Qchannel
I ds =
t
=

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 19
nMOS Linear I-V
Now we know
How much charge Qchannel is in the channel
How much time t each carrier takes to cross
Qchannel
I ds =
t
W Vds
= CoxVgs - Vt - Vds

L 2
Vds W
=b
V
gs - V - Vds b = Cox

t 2 L

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 20
nMOS Saturation I-V
If Vgd < Vt, channel pinches off near drain
When Vds > Vdsat = Vgs Vt
Now drain voltage no longer increases current

I ds =

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 21
nMOS Saturation I-V
If Vgd < Vt, channel pinches off near drain
When Vds > Vdsat = Vgs Vt
Now drain voltage no longer increases current

Vdsat
I ds = b
V
gs - V -
Vdsat


t 2

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 22
nMOS Saturation I-V
If Vgd < Vt, channel pinches off near drain
When Vds > Vdsat = Vgs Vt
Now drain voltage no longer increases current
Vdsat
I ds = b
V
gs - V -
Vdsat


t 2
b
= ( Vgs - Vt )
2

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 23
nMOS I-V Summary
Shockley 1st order transistor models


0 Vgs < Vt cutoff

Vds
I ds = b
Vgs - Vt - Vds Vds < Vdsat
linear
2

b
( Vgs - Vt )
2
Vds > Vdsat saturation
2

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 24
Example
Example: a 0.6 m process from AMI semiconductor
tox = 100
= 350 cm2/V*s 2.5
V =5 gs

Vt = 0.7 V 2

Plot Ids vs. Vds 1.5 Vgs = 4

Ids (mA)
Vgs = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1
Vgs = 3
Use W/L = 4/2 0.5
Vgs = 2
Vgs = 1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
W 10 -14
3.9 8.85 W W Vds
b = Cox = ( 350 )
= 120 A /V 2
L 100 10 -8 L
L

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 25
pMOS I-V
All dopings and voltages are inverted for pMOS
Mobility p is determined by holes
Typically 2-3x lower than that of electrons n
120 cm2/V*s in AMI 0.6 m process
Thus pMOS must be wider to provide same current
In this class, assume n / p = 2

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 26
Capacitance
Any two conductors separated by an insulator have
capacitance
Gate to channel capacitor is very important
Creates channel charge necessary for operation
Source and drain have capacitance to body
Across reverse-biased diodes
Called diffusion capacitance because it is
associated with source/drain diffusion

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 27
Gate Capacitance
Approximate channel as connected to source
Cgs = oxWL/tox = CoxWL = CpermicronW
Cpermicron is typically about 2 fF/m

polysilicon
gate
W
tox
L SiO2 gate oxide
n+ n+ (good insulator, ox = 3.90)
p-type body

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 28
Diffusion Capacitance
Csb, Cdb
Undesirable, called parasitic capacitance
Capacitance depends on area and perimeter
Use small diffusion nodes
Comparable to Cg
for contacted diff
Cg for uncontacted
Varies with process

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 29
Pass Transistors
We have assumed source is grounded
What if source > 0? VDD
e.g. pass transistor passing VDD VDD

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 30
Pass Transistors
We have assumed source is grounded
What if source > 0? VDD
e.g. pass transistor passing VDD VDD
Vg = VDD
If Vs > VDD-Vt, Vgs < Vt
Hence transistor would turn itself off
nMOS pass transistors pull no higher than VDD-Vtn
Called a degraded 1
Approach degraded value slowly (low Ids)
pMOS pass transistors pull no lower than Vtp
CMOS VLSI Design
MOS devices Slide 31
Pass Transistor Ckts

VDD VDD VDD


VDD VDD
VDD

VDD

VDD
VSS

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 32
Pass Transistor Ckts

VDD VDD VDD


VDD VDD
VDD
Vs = VDD-Vtn VDD-Vtn
VDD-Vtn VDD-Vtn

VDD
Vs = |Vtp| VDD-Vtn
VDD VDD-2Vtn
VSS

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 33
Effective Resistance
Shockley models have limited value
Not accurate enough for modern transistors
Too complicated for much hand analysis
Simplification: treat transistor as resistor
Replace Ids(Vds, Vgs) with effective resistance R
Ids = Vds/R
R averaged across switching of digital gate
Too inaccurate to predict current at any given time
But good enough to predict RC delay

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 34
RC Delay Model
Use equivalent circuits for MOS transistors
Ideal switch + capacitance and ON resistance
Unit nMOS has resistance R, capacitance C
Unit pMOS has resistance 2R, capacitance C
Capacitance proportional to width
Resistance inversely proportional to width
d
s
kC
kC
R/k
d 2R/k
d
g k g kC
g k g
s kC kC
kC s
s
d

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 35
RC Values
Capacitance
C = Cg = Cs = Cd = 2 fF/m of gate width
Values similar across many processes
Resistance
R 6 K*m in 0.6um process
Improves with shorter channel lengths
Unit transistors
May refer to minimum contacted device (4/2 )
Or maybe 1 m wide device
Doesnt matter as long as you are consistent
CMOS VLSI Design
MOS devices Slide 36
Inverter Delay Estimate
Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

2 Y 2
A
1 1

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 37
Inverter Delay Estimate
Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter
2C

2C
2C
2 Y 2
A Y
1 1
C
R C

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 38
Inverter Delay Estimate
Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter
2C

2C 2C
2C 2C
2 Y 2
A Y
1 1 R C
C
R C C

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 39
Inverter Delay Estimate
Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter
2C

2C 2C
2C 2C
2 Y 2
A Y
1 1 R C
C
R C C

d = 6RC

CMOS VLSI Design


MOS devices Slide 40