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A CHALLENGING

WATER
SITUATION
Demand for water is growing at twice the rate of
population growth.
CURRENT ISSUES

No effective strategies to manage wastewater


production, its treatment and reuse

development will be constrained

the resulting negative impacts, particularly on water-scarce


economies, will arrive sooner than predicted
Reducing unaccounted-for-water, or making beneficial
ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATIONER

use of water which is reused or recycled


preserve water resources
reduce the demand on finite freshwater resources

Preventing and removing pollution is essential to


maintain the renewability of a resource.

Many water resources are rapidly degraded by poor


disposal of wastewater
Nearly all human activity results in the production of
ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATIONER

wastewater

About 80% of wastewater from human settlements


and industrial sources is discharged to the
environment without treatment

UNEP & UN-Habitat, 2010


Water makes important contribution to improved
ECONOMIC SITUATIONER

lifestyles from the recreational point of view.

Unsuitable or restrictive policies for wastewater will


negatively impact on economic development & job
security.
WATER SITUATION (National)

Increasingly variable rainfall, cyclones, Decreasing water quality and


accelerating storm water runoff, floods increasing demand for water

Abundant water resources


but facing water shortages
due to poor and inadequate
water infrastructure

The Philippines is far from "Water Secure" and has among the highest rates
of water related fatalities, together with Bangladesh, Nepal, Tajikistan and
Vanuatu -ADB
WATER SECURITY IN CEBU
Second largest Cebu has the lowest groundwater
metropolitan area in the and surface water potential
Philippines, next to among the regions in the
Manila Philippines.

By 2025, water availability deficit


would take place in the whole
Metro Cebus island of Cebu.
current population -
of 2.6 million Greenpeace South East Asia
(census 2010) is
anticipated to
double by 2050
Cebu Citys groundwater is not potable

-Tapwatch Monitoring Program of the Environmental


Management Bureau (EMB)
MCWD Water Sources Source: MCWD 2003

11 well fields = 88
deepwells can

18.73% supply 111,936


cu.m per day

Buhisan &
Jaclupan
can supply
25,796.54
cu.m per day

81.27%
Ground Water
Surface Water
SUPPLY & DEMAND
SUPPLY & DEMAND PROJECTION
MCWD Supply vs. Total Metro Cebu Demand

600000

500000 442
351
289 296 310
275 282
Cubic Meters per day

400000
355

300000 263

130 167 163


111 115
200000

100000

40% 41%
45% 56%
0 53%
2001 2002 75% Demand
2003 2004
2005 2006
2007 2008
2009 2010 80%
2011 2012 Supply
2013 2014 2015 2016
Year 2017 2018
No r educ t i on f r om ol d wel l s , CGE as s umpt i ons on SRR
2019 2020
supvsdem01- Manday.xls 9/ 11/ 02
A combination of one or more of:

domestic effluent consisting of


blackwater (excreta, urine and
WASTEWATER

fecal sludge) and greywater


(kitchen and bathing wastewater);
water from commercial
establishments and institutions,
including hospitals;
industrial effluent, stormwater
and other urban run-off;
agricultural, horticultural and
aquaculture effluent, either
dissolved or as suspended matter
-UNEP & UN-Habitat 2010
WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN CEBU
Source: EMB-7 2012 Water Quality Status Report
WATER POLLUTION

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
WATER POLLUTION

ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS
Volumetric Rate of Conventional Effluent
Discharge
Zero Discharge PhP 2,000
PERMIT FEE
DISCHARGE

Below 10 cu.m/day PhP 2,000


>10-30 cu.m/day PhP 2,200
>30-100 cu.m/day PhP 2,200
>100-150 cu.m/day PhP 2,700
>150 cu.m/day PhP 3,300

NOTE:
Industries that recycle their wastewater without
discharge into any water body or land shall pay
only the permit fee
WDF = Ln x R
where:
R- rate per kilogram (initially fixed at P5.00 for priority pollutant parameter
(BOD or TSS)
Ln-net waste load (kg/yr), computed as follows:
DISCHARGE FEE
WASTEWATER

