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HDVTP Lesson 8 Aircraft Performance

Last Edit 12/4/2007 12:06 PM

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Density Altitude Takeoff Distance Fuel Consumption

Crosswind Landing Distance Weight & Balance


Component

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Every airplane has a Pilot
Operating Handbook (POH).
It contains performance data.
These charts show what
performance can be expected.
Performance charts predict
how the aircraft will perform.

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Performance is based on a sea level
temperature of +15C (+59F),
atmospheric pressure of 29.92" Hg
and zero percent humidity.
Relative humidity also impacts
performance.
This combination is called a
"standard day" .
Temperature and/or pressure
deviations from standard change air
density, or the density altitude
Density altitude affects aircraft
performance.

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A combination of high
temperature, high humidity, and
high altitude results in a density
altitude higher than pressure
altitude.
This results in reduced aircraft
performance.
The higher the density altitude,
the lower the performance.

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Decreasing air density
equals higher density
altitude
Temp.
Air has reduced density
at higher altitude

An increase in humidity
raises the density
altitude effects

Humidity Altitude

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Humidity Temperature
Zero 590F / 150C

Pressure
29.92

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Denver, CO Portland, OR
Density altitude Density altitude
9,000 3,000

950F 5,440 950F 30

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Find the density altitude for an airfield based
upon these conditions:

The altimeter setting is 29.25


The temperature is 810 F or 270 C
Runway elevation is 5,250 MSL.

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Interpolating pressure conversion factors between two
given barometric pressure values:
Step 1
Add pressure 673 579 1,252
conversion values

Step 2
1,252 2 626
Divide by 2

Step 3
Add result to field 5,250 626 5,876
elevation

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Find the density altitude for an airfield
based upon these conditions:

The altimeter setting is 29.25


The temperature is 810 F or 270 C
Runway elevation is 5,250 MSL.

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Find the density altitude for an airfield
based upon these conditions:

The altimeter setting is 29.25


The temperature is 810 F or 270 C
Runway elevation is 5,250 MSL.

Answer = 8,500

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The propeller must exert a force on the
surrounding air molecules.
At higher density altitudes there are fewer
molecules per cubic foot of air.
As a result, for any given RPM the prop will not
produce as much thrust.
Hence a longer takeoff run and lower climb
performance.

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A headwind decreases the takeoff roll.
A tailwind increases the takeoff roll.
Generally, takeoff performance dictates a takeoff
into the wind.
Runway slope may effect the takeoff choice.

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A muddy, wet, or grass covered runway
increase the takeoff distance.
Obstacles at the end of the runway, like power
lines, fences and trees impact takeoff
considerations.
Adjustments have to be made for your landing
and takeoff distances to clear these
obstructions.

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What effect does high density altitude as compared to low density
altitude have on the propeller efficiency and why?
A. Efficiency is reduced due to the increased force of the
propeller in the thinner air.
B. Efficiency is reduced because the propeller exerts less force
at high density altitudes than at low density altitudes.
C. Efficiency is increased due to less friction on the propeller
blades.
The propeller reduces thrust in proportion to the mass of air
being accelerated through the rotating blades. If the air is less
dense, propeller efficiency is decreased

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Fuel Consumption varies
based on a number of
factors:
These are altitude, wind,
temperature, and power
setting.
Fuel Consumption can be
calculated from tables in the
POH.

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Estimate the fuel consumption for a 500
nautical mile flight under these conditions:

The pressure altitude is, 4,000


The temperature is 290 C
The manifold pressure is 21.30
The wind is calm

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Finding variation from standard temperature

Given
Standard Lapse = 20C 4000 80C
20C/1000

Account for lapse


150C 80C 70C
rate effect

Normalize for
290C 70C 220C
altitude aloft

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Time=Dist/Speed
500/159 =3.14 hours

Fuel=Time x Fuel Flow


3.14 x 11.5 = 36.1 Gal

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Estimate the fuel consumption for a 500 nautical
mile flight under these conditions:

The pressure altitude is, 4,000


The temperature is 290 C
The manifold pressure is 21.30
The wind is calm

Answer = 36.1 gal Answer = 36.1 gal

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Taking off into a wind improves
aircraft performance, and reduces
the length of runway required.
Crosswinds may make the aircraft
difficult or impossible to control.
The aircraft manufacturer
determines the safe limit for taking
off or landing with a crosswind and
establishes the maximum allowable
crosswind component.

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360
18

Wind
270 2700 90

Wind 1800

36
180

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What is the computed crosswind component for
landing on runway 18 with the wind reported as
2200 at 30 knots?
A. 19 knots.
B. 22 knots.
C. 33 knots.

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Runway Wind
Runway Wind
Wind = wind Angle
1800 2200
angle 400

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What is the computed crosswind component for
landing on runway 18 with the wind reported as
2200 at 30 knots?
A. 19 knots.
B. 22 knots.
C. 33 knots.
19 knots.

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Landing into the wind reduces
the aircrafts relative ground
speed.
Landing distance depends on
aircraft weight, temperature,
surface, wind, and runway
slope.
The POH provides detailed
landing chart allowing the pilot
to estimate the landing
distance.

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Determine the total distance required to land over a
50 foot obstacle given these parameters. The pressure
altitude is 7,500 feet, the headwind component is 20
knots, the temperature is 32 degrees Fahrenheit, the
weight is 2,600 lb and the runway is a hard surface.
A. 1,400 feet.
B. 1,205 feet.
C. 1,506 feet.

