Sie sind auf Seite 1von 35

Part 1

LIQUID
ROCKET
ENGINES

1
2
3
4
HYBRID PROPELLANTS

liquid propellant : oxidizer - solid propellant : fuel


(solid oxidizers are problematic and lower performing than liquid
oxidizers)

oxidizers : fuels :
gaseous or liquid oxygen polymers (e.g.polyethylene),
nitrous oxide. cross-linked rubber (e.g.HTPB),
liquefying fuels (e.g. paraffin).

Solid fuels (HTPB or paraffin) allow for the incorporation of high-


energy fuel additives (e.g.aluminium).

5
CHEMICAL REACTIONS
BIPROPELLANTS
Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) :
H2N N (CH3)2 (l)+ 2 N2O4 (l) - > 3 N2 (g) + 4 H2O (g) + 2 CO2 (g)
Hydrazine hydrate (N2H4,H2O) :
2 (N2H4,H2O) (l) + N2O4 (l) - > 3 N2 (g) + 6 H2O (g)
Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) :
4 H2N NHCH3 (l) + 5 N2O4 (l) - > 9 N2 (g) + 12 H2O (g) + 4 CO2 (g)
Kerosene (CH2 is the approximate formula ) with hydrogen peroxide :
CH2 + 3H2O2 CO2 + 4H2O
Kerosene and liquid oxygen (LOX)
CH2 + 1.5O2 CO2 + H2O
Hydrogen and oxygen (liquids) :
2 H2 (g)+ O2 (g) - > 2 H2O (g)
MONOPROPELLANTS
Hydrogen peroxyde (H2O2)
H2O2 (l) - > H2O (l) + 1/2 O2 (g)
Hydrazine (N2H4)
N2H4 (l) - > N2 (g) + 2 H2 (g)

6
Specific impulse of various propulsion
technologies

Engine type Specific


impulse
Jet engine 300 s
Solid rocket 250 s
Bipropellant 450 s
rocket
Ion thruster 3000 s
VASIMR 30000 s

7
PROPULSION BASICS
Pressure-fed cycle
Pros :
-Simplicity
-Low complexity

-Cons :
-Low performance

-Oldest and simplest cycle,


-Rarely used nowadays on
launch vehicles,
-Powered Frances Launch
vehicle family Diamant.

8
Gas-generator cycle

Pros :
-Higher presssures
-Lowerturbine temperatures
-Highest performance

-Cons :
-Moderate performance

-Most widely used cycle in


the western world,

9
Preburner cycle

Pros :
-Higher presssures
-Lowerturbine temperatures
-Highest performance

-Cons :
-High complexity

-Used on the Shuttle and the


H-2A main engine

10
Expander cycle

Pros :
-Thermally challenging
-Highest performance

-Cons :
-For cryogenic engines only
-Limited power therefore not
suited for high thrusts

-Oldest cryogenic engine in


service (RL-10)
-Used in Japan and Europe

11
Full flow staged combustion rocket cycle

Pros :
-Higher presssures
-Lowerturbine temperatures
-Highest performance

-Cons :
-Very high complexity

-Never flown,
-Demonstration only (IPD) so far

12
Hybrid rocket cycle

Pros : Cons :
- Higher performance than - Lower performance than
solids liquids
- Lower complexity than - Higher complexity than
liquids solids

13
Nuclear thermal rocket cycle

Pros :
-Highest performance

-Cons :
-Very high complexity
-Radiations

-Never flown,
-Demonstration only so far

14
NOZZLES

15
16
THRUST CHAMBER ASSEMBLY

GIMBAL
Chamber Characteristics:
INJECTOR
Combustion
High pressure COMBUSTION
High temperature CHAMBER
Very low net fluid velocity

Exit Characteristics:
Flow expands to fill enlarged volume
NOZZLE
Reduced pressure
EXTENSION
Reduced temperature
Very high fluid velocity

17
Thrust chamber cooling methods

18
Nozzle design challenges

Structural factors Structural concerns


Physical
Loads
Weight, Center of Gravity
Testing
Service Life
Altitude
Running time, Number of
Simulation or Sea
starts
Level
Duty Cycle/Operating
Range Sideloads
Continuous operation at Flight
one power level Lift off, shut down,
Throttled operation restart
Materials Sideloads
Compatibility Transportation
Strength, Temperature
Heat transfer capability

June 16, 1997 19


KEY REQUIREMENTS FOR SAFE NOZZLE OPERATION

Sea level :
- stable operation on ground
-high performance
Vacuum :
Bell nozzle
- high vacuum performance
- low package volume

Advanced concepts with altitude adaptation

Dual-bell nozzle

Extendible nozzle Plug nozzle (Aerospike)


20
Nozzle Types
Conical Nozzle
Simple cone shape - easy to fabricate
Rarely used on modern rockets
Bell Nozzle
Bell shape reduces divergence loss over a similar length conical
nozzle
Allows shorter nozzles to be used
Annular Nozzles (spike or pug)
Altitude compensating nozzle
Aerospike is a spike nozzle that uses a secondary gas bleed to fill
out the truncated portion of the spike nozzle

21
22
Nozzle extension cooling systems

Laser welded jacket to liner

Brazed tubes inside jacket

Brazed jacket to liner

Materials : stainless steel,


copper, nickel, copper/nickel

23
AEROSPIKE NOZZLES

Linear aerospike

Annular aerospike

24
VULCAIN 2

25
VULCAIN 1 TO VULCAIN 2 EVOLUTION

26
VULCAIN 2
Engine characteristics

Vulcain 1 Vulcain 2
Vacuum thrust 1140 kN 1350 kN

Mixture ratio 4,9 to 5,3 6,13

Vacuum specific 430 s 434 s


impulse
Dry weight 1680 kg 2040 kg

Chamber pressure 110 bar 116 bar

Expansion ratio 45 60

Design life 6000 s 5400 s


20 starts 20 starts

27
VULCAIN 2
Thrust chamber

28
TYPICAL SMALL ENGINES

MONOPROPELLANT BIPROPELLANT

Typical applications : Attitude control


Roll control
Soft landings (Moon, Mars, )

29
SPACESHIPONE HYBRID ENGINE

30
HYBRID ENGINE TEST FACILITY

31
Part 4

NUCLEAR
PROPULSION

32
INTEREST OF NUCLEAR THERMAL PROPULSION

Energy !

1 kg of fissionable material (U235) contains


10 000 000 times more energy, as 1 kg of chemical fuel.

Consequences :
-Higher specific impulse - higher useful load fraction

- No oxidizer required !

33
Nuclear - thermal propulsion

34
35