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Enhancing Oil & Gas Production with

Surface Jet Pump (SJP) and Compact


Separator Systems

Sacha Sarshar, Caltec Limited


www.caltec.com
Caltec brings simple passive technology that enables oil and gas
operators to harness the kinetic energy of the production process
to enhance their production, extending economic field life and
reducing environmental
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Caltec production enhancement solutions

SJP Based Production Enhancement systems:

Various applications shown in the next slide

Compact Separation systems:


Caltec
CaltecSolutions
Solutions

Phase splitting including gas - liquid separation


Sand separation
Bulk oil - water separation
Compact multiphase well testing, using conventional meters
Mitigating riser generated slugging
Use in underbalanced drilling (UBD) and MPD

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Surface Jet Pump Applications

Boost production from LP wells

Prevent flaring VLP gas


Lower separator pressure to increase oil/gas production

Eliminate intermediate compressors

De-bottleneck compressors

Lower pipeline pressure in manifolded systems

Well de-liquification/ well revival

Prevent HP wells imposing back pressure on LP wells

Assisting artificially lifted wells

Pipeline liquid build up reduction

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Caltecs Surface Jet Pump (SJP)
(Otherwise known as an Eductor or Ejector or Velocity Spool)

HP sources:
HP wells
HP gas from process system
Compressor re-cycled gas
HP oil / water (injection water)

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Surface Jet Pump Internal Flow Dynamics
Nozzle Mixing tube Diffuser

Discharge
HP

LP
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

HP Flow
LP Flow
Velocity

Combined Flow
Pressure

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Surface Jet Pump Typical Performance
5
Key Factors:
HP/LP pressure ratio
4.5
LP/HP flow ratio
Discharge / LP pressure ratio
4
Other Factors :
Temperature,
Discharge to LP Pressure Ratio

3.5
Z factor, Cp/ Cv ratio
Molecular Weight
3
HP:LP Pressure Ratio
2 3
2.5 5 7
10 15
20
2

1.5

1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

LP to HP Mass Flow Ratio

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SJP Performance - Liquid driving Gas
Maximum discharge pressure when using HP water to boost 1 MMscfd of LP gas at 1 barg
60
Discharge pressure (barg)

50

40

30

20
HP = water at 70 barg
10
HP = water at 140 barg
0
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000
Water flow rate (bbl/d)

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Typical nozzle performance curve

Surface Jet Pump HP Base Case Nozzle Performance


100

90

HP Nozzle Design conditions


Inlet HP Pressure (barg)

Pressure = 75 barg
80 Flowrate = 65.2 MMscfd

Operating point
3

Operating point
70 1

Operating point
60 2

50
50 55 60 65 70 75 80
Inlet HP Gas Flowrate (MMscfd)

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Surface Jet Pump Performance Curves
Surface Jet Pump Performance
LP pressures vs. LP intake flowrates at three HP pressures
12

11
urface Jet Pump Required Discharge Pressure = 11.5 barg
10

9
Inlet LP pressure (barg)

8
Maximum flow through
SJP before choking
7
S
6 Operating curve 2

5
SJP Pump design point :
4 Operating curve 1
HP = 65.2 MMscfd @ 75barg
LP = 25.5 MMscfd @ 4 barg
3 Discharge = 11.5 barg
Operating curve 3

2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Inlet LP flowrate (MMscfd)

HP=65.2 MMscfd @ 75barg HP=57 MMscfd @ 65barg HP=70 MMscfd @ 80barg

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Avoid LP wells` Back-Out
UKCS - Offshore

Issue
New HP wells would have backed-out LP
wells by increasing pipeline pressure

High pressure gas from the well powered


the SJP enabled to reduce back pressure
on low pressure wells
Benefits
Backpressure on LP wells reduced by 5
MP WELLS
bar giving extra 22 mmscfd of gas
(production increased by 110% ) PROCESS
Better use of available energy with
HP WELLS
minimum modification to the existing
piping
Increased the producing life and stability LP WELLS
of LP wells
Delivered combined flow at the required
higher downstream pressure

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Production Boosting & Avoiding Re-Wheeling
UKCS - Offshore
Issue
Near-by low pressure satellite wells liquid
loaded & could not produce against the
existing pipeline back pressure

Used SJP to draw in low pressure satellite


wells (15km subsea tie-back)
Used available re-cycled HP gas at 1000
psig
Benefits
Recovered extra 68 mmscfd of gas from
LP wells (increase of 25%)
Stabilised and unloaded liquid from LP
wells
SJP tolerant to liquid slugs
Increased intake capacity of compressor

