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Describe how valuable individual, group, and organizational

knowledge is captured, created, codified, shared, accessed, applied,
and reused throughout the knowledge management cycle.
Compare and contrast major KM life-cycle models, including the
Zack, Bukowitz and Williams, McElroy, and Wiig life-cycle models.
Define the key steps in each process of the KM cycle and provide
concrete examples of each.
Identify the major challenges and benefits of each phase of the KM
Describe how the integrated KM cycle combines the advantages of
other KM life-cycle models.
Effective knowledge management requires an
organization to:
Identify the benefits of
knowledge that
provide a strategic
Acquire advantage to that

True knowledge asset

Artificial Intelligence System

KM processes aims at identifying and locating
knowledge and knowledge sources within the

Valuable knowledge to facilitate more

translated into explicit form
codification of knowledge dissemination
The Zack KM Cycle
The Zack KM cycle is derived from work on the
design and development of information
products (Meyer and Zack, 1996).
Research and knowledge about the design
of physical products can be extended into
the intellectual realm to serve as the basis
for a knowledge management cycle.
Meyer and Zack
issues of raw materials
scope, breadth, depth, credibility, accuracy,
timelines, relevance, cost, control and exclusivity
garbage in, garbage out
data has to be in highest quality
primary source of added value
physical refinement
moving between mediums
logical refinement
restructuring, (re)labeling, indexing and integrating
cleaning up / sanitizing content

bridge from acquisition and refinement to
product generation
folders, printed information
knowledge management software

Storage and Retrieval

how information is delivered to end users
fax, print, email, publication on a web page
timing, frequency, form, language,...

context plays important role
users have to have enough context to be able
to make use of a content

Bukowitz and Williams (2000) describe a knowledge management process
framework that outlines how organizations generate, maintain and
deploy a strategically correct stock of knowledge to create value .


In this framework, knowledge consists of :
knowledge repositories
information technologies
communications infrastructure
functional skill sets
process know-how
environmental responsiveness
organizational intelligence, and
external sources.
seek out needed how to combine
information information
for decision making, problem in new and interesting ways
solving or innovation to foster organizational
think of information innovation
overload focus on individuals and
user needs must be well then on groups
know where knowledge
resources exist
Learn Contribute
learning from experiences getting employees to post
means of creating what they have learned
competitive advantage making knowledge visible
creation of organizational and available
memory sharing
best practices and lessons
transition between
application and
Assess Build/Sustain
evaluation of intellectual allocation of resources
capital to growth and maintenance
definition of mission-critical of knowledge
knowledge creation of new knowledge
map of current intellectual reinforcement of existing
capital knowledge
against future knowledge
requirements for new set of
identification of obsolete
knowledge that gives no
value any further
examination of resources
to maintain knowledge
redeploying, outsourcing
or terminating

Knowledge is held...
Knowledge use
in business-processing environment

matched expectations
reinforcement of existing knowledge
leads to reuse
double-loop learning
failed to match expectations
adjustments in business processing behavior
single-loop learning
Knowledge Production Process
Knowledge Integration
introduction of new knowledge claims
to organizations operating environment
retirement of old knowledge claims
Validation of knowledge is a step that clearly
distinguishes knowledge management from
document management.

The KM cycle focuses on processes to identify

knowledge content that is of value to the
organization and its employees.

organization must have ...
Wiig Conditions
business and customers
products and services

people, capital and facilities

ability to act
There are four major steps in this cycle
Building knowledge.

Holding knowledge.

Pooling knowledge.

Applying knowledge.
Building Knowledge
Obtain knowledge.

Analyze knowledge.

Reconstruct/synthesize knowledge.

Codify and model knowledge.

Organize knowledge.
Knowledge analysis consists of:
Extracting what appears to be knowledge from obtained material
(e.g., analyze transcripts and identify themes, listen to an
explanation, and select concepts for further consideration).
Abstracting extracted materials (e.g., form a model or a theory).
Identifying patterns extracted (e.g., trend analysis).
Explaining relations between knowledge fragments (e.g., compare
and contrast,
causal relations).
Verifying that extracted materials correspond to the meaning of
original sources (e.g., meaning has not been corrupted through
summarizing, collating, and so on).
Reconstruct/synthesize knowledge
Consists of generalizing analyzed material to
broader principles
generating hypotheses to explain observations
establishing conformance between new and existing
knowledge (e.g., collaborating validity in light of what
is already known), and
updating the total knowledge pool by incorporating
the new knowledge.
Codifying and modeling knowledge involves:
how we represent knowledge in our minds
(mental models, for example),
how we then assemble the knowledge into a
coherent model,
how we document the knowledge in books and
manuals, and
how we encode it in order to post it to a
knowledge repository.
Knowledge is organized for specific uses and
according to an established organizational
framework (such as standards and categories).
Examples: include a help desk service or a list
of frequently asked questions (FAQs) on the
company intranet.
Holding Knowledge Remembering
knowledge has been internalized or
knowledge has been encoded and
stored in a knowledge base
knowledge becomes part of procedure
creating a library, systematically retiring
out-of-date or not relevant
Pooling Knowledge coordination
of formation of collaborative teams
who knows what network
into background references

access and
retrieval be able to consult with knowledgeable
people or knowledge base
Applying Knowledge
Use established knowledge to perform a routine
for example, make standard products, provide a
standard service, or use the expert network to find
out who is knowledgeable about a particular area
Use general knowledge to survey exceptional
situations at hand
for example, determine what the problem is and
estimate potential consequences
The three major stages
A major international consulting organization wanted to capture lessons learned
from its major projects. This represented a first step toward becoming a learning
organization. From a scan of what similar companies were doing, their competitive
intelligence led them to select the implementation of an after-action review (AAR)
in the form of a project postmortem.
The AAR was a new procedure, and it was initially piloted with a group of
experienced consultants. Project managers who became experienced with the
postmortem were subsequently asked to become resource people for those willing
to learn and try it out. A new role of knowledge journalist was created; the idea
was to appoint a neutral, objective person who had not been a member of the
original project team to facilitate the postmortem process and capture the key
learning from the project. Finally, the postmortem was added as a final step for all
project managers before they could officially and formally deem a project to be
Knowledge represents the decisive basis for intelligent, competent behavior
at the individual, group, and organization level. Only a conscious and
organized reflection of lessons learned and best practices discovered will
allow companies to leverage their hard-won knowledge assets.
A knowledge architecture needs to be designed and implemented in order
to enable the staged processing and transformation of knowledge, much like
information products are processed, and to ensure that the knowledge
objects reach intended end users and are put to good use. The objective is to
retain and share knowledge with a wider audience. Information and
communication technologies such as groupware, intranets, and knowledge
bases or repositories provide the necessary infrastructure to do so.
Business processes and cultural enablers offer the necessary incentives and
opportunities for all knowledge workers to become active participants
throughout the knowledge management cycle.
There are a number of different approaches to the knowledge
management cycle such as those by McElroy, Wiig, Bukowitz and Willams,
and Meyer and Zack.
By comparing and contrasting these approaches and by validating them
through experience gained to date with KM practice, the major stages are
identified as knowledge capture and creation, knowledge sharing and
dissemination, and knowledge acquisition and application.
The critical processes throughout the KM cycle assess the worth of
content based on organizational goals, contextualize content in order to
better match with a variety of users, and continuously update with a focus
on updating, archiving as required, and modifying the scope of each
knowledge object.
Provide an example of how each major KM cycle stage
listed below can add value to knowledge and increase
the strategic worth of the knowledge asset:
a. Capture
b. Codify
c. Create
d. Share
e. Acquire
f. Apply
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