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Chapter 11

Properties of Solutions
Section 11.1
Solution Composition

Various Types of Solutions

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Section 11.1
Solution Composition

Solution Composition
moles of solute
Molarity (M ) =
liters of solution

mass of solute
Mass (weight) percent = 100%
mass of solution

moles A
Mole fraction ( A ) =
total moles of solution

moles of solute
Molality ( m ) =
kilogram of solvent
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Section 11.1
Solution Composition

Molarity

moles of solute
Molarity (M ) =
liters of solution

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Section 11.1
Solution Composition

EXERCISE!
You have 1.00 mol of sugar in 125.0 mL of
solution. Calculate the concentration in units of
molarity.

8.00 M

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Section 11.1
Solution Composition

EXERCISE!
You have a 10.0 M sugar solution. What volume
of this solution do you need to have 2.00 mol of
sugar?

0.200 L

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Section 11.1
Solution Composition

EXERCISE!

Consider separate solutions of NaOH and KCl


made by dissolving 100.0 g of each solute in 250.0
mL of solution. Calculate the concentration of
each solution in units of molarity.

10.0 M NaOH
5.37 M KCl

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Section 11.1
Solution Composition

Mass Percent

mass of solute
Mass (weight) percent = 100%
mass of solution

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Section 11.1
Solution Composition

EXERCISE!

What is the percent-by-mass concentration of


glucose in a solution made my dissolving 5.5 g of
glucose in 78.2 g of water?

6.6%

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Section 11.1
Solution Composition

Mole Fraction

molesA
Mole fraction ( A ) =
total moles of solution

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Section 11.1
Solution Composition

EXERCISE!

A solution of phosphoric acid was made by


dissolving 8.00 g of H3PO4 in 100.0 mL of water.
Calculate the mole fraction of H3PO4. (Assume
water has a density of 1.00 g/mL.)

0.0145

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Section 11.1
Solution Composition

Molality

moles of solute
Molality (m) =
kilogram of solvent

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Section 11.1
Solution Composition

EXERCISE!

A solution of phosphoric acid was made by


dissolving 8.00 g of H3PO4 in 100.0 mL of water.
Calculate the molality of the solution. (Assume
water has a density of 1.00 g/mL.)

0.816 m

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Section 11.2
The Energies of Solution Formation

Formation of a Liquid Solution


1. Separating the solute into its individual components
(expanding the solute).
2. Overcoming intermolecular forces in the solvent to
make room for the solute (expanding the solvent).
3. Allowing the solute and solvent to interact to form the
solution.

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Section 11.2
The Energies of Solution Formation

Steps in the Dissolving Process

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Section 11.2
The Energies of Solution Formation

Steps in the Dissolving Process


Steps 1 and 2 require energy, since forces must be
overcome to expand the solute and solvent.
Step 3 usually releases energy.
Steps 1 and 2 are endothermic, and step 3 is often
exothermic.

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Section 11.2
The Energies of Solution Formation

Enthalpy (Heat) of Solution


Enthalpy change associated with the formation of the
solution is the sum of the H values for the steps:
Hsoln = H1 + H2 + H3

Hsoln may have a positive sign (energy absorbed) or a


negative sign (energy released).

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Section 11.2
The Energies of Solution Formation

Enthalpy (Heat) of Solution

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Section 11.2
The Energies of Solution Formation

CONCEPT CHECK!

Explain why water and oil (a long chain hydrocarbon)


do not mix. In your explanation, be sure to address
how H plays a role.

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Section 11.2
The Energies of Solution Formation

The Energy Terms for Various Types of Solutes and Solvents


H1 H2 H3 Hsoln Outcome

Polar solute, polar solvent Large Large Large, negative Small Solution forms

Nonpolar solute, polar solvent Small Large Small Large, positive No solution
forms

Nonpolar solute, nonpolar Small Small Small Small Solution forms


solvent

Polar solute, nonpolar solvent Large Small Small Large, positive No solution
forms

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Section 11.2
The Energies of Solution Formation

In General
One factor that favors a process is an increase in
probability of the state when the solute and solvent are
mixed.
Processes that require large amounts of energy tend not
to occur.
Overall, remember that like dissolves like.

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Section 11.3
Factors Affecting Solubility

Structure Effects:
Polarity
Pressure Effects:
Henrys law
Temperature Effects:
Affecting aqueous solutions

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Section 11.3
Factors Affecting Solubility

Structure Effects
Hydrophobic (water fearing)
Non-polar substances
Hydrophilic (water loving)
Polar substances

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Section 11.3
Factors Affecting Solubility

Pressure Effects
Little effect on solubility of solids or liquids
Henrys law: C = kP
C = concentration of dissolved gas
k = constant
P = partial pressure of gas solute
above the solution
Amount of gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to
the pressure of the gas above the solution.

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Section 11.3
Factors Affecting Solubility

A Gaseous Solute

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Section 11.3
Factors Affecting Solubility

Temperature Effects (for Aqueous Solutions)


Although the solubility of most solids in water increases
with temperature, the solubilities of some substances
decrease with increasing temperature.
Predicting temperature dependence of solubility is very
difficult.
Solubility of a gas in solvent typically decreases with
increasing temperature.