Award-winning solution www.caltec.com


Compressor De-bottlenecking

Indonesia - Offshore
Issue
1st stage compressor bottlenecked,
restricting production
Client option to purchase new or re-
wheel compressor

Spare capacity (recycle) in 2nd stage


compressor used as motive gas for
SJP
LP wells
Boost of LP gas from 110 psig to 280 PIPELINES
psig LP wells

Benefits 1ST 2ND


LP wells
De-bottlenecked compressor
Deferred capital investment in
compressor 2 SJPs
IN PARALLEL
Incremental production from backed-
out wells

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Compressor Replacement and Prolonging
Field Life
SJP
UK - Onshore
Issue LP WELLS

Operational costs with compressor and fuel LP

gas consumption
MP WELLS EXPORT

Removed 1st stage compressor by utilising LP HP

available energy from recycled gas from HP


export compressor
Boost of 19 mmscfd gas from 25 psig to 70 psig Replace this
With this
Benefits
Saved 2 mmscfd fuel gas by removing LP
compressor
Made use of available recycle gas
Saving a compressor for use elsewhere
Entire field being drawn in by SJP

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Production Boosting and Reviving LP wells

Malaysia - Offshore
Issue
Multiple wells shut-in

Using HP gas from compressor to


power the surface jet pump enabled
production of 16 Idle wells
Boost of ~25 mmscfd gas from 40 barg
to 50 barg
Benefits
Increased production by 15 mmscfd HP
SJP
PROCESS

Additional connection to test 16 shut-in wells


separator enabled liquid unloading at
low pressures
Increased the producing life and
stability of the LP wells

TEST SEPARATOR

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Well Deliquification / Revival
Gulf of Mexico - Offshore
Issue
Subsea wells 50 km away from platform
and in 1000m depth shut-in and liquid
loaded

HP gas from the existing compressor on


recycle used to power the Surface Jet Pump
Benefits
Lowered arrival pressure at the platform by GAS SJP
EXPORT
200 psi
Reduction in liquids accumulated in the
pipeline, causing a further 140 psi drop at
the Subsea wellheads Compressor

Removed the need for pipeline pigging 50 Km Long


SLUG CATCHER
Recovered 3 BSCF of otherwise lost
SUBSEA
reserves in the first year MANIFOLD 1000 m depth LIQUID PRODUCTION

Extended well production life

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Production Separator Pressure Reducing with HP Well

Issue

Increase oil production by lowering


production separator pressure.

Surface jet pump with HP gas from a


satellite platform to reduce the operating
pressure of the separator to increase oil
production from platform A.

Benefits
Good use of available wasted energy
Lowered separator pressure by 105 psi.
Extra oil production of 400 bbl/d was
achieved with additional associated gas

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Reviving Backed Out Wells ,with
Production Gains
Europe Onshore

Issue
LP wells backed out by the manifold
pressure

Using high pressure gas from the HP


well to power the Caltec SJP enabled
production from the backed-out LP
well
Benefits
Shut-in LP well was back in production,
producing 140,000 Nm3/d gas, using
energy from a HP well
Pressure boost of 130% achieved
The total production is going directly
to HP compression section, thus
allowing the LP compressor to be
switched off
Additional saving on the fuel gas of the
LP compressor

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Two SJPs in Series for Sustaining Wells

Solution after HP well pressure declined

Initial solution

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Vent Gas Recovery

Mexico - Onshore
Issues
Gas venting from crude storage tank
Environmental emissions
Safety risk from electrical storms

Used SJP to capture vent gas


LP capacity of 0.3 mmscfd
HP gas at 62 barg from near-by
compressor used
Recycle to maintain tank pressure
Discharged into inlet rectifier
Benefits
No further emissions
Made use of available recycled gas

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Flare Gas Recovery
Nigeria
Issues
Aim was to recover flare gas since
there is no on site compressor
available.

Using high pressure spare oil pump as


the motive source for the jet pump to
draw in the low pressure flare gas

Benefits
Flare gas pressure is boosted by 4 bar.
No flaring
Recovered 0.7 MMscfd of flare gas
Use existing spare oil and water
pumps.
The total production delivered at the
separator inlet pressure.
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Multiphase Boosting
Malaysia - FPSO
Issue
Shut-in LP wells

Multiphase HP wells used to reduce back-


pressure via SJP
Benefits
Used energy otherwise lost in choke from HP
well
20% pressure boost for LP wells
Increased production by over 35%
(150 bpd)
Improved flow regime in well bore,
stabilising production

140psi

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Multiphase Boosting System( WELLCOM System )

Issue

Reducing back pressure on the LP oil wells to


increase production using existing HP water
and oil pumps.

