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Seventh Edition

CHAPTER VECTOR MECHANICS FOR


ENGINEERS: STATICS
4 Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Equilibrium of Rigid
Bodies
Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Contents

Introduction Sample Problem 4.4


Free-Body Diagram Equilibrium of a Two-Force Body
Reactions at Supports and Equilibrium of a Three-Force Body
Connections for a Two-
Sample Problem 4.6
Dimensiona...
Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Three
Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Two
Dimensions
Dimensions
Reactions at Supports and
Statically Indeterminate Reactions
Connections for a Three-Dimensi...
Sample Problem 4.1
Sample Problem 4.8
Sample Problem 4.3

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Introduction
For a rigid body in static equilibrium, the external forces and
moments are balanced and will impart no translational or rotational
motion to the body.

The necessary and sufficient condition for the static equilibrium of a


body are that the resultant force and couple from all external forces
form a system equivalent to zero,

F 0 M O r F 0

Resolving each force and moment into its rectangular components


leads to 6 scalar equations which also express the conditions for static
equilibrium,
Fx 0 Fy 0 Fz 0
Mx 0 My 0 Mz 0

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Free-Body Diagram
First step in the static equilibrium analysis of a rigid
body is identification of all forces acting on the
body with a free-body diagram.

Select the extent of the free-body and detach it


from the ground and all other bodies.

Indicate point of application, magnitude, and


direction of external forces, including the rigid
body weight.

Indicate point of application and assumed


direction of unknown applied forces. These
usually consist of reactions through which the
ground and other bodies oppose the possible
motion of the rigid body.

Include the dimensions necessary to compute


the moments of the forces.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Reactions at Supports and Connections for a Two-
Dimensional Structure
Reactions equivalent to a
force with known line of
action.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Reactions at Supports and Connections for a Two-
Dimensional Structure

Reactions equivalent to a
force of unknown direction
and magnitude.

Reactions equivalent to a
force and a couple.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Two Dimensions
For all forces and moments acting on a two-
dimensional structure,
Fz 0 M x M y 0 M z M O

Equations of equilibrium become


Fx 0 Fy 0 M A 0
where A is any point in the plane of the
structure.

The 3 equations can be solved for no more


than 3 unknowns.

The 3 equations can not be augmented with


additional equations, but they can be replaced
Fx 0 M A 0 M B 0

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Statically Indeterminate Reactions

More unknowns than Fewer unknowns than Equal number unknowns


equations equations, partially and equations but
constrained improperly constrained
2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.1
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram for the crane.
Determine B by solving the equation for
the sum of the moments of all forces
about A. Note there will be no
contribution from the unknown
reactions at A.
Determine the reactions at A by
A fixed crane has a mass of 1000 kg solving the equations for the sum of
and is used to lift a 2400 kg crate. It all horizontal force components and
is held in place by a pin at A and a all vertical force components.
rocker at B. The center of gravity of
the crane is located at G. Check the values obtained for the
reactions by verifying that the sum of
Determine the components of the
the moments about B of all forces is
reactions at A and B.
zero.
2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.1
Determine B by solving the equation for the
sum of the moments of all forces about A.
M A 0 : B1.5m 9.81 kN2m
23.5 kN6m 0
B 107.1 kN

Determine the reactions at A by solving the


equations for the sum of all horizontal forces
Create the free-body diagram.
and all vertical forces.
Fx 0 : Ax B 0
Ax 107.1kN
Fy 0 : Ay 9.81kN 23.5 kN 0
Ay 33.3 kN

Check the values obtained.


2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.3
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram for the car
with the coordinate system aligned
with the track.

Determine the reactions at the wheels


by solving equations for the sum of
moments about points above each axle.

Determine the cable tension by


A loading car is at rest on an inclined solving the equation for the sum of
track. The gross weight of the car and force components parallel to the track.
its load is 5500 lb, and it is applied at
at G. The cart is held in position by Check the values obtained by verifying
the cable. that the sum of force components
perpendicular to the track are zero.
Determine the tension in the cable and
the reaction at each pair of wheels.
2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.3
Determine the reactions at the wheels.
M A 0 : 2320 lb 25in. 4980 lb 6in.
R2 50in. 0
R2 1758 lb

M B 0 : 2320 lb 25in. 4980 lb 6in.


R1 50in. 0
R1 562 lb
Create a free-body diagram
Wx 5500 lb cos 25 Determine the cable tension.

4980 lb Fx 0 : 4980 lb T 0

W y 5500 lb sin 25 T 4980 lb

2320 lb
2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.4
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram for the
frame and cable.
Solve 3 equilibrium equations for the
reaction force components and
couple at E.