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Section 11.3
Factors Affecting Solubility

The Solubilities
of Several Solids
as a Function of
Temperature

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Section 11.3
Factors Affecting Solubility

The Solubilities of
Several Gases in Water

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Section 11.4
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions

An Aqueous Solution and Pure Water in a Closed Environment

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Section 11.4
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions

Liquid/Vapor Equilibrium

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Section 11.4
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions

Vapor Pressure Lowering: Addition of a Solute

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Section 11.4
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions

Vapor Pressures of Solutions


Nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor pressure of a
solvent.
Raoults Law: Psoln = solv Psolv
Psoln = observed vapor pressure of solution
solv = mole fraction of solvent
Psolv = vapor pressure of pure solvent

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Section 11.4
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions

A Solution Obeying Raoults Law

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Section 11.4
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions

Nonideal Solutions
Liquid-liquid solutions where both components are
volatile.
Modified Raoults Law:

PTotal = APA + BPB

Nonideal solutions behave ideally as the mole fractions


approach 0 and 1.

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Section 11.4
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions

Vapor Pressure for a Solution of Two Volatile Liquids

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Section 11.4
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions

Summary of the Behavior of Various Types of Solutions


Deviation
Interactive Forces Between
T for Solution from
Solute (A) and Solvent (B) Hsoln Example
Formation Raoults
Particles
Law

None (ideal Benzene-


A A, B B A B Zero Zero
solution) toluene

Negative Acetone-
A A, B B < A B Positive Negative
(exothermic) water

Positive Ethanol-
A A, B B > A B Negative Positive
(endothermic) hexane

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Section 11.4
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions

CONCEPT CHECK!

For each of the following solutions, would you expect it


to be relatively ideal (with respect to Raoults Law),
show a positive deviation, or show a negative deviation?
a) Hexane (C6H14) and chloroform (CHCl3)
b) Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) and water
c) Hexane (C6H14) and octane (C8H18)

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
Colligative Properties
Depend only on the number, not on the identity, of the
solute particles in an ideal solution:
Boiling-point elevation
Freezing-point depression
Osmotic pressure

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
Boiling-Point Elevation
Nonvolatile solute elevates the boiling point of the
solvent.
T = Kbmsolute
T = boiling-point elevation
Kb = molal boiling-point elevation constant
msolute = molality of solute

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
Boiling Point Elevation: Liquid/Vapor Equilibrium

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
Boiling Point Elevation: Addition of a Solute

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
Boiling Point Elevation: Solution/Vapor Equilibrium

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
Freezing-Point Depression
When a solute is dissolved in a solvent, the freezing
point of the solution is lower than that of the pure
solvent.
T = Kfmsolute
T = freezing-point depression
Kf = molal freezing-point depression constant
msolute = molality of solute

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
Freezing Point Depression: Solid/Liquid Equilibrium

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
Freezing Point Depression: Addition of a Solute

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
Freezing Point Depression: Solid/Solution Equilibrium

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
Changes in Boiling Point and Freezing Point of Water

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
EXERCISE!

A solution was prepared by dissolving 25.00 g of


glucose in 200.0 g water. The molar mass of
glucose is 180.16 g/mol. What is the boiling point
of the resulting solution (in C)? Glucose is a
molecular solid that is present as individual
molecules in solution.

100.35 C

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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
EXERCISE!

You take 20.0 g of a sucrose (C12H22O11) and NaCl


mixture and dissolve it in 1.0 L of water. The freezing
point of this solution is found to be -0.426C.
Assuming ideal behavior, calculate the mass percent
composition of the original mixture, and the mole
fraction of sucrose in the original mixture.

72.8% sucrose and 27.2% sodium chloride;


mole fraction of the sucrose is 0.313
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Section 11.5
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression
EXERCISE!

A plant cell has a natural concentration of


0.25 m. You immerse it in an aqueous solution with a
freezing point of 0.246C. Will the
cell explode, shrivel, or do nothing?

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Section 11.6
Osmotic Pressure

Osmosis flow of solvent into the solution through a


semipermeable membrane.
= MRT
= osmotic pressure (atm)
M = molarity of the solution
R = gas law constant
T = temperature (Kelvin)

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Section 11.6
Osmotic Pressure

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Section 11.6
Osmotic Pressure

Osmosis

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Section 11.6
Osmotic Pressure

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Section 11.6
Osmotic Pressure

EXERCISE!

When 33.4 mg of a compound is dissolved in


10.0 mL of water at 25C, the solution has an
osmotic pressure of 558 torr. Calculate the
molar mass of this compound.

111 g/mol

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Section 11.7
Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

vant Hoff Factor, i


The relationship between the moles of solute dissolved
and the moles of particles in solution is usually
expressed as:
moles of particles in solution
i =
moles of solute dissolved

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Section 11.7
Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

Ion Pairing
At a given instant a small percentage of the sodium and
chloride ions are paired and thus count as a single
particle.

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Section 11.7
Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

Examples
The expected value for i can be determined for a salt by
noting the number of ions per formula unit (assuming
complete dissociation and that ion pairing does not
occur).
NaCl i=2
KNO3 i=2
Na3PO4 i=4

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Section 11.7
Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

Ion Pairing
Ion pairing is most important in concentrated solutions.
As the solution becomes more dilute, the ions are
farther apart and less ion pairing occurs.
Ion pairing occurs to some extent in all electrolyte
solutions.
Ion pairing is most important for highly charged ions.

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Section 11.7
Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

Modified Equations

T = imK

= iMRT

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Section 11.8
Colloids

A suspension of tiny particles in some medium.


Tyndall effect scattering of light by particles.
Suspended particles are single large molecules or
aggregates of molecules or ions ranging in size from 1 to
1000 nm.

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Section 11.8
Colloids

Types of Colloids

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Section 11.8
Colloids

Coagulation
Destruction of a colloid.
Usually accomplished either by heating or by adding an
electrolyte.

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