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Department Of Mechanical Engineering
Selection of V-belt & Pulleys.
Selection of flat belts & pulleys.
Wire ropes & pulleys
Selection of transmission chains & sprockets.
Design of pulleys & sprockets
Classification of drives.
Factors for power transmission.
Selection of belt drives.
Types of belt drives.
Material for belts.
Application of belts.
Flexible drive : + , -.
Centrifugal tension.
Flat belt pulleys.
Whenever the power has to be transmitted from
one shaft to another shaft, flexible elements
such as
Ropes or
Chains are frequently used.
In belt & ropes, power is transmitted due to
friction between them and the pulleys.
Distance large : belt, rope or chain.
Distance small : gears.
Classification of drives:


Flexible Drives Direct Drives

Belt Rope chain Gear drive Cam drive

Factors for power transmission:
The amount of power transmitted depends upon
the following factors :
1. The velocity of the belt.
2. The tension under which the belt is placed on
the pulleys.
3. The arc of contact between the belt and the
smaller pulley.
4. The conditions under which the belt is used.
Selection of a Belt Drive
1.Speed of the driving and driven shafts,
2. Speed reduction ratio,
3. Power to be transmitted,
4. Centre distance between the shafts,
5. Positive drive requirements,
6. Shafts layout,
7. Space available, and
8. Service conditions
Types of Belt Drives

1.Light drives. These are used to transmit small

powers at belt speeds upto about 10 m/s as in
agricultural machines and small machine tools.
2. Medium drives. These are used to transmit medium
powers at belt speeds over 10 m/s but up to 22 m/s,
as in machine tools.
3. Heavy drives. These are used to transmit large
powers at belt speeds above 22 m/s as in
compressors and generators.
Types of Belts
Flat belts.
Circular belts
Toothed belt of timing belts.

two pulleys two pulleys

two pulleys are are very are more
not more than 8 near to than 8
meters apart. each other. metes apart.
Flat belt
Flat belts are of rectangular cross section.
Used to transmit moderate amount of power.
Distance bn pulleys: < 8 m.
Application : factories/s, coir mills, flour mills,etc

are trapezoidal cross section.
more compact quiet & +ve drive.
Used to transmit moderate amount of power.
Distance : <1m.
Application : wet grinder , lathe, etc

Circular belt or rope

Ropes in circular cross section.
Use to transmit more power.
Dist bn pulleys : more than 8 m.
Application : factories/s.
Material for Belts
Leather belts.
Fabric & cotton belts.
Rubber belts.
Balata belts.
Nylon belt.
The flat belt drive The V-belt drive
Stone crushers for mining and ore extraction
Applications Pelton
Applications Pelton Turbine
Applications Pelton Turbine
Applications Centrifugal Pump
Applications Machine Tools
Applications Reciprocating Pump
Belts on a Yanmar 2GM20 marine diesel engine
Flat belt drive in an aircraft engine.
Flexible Drive - Advantages
1. Construction simple, Run quieter, Long

2. Low maintenance, Cost less.

3. Absorbs Shocks, Damping out effect of

vibration (long distance & elastic properties)
Flexible Drive - Limitations
1. Low velocity ratio

2. Velocity ratio not constant

3. Regular readjustment of center distance to

ensure initial tension
Types of Belt Drives

Open Belt Cross Belt *

* More power (larger angle of contact) but shorter life

(rapid wear )
Types of Belt Drives cont
Types of Belt Drives cont

Compound belt drive.

Types of Belt Drives cont

Fast and loose pulley drive.

Stepped or cone pulley drive.
Belt Drive Open Belt
1 2

In short
+ Plus
1. Transmit power at large distances
2. High speed Smooth Noiseless
3. Absorb shock and Vibration
4. Design simple & Inexpensive
5. Used in Dusty and corrosive atmosphere
In short
- Minus

1. Velocity ratio not constant

2. Requires Frequent Tensioning

3. Service life - Short

Centrifugal tension
belt continuously runs over the pulley, some
centrifugal force is caused, the effect is to increase
the tension on both
tight side as well as slack side. The tension
caused by the centrifugal force is called
centrifugal tension.
centrifugal tension = Tc = m v2
Velocity Ratio of belt drive
Ratio bn the velocities of the driver and driven

Velocity Ratio if thickness large

Effect of Slip on VR
Slip is defined as relative motion bn pulley & the belt.

1.Reduces VR

2.Power transmission capacity

Effect of Slip on VR
Length of Open Belt
Length of crossed Belt

Power Transmitted by a Belt

power transmitted P= (T1 T2) W
( 1 N-m/s = 1W)
T and T = Tensions in the tight side and slack side of the
1 2

belt respectively in newtons,

r and r = Radii of the driving and driven pulleys
1 2

respectively in metres,
and = Velocity of the belt in m/s.
Flat belt Pulleys
The pulleys are used to transmit power from one shaft to
another by means of flat belts,V-belts or ropes.
Since the velocity ratio is the inverse ratio of the
diameters of driving and driven pulleys, therefore the
pulley diameters should be carefully selected in order to
have a desired velocity ratio.
The pulleys may be made of cast iron, cast steel or
pressed steel, wood and paper.
Types of Pulleys for Flat Belts
1.Cast iron pulleys, 2. Steel pulleys, 3. Wooden
pulleys, 4. Paper pulleys, and 5. Fast and loose pulleys
Wooden Pulleys
cast iron pulleys

Split cast iron pulley.

Solid cast iron pulleys.

Problems based on
Design flat belt drive:
Using basic eq.
Design flat belt pulley :
Using basic eq.