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1) Description of overall process based on
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Announcement
Test 2 (adsorption, pressure drop and
flooding)
27/12/2016

Quiz 2 (Extraction):
29/12/2016 (Thursday)
CHAPTER 7
LIQUID-LIQUID
EXTRACTION
EXTRACTION

Removal of one or more components (solutes) from solids or liquids


using liquid solvent
LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION/SOLVENT EXTRACTION
Separation of two miscible liquids using another liquid (solvent)
Eg. Vitamin A and D (solute) from fish oil (inert liquid) using liquid
propene (solvent)

SOLID-LIQUID EXTRACTION/LEACHING
Separation of solutes from solid using liquid solvent
Eg. Soya milk (solute) from soya bean (inert solid) using water (liquid
solvent)
LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION

takes advantage of the relative solubilities of solutes in immiscible or


nearly immiscible liquids

solute dissolves more readily in the solvent in which it has a higher solubility

Distribution Coefficient, K, determines the ratio of the concentration of the


solute in each liquid.

Separation by distillation is ineffective or difficult

Boiling points of mixtures are close

Flexibility in operation conditions choice is desired


More than two components are present

The material is heat sensitive


EQUIPMENT FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION
I. Mixer settler

II. Spray columns


GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATION (OPERATIVE
FACTORS)
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATION (IDEAL
SOLVENT)
COUNTER CURRENT EXTRACTION

Two immiscible fluids, usually


one light and one heavy fluid,
flowing continuously in opposite
directions are brought together
and allowed to separate

lighter liquid flows upward while


the heavier liquid flows downward

extract is the exit solvent rich


stream containing the desired
extracted solute
raffinate is the exit residual stream
containing little solute
EQUILIBRIUM RELATIONS IN EXTRACTION

component A = solute
component B = inert/carrier liquid
component C = liquid solvent
Example 12.5-1
30 kg isopropyl ether (C), 10 kg acetic acid (A) + 60 kg water (B)
Mix & come to equilibrium. Determine the raffinate and extract
compositions.
Original composition: xC = 0.3, xA = 0.1, xB = 0.6
1. Locate the original composition on the
right-angled triangle. Lets that point be M
2. By trial-&-error, draw a tie line that 0.3 M
passes throught M to intersect the raffinate
and the extract layer
3. From the raffinate layer, the composition 0.1
is xA =0.12 , xC = 0.02
4. From the extract layer, the composition is
yA = 0.04 , yC = 0.94
SINGLE-STAGE EXTRACTION
yA1 yA2

xA0 xA1
Total material balance: L0 + V2 = L1 + V1 = M
Balance on A: L0xA0 + V2yA2 = L1xA1 + V1yA1 =MxAM
Balance on C: L0xC0 + V2yC2 = L1xC1 + V1yC1 =MxCM
Problem 12.5-2
V1 V2 = 400 kg
1 atm
yA1 yA2=0
L0 = 400 kg 293K L1
xA0 = 0.35 xA1

Comp. A = acetic acid


Comp.B = water
Comp.C = isopropyl ether

Total material balance: L0 + V2 = L1 + V1 = M = 400 + 400 = 800


Balance on A: L0xA0 + V2yA2 = L1xA1 + V1yA1 =MxAM
400(0.35) + 400(0) = L1xA1 + V1yA1 =800(xAM)
xAM = 0.175
Problem 12.5-2
V1 V2 = 400 kg
1 atm
yA1 yA2=0
L0 = 400 kg 293K L1
xA0 = 0.35 xA1
M
xAM = 0.175
1. Locate point L0(0.35,0.0) and V2(0.0,1.0)
2. Draw a straight line connecting L0 & V2.
Locate point M
3. By trial-&-error, get a tie line that passes
throught M to intersect the raffinate at L1
and the extract layer at V1
4. From the extract layer, the composition
of V2 is yA1 = 0.11, yC1 = 0.86
5. From the raffinate layer, the composition
of L0 is xA1 =0.22, xC1 = 0.03
Tutorial
Problem 12.5-1
Problem 12.5-3
Problem 12.5-4

Upload and submit (online via VLE) latest


by Monday (19 Dec 2016). Will be
discussed during tutorial session (Week
12)
CONTINUOUS MULTISTAGE
COUNTERCURRENT EXTRACTION

Total number of ideal stages = N


Total material balance:
L0 + VN+1 = LN + V1 = M
Balance on A:
L0xA0 + VN+1yAN+1 = LNxAN + V1yA1 =MxAM
Difference in flows:
L0 V1 = L1 V2 = .. =LN VN+1
N = Total number of tie lines

FKKKSA Chem. Eng. Dept


Example 12.7-2

V1 VN+1 = 450 kg/h


yA1 yAN+1 = 0
L0 = 150 kg/h LN
xA0 =0.3 xAN = 0.1

A = acetic acid, B = water, C = isopropyl ether

Total material balance: L0 + VN+1 = LN + V1 = M

150+ 450= LN + V1 = 600

Balance on A: L0xA0 + VN+1yAN+1 = LNxAN + V1yA1 =MxAM

150(0.3) + 450(0)= LNxAN + V1yA1 =600(xAM)

xAM = 0.075
Example 12.7-2
L0(0.3,0), VN+1(0,1), xN = 0.1, xAM = 0.075
1. Locate point L0(0.3,0.0),VN+1(0.0,1.0) and VN+1
V
LN(on the raffinate layer at xNA = 0.1) V2 3
V1
2. Draw a straight line connecting L0 & VN+1. N 2.3 stages
Locate point M M

3. Draw a straight line from LN through M to


intersect the extract layer to give V1
4. Locate the difference point at the
intersection of lines L0V1 and LNVN+1
5. From V1 vertically to 45o line, horizontally LN
across to equilibrium line and back vertically L L2 L1
3 L0
to the raffinate layer to give L1
6. Draw a tie line from L1 to V1
7. Draw an operating line from L1 to to
intersect the extract layer to give V2
8. Repeat steps 5-7 until coincide with LN or
exceed LN
9. Number of stages = number of tie lines
MINIMUM SOLVENT RATE,VN+1min

VN+1min - stages
Case 1: min

1. Draw a straight line from LN through VN+1.


2. Get as many tie lines between L0 and LN.
Extend the tie lines to intersect the line L0VN+1
3. The tie line that intersects the line LNVN+1 closest
to VN+1 gives min & V1min on the extract layer VN+1

4. Draw straight lines connecting LNV1min&


L0VN+1. Locate point Mmin at the intersection
of the two lines V1min

5. Solve for VN+1min : Mmin

L0x0A + VN+1minyN+1A = (L0+VN+1min)xMminA

LN

xMAmin L0
VN+1
MINIMUM SOLVENT RATE,VN+1min

VN+1min - stages
Case 2:
V1min
1. Draw a straight line from LN through VN+1.
2. Get as many tie lines between L0 and LN.
Extend the tie lines to intersect the line L0VN+1 Mmin

3. The tie line that intersects the line LNVN+1 LN


farthest to VN+1 gives min & V1min on the extract
layer L0
xMAmin

4. Draw straight lines connecting LNV1min&


L0VN+1. Locate point Mmin at the intersection
of the two lines
5. Solve for VN+1min :
L0x0A + VN+1minyN+1A = (L0+VN+1min)xMminA
min
Additional notes