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Introduction To

Immunology
Dr. yasmeen taj
Definition

The word Immuis means free from burden


and immunitas means exemption from
government taxes and this provided the
English terminology Immunity.
Immunity is a broad definition: This is a
protective or defense mechanism of our
body, which leads us to a healthy life.
Types Of Immunity
Inborn or innate immunity: It is present at birth; This
is our First Line Of Defense.

Acquired or specific: It is not present at birth but


becomes part of our immune system as the lymphoid
system develops.

1970: WHO defined immunity as immune response to


antigen ( Foreign body) in form of
Humoral ( activation of B-lymhocytes)
Cellular (by activation of T-lymphocytes
Cells Involved in Immunity

Macrophages
B cells

T cells
Important components of innate immunity
Factors that limit entry of microorganisms into the body

Factor Mode Of Action

-Keratin layer of intact skin -Acts as mechanical barrier


-Lysozyme in tears and other secretions -Degrades peptidoglycan in bacteria
cell wall
-Respiratory cilia -Elevate mucus containing trapped organisms
-Low pH in stomach and vagina; -Retards growth of microbes
fatty acids in skin
-Surface phagocytes -Ingest and destroy microbes
(eg. alveolar macrophages)
-Defensins (cationic peptides) -Create pores in microbial membrane
-Normal flora of throat, colon -Occupy receptors which prevent
and vagina colonization by pathogens
Important components of innate immunity
Factors that limit growth of microorganisms within the
body
Natural killer cells Kill virus infected cells
Neutrophils Ingest and destroy microbes
Macrophages and dendritic cells Ingest and destroy microbes, and present
Inferons antigen to helper T-cells
Complement Inhibit viral replication
C3b is an opsonin, membrane attack
complex creates holes in bacterial
membranes
Transferrin and lactoferrin Sequester iron required for bacterial
growth
Fever Elevated temperature retards bacterial
growth
Inflammatory response
APOBEC3G (apolypoprotein is Limits spread of microbes
RNA editing enzyme) Causes hypermutation in retroviral DNA
and mRNA
Macrophages and other antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells,
participate in both the innate arm and acquired arm of the immune system.
They are in effect a bridge between the two arms. As part of the innate arm
they ingest and kill various microbes. They also present antigens to helper T
cells which is the essential first step in the activation of the acquired arm.
Main Components of Innate and acquired Immunity
that contribute to humoral ( antibody-mediated )
immunity and cell mediated immunity

Humoral Cell mediated


Immunity Immunity

Innate Complement Macrophages


Neutrophil Natural killer
cells
Acquired B cells Helper Tcells
Antibodies Cytotoxic T cells
Specificity Of The Immune Response

-Recognition of the foreign organisms by specific immune cells

-Activation of these immune cells to produce a specific


response (eg,antibodies)

-Response that specifically targets the organisms for destruction


Major Functions Of T Cells and B cells

Antibody-Mediated Immunity Cell Mediated Immunity


(B Cells)
1) Host defense against infection 1) Host defense against infection
(especially M.tuberculosis, fungi
and virus infected cells)
2) (Opsonize bacteria, neutralize 2) Allergy (hypersensitivity )eg
toxins and viruses) poison oak
3) Allergy (hypersensitivity) eg, 3) Graft and tumor rejection
hay fever anaphylactic shock
4) Autoimmunity 4) Regulation of antibody response
(help and suppression)
Important features Of Innate and Acquired Immunity

Type of Immunity Specificity Effective immediately Improves Has


after exposure to After Exposure memory
microbe

Innate Nonspecific Yes in No No


minutes

Acquired Highly No--requires Yes Yes


specific several days
before becoming
effective
Active and Passive Immunity

Active immunity is resistance acquired after contact with


foreign antigens, eg, microorganisims
This contact may consist of :
Clinical or subclinical infections
Immunization with live or killed infectious agents or their
antigens.
Exposure to microbial products (eg, toxins and toxoids)
Passive immunity
Passive immunity is resistance based on
antibodies preformed in another host.
Other forms of passive immunity are IgG
passed from the mother to the fetus during
pregnancy.
IgA passed from the mother to the newborn
during breast feeding.
Passive active immunity
Passive-active immunity involves giving both
preformed antibodies (immune globulins) to
provide immediate protection and
Vaccine to provide long term protection
These preparations should be given at different sites
in the body to prevent the antibodies from
neutralizing the immunogen in the vaccine.
This approach is used in the prevention of
Tetanus, Rabies and Hepatitis B
Immunogen and Antigen

When foreign substances (Ag) are introduced into the body,


they lead to anti-foreign substance
( Anti-body ) formation
Immunogenic when they are able to produce specific
immune response; that they will stimulate immune cells and
then give rise to immunological reaction (Humoral or
cellular).
Antigenic substances cannot directly yield immune
response, but need some help by some proteins) and then
They can react with antibodies.
All immunogens are antigenic but not all antigens are
immunogenic
Antigen
Antigen may be: A) Complete
B) Incomplete
Properties of antigen( Foreign substances) to be
Immunogenic
1) Foreignness
A) Autologous antigens are self antigens and there will be no immune
response.
B) Allogenic antigens are from the same species and there may be reaction,
eg. Blood transfusion, kidney transplant.
C) Heterologous antigens are from different species
These antigens will be rejected and there will be severe immune response
Chemical-Structural complexity
A certain amount of chemical complexity is required; eg
aminoacid
Homoplymers are less immunogenic then heteropolymers
containing
Two or three different aminoacids

Molecular Size
The most potent imunogens are proteins with high
molecular weight
ie, above 100,000.
Generally, molecules with molecular weight below 10,000 are
weakly immunogenic, and very small ones eg an aminoacid
are nonimmunogenic
Epitope
Epitopes are small chemical groups on the antigen molecule that can
elicit and react with antibody
The antigen has variable number of epitopes and this is called the
valency of the antigen
Hapten

Hapten is a greek word meaning to fasten. These are partial


antigens. These are not immunogenic.
Hapten needs carrier proteins like albumin, globulin and
synthetic polypeptide to become immunogenic.
Hapten (Hp)+Carrier Protein (Cp) Hp+Cp-Ab
formation against hapten
Antibiotics, analgesics, penicilin and alpha-methyldopa
Therefore haptens are antigenic and not immunogenic
ADJUVANTS

Adjuvant word is from Latin means aidingand


these are immunopotentiating agents.
These are of two types
( Ag+Ab)---Injected---->Increased immune
response
Today, adjuvants play an important role in the efficacy
of vaccines. Stimulating the correct immune response
is a must when selecting an adjuvant to use for a new
vaccine. Since one adjuvant alone is rarely optimal for
all antigens, it is critical to have a selection of different
types of adjuvants for evaluation with your
antigen. MVP offers a selection of oil emulsion based
adjuvants, polymer based adjuvants and co-polymer
based adjuvants.
Enhance the response to immunogens with
Imject Adjuvants.
Adjuvants are nonspecific stimulators
of the immune response. When mixed
with an antigen or immunogen,
adjuvants help to deposit or sequester
the injected material thereby helping to
increase antibody response. Adjuvants
enhance the immune response to
compounds that are already
immunogenic; they do not confer
immunogenicity to non-immunogenic
haptens. To make prospective antigens
more immunogenic, it is necessary to
conjugate them to a carrier protein or
some other complex, immunogenic
molecule.
Thank you