Using high pressure oil and water pumps as


the motive source for the Wellcom
multiphase system the backpressure on the
low pressures oil wells was reduced.

Benefits
Up to 11 bar backpressure reduction was
achieved on the LP wells.
Net extra oil gain of 550 bbl/d with additional
2.5 MMscfd of gas was achieved.
The total production was delivered at the
export pipeline pressure of 55 barg.

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Extra Production gain with SJP System
and Gas lift
High Pressure (HP) source SJP/ Wellcom
[Gas or liquid] System

Gaslift injection Wellhead To


system downstream
Well production process
Surface

Production
Additional
via Tubing
production
Wellcom system &
Gaslift injection

Produced Oil Flowrate


Well

Lift gas
Gaslift injection

Gaslift Injection Flowrate

Pay zone Pay zone


Wellbore

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Multiphase Boosting Using Part of Gaslift as
the HP Source
Gas SJP Commingler
Issue Gas Compressor
HP Gas

MP wells not producing due to back pressure LP Gas


To
LP Liquid
imposed on subsea export line export
Pipelines
LP Wells LP
Separation
System
Used some of the available high pressure lift gas
as the motive gas for the SJP

Benefits
Backpressure reduction of 8 barg was achieved
Production increased by 24% and 34%
respectively
Net extra oil gain of 700 bbl/d with additional 2.5
MMscfd of gas was achieved
Low power consumption compared to alternative
solutions such as MPH pumps

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Prevent New HP Well Backing-out Production
from LP Wells & LP Well Revival

To Vent System (High


Point) To Pressure
TT PT TT PT Relief Line
Gas SJP

Sand Trap Production Cooler


Connection 14 Sub Sea Line to CPP
PT To Drain
HP Well (Low Point)
TT To Vent System (High
PT Point)

Well Revival SJP PT


Alternative use of
booster pump
PT To Drain
(Low
TT Point)

Test
Header Commingler

M
LP Wells Test Cooler
Test
Separator
M
Production
M
Header

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Subsea SJP Application for Production Boosting

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Surface Jet Pump solutions
Discharge Side
Low Pressure Side

Material of construction;
High Pressure Side - Carbon steel to various grades of
duplex
- dictated by fluids compositions
and compatibility with
interconnecting pipework
Nozzle

Replaceable
Diffuser
Mixing tube / Diffuser

Removable
Nozzle

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In-line Acoustic Silencers

Flow

Silencers needed for the LP and discharge lines to reduce noise at 1m from the SJP
Below 80 dBA

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SJPs Typical Instrumentation & Controls

HP Gas P T P T
SJP Discharge Flow

Discharge
Silencer

P T LP Silencer

Gas A
Gas HP MP
HP MP
LP B
LP
C

Gas PT
Gas PT
Separator

Liquid

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Caltec Commingler Technology

Combining two flow streams in a passive and stream line way

Caltec
Commingling
Solutions

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How to Identify SJP Applications Locations
At the wellhead
At the manifold
At the transportation line
At pipes connections ( e.g. Tee)
At the by-pass line
Upstream, inlet of a separator
Downstream, at the outlets of a
separator (production/Test)
Upstream of compressor suction line
From the re-cycle line of compressor
Downstream of compressor
Between compressor stages
- SJP Application Locations
Upstream of a pump
Location in most cases dictated by the
site conditions

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How to Identify SJP Applications (1 / 2)
1
HP
Well

LP
Well
s

HP Well
2

LP
Well
s

HP 3
Well

LP
Wells

HP Well

LP
Well
s

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How to Identify SJP Applications (2 / 2)
HP Well

5
LP
Wells

HP Well

6
LP
Wells

HP Well
7

LP
Wells

8
HP Well

LP
Wells

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Re-Cap on SJP design and applications

Passive system
Utilises energy otherwise wasted
Designed to international codes and standards
Low weight
Minimal footprint /Can be installed in various orientations
No moving parts, hence near zero maintenance
Low CAPEX, very low to no OPEX
Minimal control and instrumentation
Easy and quick to install
Low risk
Short payback period
Robust in handling liquid slugs
Can be easily modified if operation conditions change
No operator is needed