Ln (BOD5/TSS)= [Cf - Ca) (Qf x Nf) x 0.001


where:
Cf - average daily effluent concentration (mg/L) for priority pollutant
parameter
Ca-average water quality concentration for priority pollutant of abstracted or
intake water (mg/L)
Qf - average volumetric flowrate measurement of final discharge effluent
(m3/day)
Nf -total number of discharging days in a year (days/yr)

BOD-used for wastewater that have high organic or biodegradable materials


TSS-used for high inorganics or non-biodegradable materials
Pollution of water body
Prohibited Acts
Groundwater pollution

Illegal discharge

Sewerage development w/o EIA

Facility Discharge w/o permit

DAO 1990-35 (Revised Effluent


Regulations of 1990)
PROHIBITED ACTS:

Fine amount of not less than PhP 10,000 nor more


FINES & PENALTIES
than PhP 200,000 for every day of violation
increased by 10% every two (2) years
PAB (Pollution Adjudication Board) may order
closure, suspension of development or construction,
or cessation of operations or where appropriate
disconnection of water supply

FAILURE TO UNDERTAKE CLEAN UP:

imprisonment of not less than two (2) years and not


more than four (4) years
fine not less than PhP 50,000 and not more than PhP
100,000 per day of violation
Fiscal Incentives
REWARDS & INCENTIVES
Tax and Duty Exemption on Imported Capital
Equipment and Vehicles
Tax Credit on Domestic Capital Equipment
Tax and Duty Exemption of Donations, Legacies and
Gift

Non-fiscal incentives
simplified procedures for the importation of
equipment, spare parts, new materials, and supplies,
and for the export of processed products.

Financial Assistance Program


WATER QUALITY
PARAMETERS
SOLIDS CONTENT

Total Solids (TS):


the amount of organic & inorganic matter in water
PHYSICAL

Volatile Solids (VS):


amount of matter that volatilizes (or burns) when
heated to 500 0 C

Fixed Solids (FS):


do not volatilize (minerals)
BIOLOGICAL
Oxygen demand (DO):
BIOLOGICAL & BACTERIOLOGICAL

oxygen needed by organisms underwater


Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5):
oxygen needed by bacteria to decompose
DO -2ppm
no organism even fishes can survive (bacteria
survives)

BACTERIOLOGICAL
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
1. Primary Treatment (physical treatment) -remove solids, BOD
a. screening/ grit removal
b. oil & grease trap
b. settling/sedimentation

2. Secondary Treatment (biological treatment) remove BOD


a. aerobic
b. anaerobic

Biological Treatment Processes


a. Fixed film processes
1. trickling filters -sprinkling
2. rotating biological contractors

WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES


b. Suspended growth processes
1. activated sludge
2. aerated lagoons
3. anaerobic digestion (septic tank)
c. wetland systems

3. Tertiary Treatment (microbiological treatment)


a. Filtration
b. b. Chlorination

WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES


Phytoremediation plants

Hydrangea Blue tongue


Various Plant Types Used
Water Hyacinths Eichhornia crassipes
Forage Kochia Kochia spp
Poplar Trees Populus spp
Willow Trees Salix spp
Alfalfa Medicago sativa
Cattail Typha latifolia
Coontail Ceratophyllum
demersvm
Bullrush Scirpus spp
Reed Phragmites spp.
American pondweed Potamogeton nodosus
Common Arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia
Species Contaminant

Populus spp. (poplar, Hydrocarbons, chlorinat. solvents,


cottonwood) explosives, MTBE, HCN, wastewater, &
pesticides

Salix spp. (willow) Hydrocarbons, HCN wastewater,


leachate
Ecalyptus spp., Tamarix Hydraulic control, arsenic

Acer rubrum (red maple) Landfill leachate

Pinus radiata, (Monterey Municipal wastewater


pine)
Morus rubra (red mulberry) PAHs

Thespesia populnea (milo) and Petroleum hydrocarbons


Prosopis pallida (kiawe)
ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

Liloan, Cebu Market Sewage Treatment


It is our task in our time and in our
generation to hand down undiminished to
those who come after us, as was handed
down to us by those who went before, the
natural wealth and beauty which is ours."

- John F. Kennedy