The frame supports part of the roof of


a small building. The tension in the
cable is 150 kN.
Determine the reaction at the fixed
end E.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.4
Solve 3 equilibrium equations for the
reaction force components and couple.
4.5
x
F 0 : E x 150 kN 0
7.5
E x 90.0 kN

6
Fy 0 : E y 420 kN 150 kN 0
7.5
E y 200 kN

Create a free-body diagram for M E 0 : 20 kN7.2 m 20 kN5.4 m


the frame and cable.
20 kN3.6 m 20 kN1.8 m
6
150 kN 4.5 m M E 0
7.5
M E 180.0 kN m

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Equilibrium of a Two-Force Body
Consider a plate subjected to two forces F1 and F2

For static equilibrium, the sum of moments about A


must be zero. The moment of F2 must be zero. It
follows that the line of action of F2 must pass
through A.

Similarly, the line of action of F1 must pass


through B for the sum of moments about B to be
zero.

Requiring that the sum of forces in any direction be


zero leads to the conclusion that F1 and F2 must
have equal magnitude but opposite sense.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Equilibrium of a Three-Force Body
Consider a rigid body subjected to forces acting at
only 3 points.

Assuming that their lines of action intersect, the


moment of F1 and F2 about the point of intersection
represented by D is zero.

Since the rigid body is in equilibrium, the sum of the


moments of F1, F2, and F3 about any axis must be
zero. It follows that the moment of F3 about D must
be zero as well and that the line of action of F3 must
pass through D.

The lines of action of the three forces must be


concurrent or parallel.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.6
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram of the joist.
Note that the joist is a 3 force body acted
upon by the rope, its weight, and the
reaction at A.
The three forces must be concurrent for
static equilibrium. Therefore, the reaction
A man raises a 10 kg joist, of R must pass through the intersection of the
length 4 m, by pulling on a rope. lines of action of the weight and rope
Find the tension in the rope and forces. Determine the direction of the
the reaction at A. reaction force R.
Utilize a force triangle to determine the
magnitude of the reaction force R.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.6
Create a free-body diagram of the joist.
Determine the direction of the reaction
force R.
AF AB cos 45 4 m cos 45 2.828 m
CD AE 12 AF 1.414 m
BD CD cot(45 20) 1.414 m tan 20 0.515 m
CE BF BD 2.828 0.515 m 2.313 m
CE 2.313
tan 1.636
AE 1.414

58.6

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.6
Determine the magnitude of the reaction
force R.
T R 98.1 N

sin 31.4 sin 110 sin 38.6

T 81.9 N
R 147.8 N

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Equilibrium of a Rigid Body in Three Dimensions
Six scalar equations are required to express the
conditions for the equilibrium of a rigid body in the
general three dimensional case.
Fx 0 Fy 0 Fz 0
Mx 0 My 0 Mz 0

These equations can be solved for no more than 6


unknowns which generally represent reactions at supports
or connections.

The scalar equations are conveniently obtained by applying the


vector forms of the conditions for equilibrium,

F 0 M O r F 0

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Reactions at Supports and Connections for a Three-
Dimensional Structure

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Reactions at Supports and Connections for a Three-
Dimensional Structure

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.8
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram for the sign.

Apply the conditions for static


equilibrium to develop equations for
the unknown reactions.

A sign of uniform density weighs 270


lb and is supported by a ball-and-
socket joint at A and by two cables.
Determine the tension in each cable
and the reaction at A.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.8

rD rB
TBD TBD
rD rB

8i 4 j 8k
TBD
12
1 2
TBD 3 i 3 j 3 k
2

rC rE
TEC TEC
rC rE

Create a free-body diagram for the 6i 3 j 2k
TEC
sign. 7
Since there are only 5 unknowns, 3 2
TEC 7 i 7 j 7 k
6
the sign is partially constrain. It is
free to rotate about the x axis. It is,
however, in equilibrium for the
given loading.
2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Edition
Seventh
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Sample Problem 4.8

F A TBD TEC 270 lb j 0

i: Ax 23 TBD 76 TEC 0

j: Ay 13 TBD 73 TEC 270 lb 0

k: Az 23 TBD 72 TEC 0

MA rB TBD rE TEC 4 ft i 270 lb j 0

j: 5.333TBD 1.714TEC 0

Apply the conditions for k: 2.667TBD 2.571TEC 1080 lb 0
static equilibrium to
develop equations for the Solve the 5 equations for the 5 unknowns,
unknown reactions. TBD 101.3 lb TEC 315 lb

A 338 lbi 101.2 lb j 22.5 lbk

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.