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Compact Cyclonic Separation Caltecs I-SEP
Technology inspired by nature

Light
Outlet

Heavy
Inlet Outlet

High g forces are generated from the inlet flow streams


momentum by accelerating the flow through an involute to
achieve rapid:
Coalescence of droplets
Phase separation

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I-SEP Compact Separator Applications
Gas-liquid separation

Knock-out liquid from wet gas

Solid (sand) separation

De- bottleneck gravity separators

Bulk oil-water separation

Multiphase metering/ test separator

Well clean-out / well testing

Underbalanced drilling (UBD)/MPD

De-gassing liquids

Riser generated Slug management


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I-SEP vs Hydrocyclones
GAS
GAS

GAS+LIQUID
LIQUID

GAS+LIQUID GAS outlet

GAS outlet INLET

LIQUID outlet LIQUID

INLET

LIQUID outlet

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Multiphase Boosting
Malaysia - FPSO
Issue
Shut-in LP wells

Multiphase HP wells used to reduce back-


pressure via SJP
Benefits
Used energy otherwise lost in choke from HP
well
20% pressure boost for LP wells
Increased production by over 35%
(150 bpd)
Improved flow regime in well bore, stabilising
production
I-SEP

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Well Test/Multiphase Metering

Multiphase well testing, using conventional


meters
Separated flows can be recombined on the
skid
Low pressure drop (typically 1 bar)
Compact size with low weight and small
footprint. Highly mobile
Can be designed for high pressure applications
Can convert into a multiphase production
boosting or well revival system with Caltecs
patented Wellcom SJP technology

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I-SEP System in UBD Operation

Issue
Conventional UBD physically large units
Loosing Tungsten Carbide Chokes every 4 hours
Large gas pressure drops

Caltec supplied 2 vertical I-SEP/HI-SEP, rated to


WHSIP (10,000 Psig) for

Benefits

Removal of gas from drilling mud and cuttings


without incurring significant pressure drop
(only 2 bar)

Operates upstream of the choke system

Max. gas handled 105 MMscfd

Max. mud rate 300 to 500 GPM

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Debottlenecking 1st Stage Production Separator
Issue
Restricted production due to production separator TT PT (Optional)
PT Eductor
I-SEP / Gas
being bottle-necked HI-SEP-1 M Scrubber LT
PT To Flare
LT
(Optional) PT

Gas
M 1
Scrubber LT
0
Using CALTECs patented I-SEP technology, a 1st Stage
LT
vertical separator was supplied taking part of the Separator

incoming production and sending it to 2nd stage


separator. Due to space limitation, conventional 2nd Stage LT
Separator
separator could not be installed Commingler

PT

Benefits
Pump Dedicated to I-
Smaller size and foot print compared to SEP System

alternative solutions
Debottlenecking existing 1st stage production
separator, hence increase separation quality
Increased total throughput of the production site
Ability to withstand slug flow type flow conditions
Handling 20000 bbl/d of liquid with 17 MMscfd of
gas

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I-SEP System in Severe Slugging Mitigation
Inlet

Liquid
Outlet Gas Outlet

0.5 No ISEP
Mitigation 2.5
CV
2.45
0.4 Choke
slugging Valve
2.4
2.35
0.3 I-SEP Riser base
Liquid 2.3
velocity pressure
2.25
0.2
(m/s) [bara]2.2
No slugging 2.15
0.1 2.1
2.05
0.0 2
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
Gas velocity (m/s) Time [t]

Flow regime map comparing I-SEP to CV and no mitigation. SS Time series data comparison of I-SEP to CV during a 3 hours
region to the left of each respective boundary. period.

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Oil-Water Separation Wx Technology

1 2 3

Samples obtained:
1) Fluid from Final Polishing Unit
2) Wx water outlet sample
3) Wx oil outlet sample

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De-Gassing Liquids using I-SEP

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I-SEP in Sand Separation Duty

Slurry Inlet I-SEP

Light Phase Heavy Phase


Outlet Outlet

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Re-Cap on I-SEP Compact Separator

Compact separator I-SEP/HI-SEP offers many benefits compared to


gravity separators;
It is now a proven product onshore and offshore
It could replace/ debottleneck existing separators & test separators
Wx is unique for bulk oil water separation
It can help debottleneck existing separators/Multiphase Pumps
Its operation is simple. I-SEP does not need active pressure or level control
Passively mitigates riser generated slugs
Can be designed for high pressure rating
Modular design
Suitable for Subsea applications

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Thank you
Questions welcome