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Determine the total distance required to land over a
50 foot obstacle given these parameters. The pressure
altitude is 7,500 feet, the headwind component is 20
knots, the temperature is 32 degrees Fahrenheit, the
weight is 2,600 lb and the runway is a hard surface.
A. 1,400 feet.
B. 1,205 feet.
C. 1,506 feet.

1,400 feet.

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An aircraft at a specified
maximum gross weight may
not be safe with that load
under all conditions.
High altitude, high
temperature, and high
humidity may limit gross
weight.
The aircraft must be loaded
in balance.
The balance point, or center
of gravity is referred to as
CG.
The CG must fall within
specified limits.
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Plus pilot and
Airplane Baggage Fuel & Oil
passengers

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Minus passengers &
Airplane Plus Installed items Minus fuel & fluids
luggage

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Item Description
Weight Actual weight of all items
Empty Weight Aircraft and all installed items
Arm Horizontal distance from datum to CG
Datum Fixed line determined by engineers
Moment The product of Arm x Weight
Center of Gravity Balance point of airplane

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Counterweight
120 inch lbs
Arm 24 1
5 5 5
lbs lbs lbs

5lbs

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Datum

CG

Arm

Weight Arm Moment

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WAM
Weight Arm Moment

Center of
Gravity Moment Weight
(CG)

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What is the maximum amount of baggage that
may be loaded aboard the airplane for the CG to
remain within the moment envelope?
A. 110 pounds.
B. 120 pounds.
C. 105 pounds.
With these test questions, the FAA will give you
parameters or a couple of givens to begin the
calculation. In this case our givens are the empty
weight, front passenger and rear passenger weight
and a couple of moments.
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Moment
Item Weight (lbs) Arm (inches) (in/lbs/1000)

Empty Weight 1,350 ---- 51.5

Front Seat 250


Rear Seat 400
Baggage
Fuel, 30 gal.
Oil, 8 qts -0.2
Total

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Pilot and Front Seat Passenger
Moment = 9.2 inch lbs.

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Moment
Item Weight (lbs) Arm (inches) (in/lbs/1000)

Empty Weight 1,350 ---- 51.5

Front Seat 250 9.2


Rear Seat 400
Baggage
Fuel, 30 gal.
Oil, 8 qts -0.2
Total

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Rear Seat Passenger Moment =
29.0 inch lbs.

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Moment
Item Weight (lbs) Arm (inches) (in/lbs/1000)

Empty Weight 1,350 ---- 51.5

Front Seat 250 9.2


Rear Seat 400 29.0
Baggage
Fuel, 30 gal.
Oil, 8 qts -0.2
Total

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Fuel = 6 lbs/gallon

180
30 6
lbs

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Fuel Moment = 8.7 inch lbs.

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Moment
Item Weight (lbs) Arm (inches) (in/lbs/1000)

Empty Weight 1,350 ---- 51.5

Front Seat 250 9.2


Rear Seat 400 29.0
Baggage
Fuel, 30 gal. 180 8.7
Oil, 8 qts -0.2
Total

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Moment
Item Weight (lbs) Arm (inches) (in/lbs/1000)

Empty Weight 1,350 ---- 51.5

Front Seat 250 9.2


Rear Seat 400 29.0
Baggage
Fuel, 30 gal. 180 8.7
Oil, 8 qts 15 -0.2
Total 2,195 98.2

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Baggage allowable:
105 lbs

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Baggage Moment = 10 inch lbs.

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Moment
Item Weight (lbs) Arm (inches) (in/lbs/1000)

Empty Weight 1,350 ---- 51.5

Front Seat 250 9.2


Rear Seat 400 29.0
Baggage 105 10.0
Fuel, 30 gal. 180 8.7
Oil, 8 qts 15 -0.2
Total 2,300 108.2

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Baggage allowable:
105 lbs and within
the envelope

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What is the maximum amount of baggage that
may be loaded aboard the airplane for the CG to
remain within the moment envelope?
A. 110 pounds.
B. 120 pounds.
C. 105 pounds.
Maximum baggage 105 lbs and inside the envelope.

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Using the loading table, is the airplane within weight and
balance for the limits given:
Front seat occupants..415 lbs
Rear seat occupants110 lbs
Fuel, main tanks..44 gal.
Fuel, aux. tanks.19 gal.
Baggage....32 lbs

A. Weight within limits, CG out of limits.


B. 19 pounds overweight, CG out of limits forward.
C. 19 pounds overweight, CG within limits.

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Moment
Item Weight (lbs) Arm (inches) (in/lbs/1000)

Empty Weight 2,015 ---- 1,554.0

Front Seat 415 85 352.8


Rear Seat 110 121 133.4
Baggage 32 140 44.8
Fuel, Main 264 75 198
Fuel, Aux. 114 94 107.2
Total 2,950 515 2,389.9

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Center of Gravity (CG)
= Moment/Weight

(2,389.9 )
2,950 lbs 81 Inches
x 100

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In Limits 81.0 is out of limits
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Using the loading table, is the airplane within weight and
balance for the limits given:
Front seat occupants..415 lbs
Rear seat occupants110 lbs
Fuel, main tanks..44 gal.
Fuel, aux. tanks.19 gal.
Baggage.....32 lbs
A. Weight within limits, CG out of limits.
B. 19 pounds overweight, CG out of limits forward.
C. 19 pounds overweight, CG within limits.
Weight within limits, CG out of limits.

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Finding Fuel Weight
Example: if an aircraft is loaded
90 lbs. over maximum gross
weight, how much fuel must be
removed?

90 lbs 6 lbs/gal 15 gallons

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