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Newton’s Second Law

012-11003 r1.04

Introduction

Journals and Snapshots

Introduction Journals and Snapshots The Snapshot button is used to capture the screen. The Journal is

The Snapshot button is used to capture the screen.

Introduction Journals and Snapshots The Snapshot button is used to capture the screen. The Journal is

The Journal is where snapshots are stored and viewed.

Introduction Journals and Snapshots The Snapshot button is used to capture the screen. The Journal is

The Share button is used to export or print your journal to turn in your work.

Introduction Journals and Snapshots The Snapshot button is used to capture the screen. The Journal is
Introduction Journals and Snapshots The Snapshot button is used to capture the screen. The Journal is

Each page of this lab that

contains the symbol

Introduction Journals and Snapshots The Snapshot button is used to capture the screen. The Journal is

should be inserted into your

journal. After completing a

lab page with the snapshot

symbol, tap

Introduction Journals and Snapshots The Snapshot button is used to capture the screen. The Journal is

(in the upper

right corner) to insert the

page into your journal.

Note: You may want to take a snapshot of the first page of this lab as a cover page for your journal.

Lab Challenge

What is the relationship

between the net force

applied to an object and its motion?

Lab Challenge What is the relationship between the net force applied to an object and its

Background

  • Like Newton, we will observe a simple system to look for a relationship between net force and motion. From earlier studies we know
    force due to gravity and a restoring force from the spring. In equilibrium the two forces are

that a mass hung from a spring experiences a

equal and opposite. When the mass is

displaced one of the two forces is greater, thus causing a non-zero net force pointed

towards the equilibrium position. We will

F

g

investigate how this net force is related to the motion of the system.

a)

0 ∆ x 0 Q1: In the box below, indicate which force is greater (spring
  • x 0

0 ∆ x 0 Q1: In the box below, indicate which force is greater (spring

x 1

b)

  • x 0

0 ∆ x 0 Q1: In the box below, indicate which force is greater (spring

Q1: In the box below, indicate which force is

greater (spring or gravity) for both a) and b), then snapshot this page.

x 2

0 ∆ x 0 Q1: In the box below, indicate which force is greater (spring

Materials and Equipment

Collect all of these materials before beginning the lab.

Force Sensor Motion Sensor Springs Rod Stand Rod Mass Clamp

Sequencing Challenge

A. Oscillate the mass on the spring, and begin collecting data. C. Use the linear curve
A. Oscillate the
mass on the
spring, and begin
collecting data.
C. Use the linear
curve fit to
determine the
slope of the line.
B. Plot net force measured by the force sensor versus acceleration. D. Connect the Motion Sensor
B. Plot net force
measured by the
force sensor versus
acceleration.
D. Connect the
Motion Sensor and
the Force Sensor to
the SPARK Science
Learning System.

The steps to the left are part of the procedure for this lab

activity. They are not in the

right order. Determine the

correct sequence of the steps, then take a snapshot

of this page.

Sequencing Challenge A. Oscillate the mass on the spring, and begin collecting data. C. Use the

Setup

  • 1. Connect the Force Sensor to the rod and rod stand.

  • 2. Hang the mass from the Force Sensor using the spring.

  • 3. Place the Motion Sensor directly below the mass with the face of the sensor pointed up at the mass.

  • 4. Connect the Force and Motion Sensor to your SPARK Science Learning System.

Setup 1. Connect the Force Sensor to the rod and rod stand. 2. Hang the mass

Collect Data

  • 1. With the mass hanging

motionless, press the

ZERO button on the force sensor.

  • 2. Pull down gently on the mass and release to start it moving up and down.

3. to start collecting Tap
  • 3. to start collecting

Tap

data.

  • 4. After the mass has finished three to four complete cycles (~5 to 10 seconds), tap

Collect Data 1. With the mass hanging motionless, press the ZERO button on the force sensor.

to

stop data collection.

Analysis

  • 1. Why do you think it is important to press the ZERO button before collecting data?

    • a) to calibrate the Force Sensor

    • b) to ensure the Force and Motion Sensor

both start from the same point

  • c) to make sure no forces are present

  • d) to ensure the Force Sensor is measuring the net force on the mass

Make your selection below

then take a snapshot of this page.

Analysis 1. Why do you think it is important to press the ZERO button before collecting

Analysis

While collecting data we observed the position of the object as it changed over time to ensure that enough data was collected and that the data and

observed motion were consistent.

Next we will compare force to motion. After each pair of graphs there is a question, you can go back to the graph if you need to compare a few points In time on each pair of graphs to determine the nature of their relationship.

Analysis While collecting data we observed the position of the object as it changed over time

Analysis

  • 2. Which description below best describes the

Make your selection below

then take a snapshot of this page.

relationship between force and position in the case

of a spring and mass system?

  • a) Force is proportional to position.

Analysis 2. Which description below best describes the Make your selection below then take a snapshot
  • b) Force is inversely proportional to position.

  • c) Force is unrelated to position.

  • d) Force is negatively proportional to position.

Analysis

  • 3. Which description below best describes the relationship between force and velocity?

    • a) Force is proportional to velocity.

    • b) Force is inversely proportional to velocity.

    • c) Force is offset from velocity.

    • d) Force is negatively proportional velocity.

Make your selection below

then take a snapshot of this page.

Analysis 3. Which description below best describes the relationship between force and velocity? a) Force is

Analysis

  • 4. Which description below best describes the relationship between force and acceleration?

    • a) Force is proportional to acceleration.

    • b) Force is inversely proportional to

acceleration.

  • c) Force is the inverse square of acceleration.

  • d) Force is negatively proportional to acceleration.

Make your selection below

then take a snapshot of this page.

Analysis 4. Which description below best describes the relationship between force and acceleration? a) Force is

Analysis

During data collection we observed the position of the object as it changed over time to ensure that enough data was collected and that the data and observed motion were consistent.

On the following graph we will plot force versus

acceleration to better understand the nature of the relationship between these two variables.

Analysis During data collection we observed the position of the object as it changed over time

Analysis

5. In the space below,

describe the shape of the

data plot of force versus acceleration. Then take a snapshot of this page.

Analysis 5. In the space below, describe the shape of the data plot of force versus

Analysis

6. Apply a linear curve fit to

the force versus

acceleration plot, then take a snapshot of this page.

Analysis 6. Apply a linear curve fit to the force versus acceleration plot, then take a

*To Apply a Curve Fit:

1. Tap

1. Tap to open the tool

to open the tool

palette.

2. Tap

2. Tap to open the Curve

to open the Curve

Fit screen.

3. Tap the name of the curve

fit required.

Analysis

  • 7. Indicate any relationship that the slope of the curve fit line from the previous page has with the experiment, and then take a snapshot of this page.

Analysis 7. Indicate any relationship that the slope of the curve fit line from the previous

Analysis

  • 8. Using your knowledge of graphing, how would you express the equation of the line from the Force versus Acceleration graph in terms of the variables of this

experiment? Below the equation write out the units of each variable to be sure

the equation is balanced.

Analysis 8. Using your knowledge of graphing, how would you express the equation of the line

Synthesis

  • 1. The harder a ball is thrown (apply more force), the faster it will move (greater initial velocity resulting from acceleration). If you throw a 1 kg softball as hard as you can and it is traveling at 20 m/s when it leaves your

hand, how fast will a 5 kg shot put travel with the same throw?

Synthesis 1. The harder a ball is thrown (apply more force), the faster it will move

Synthesis

  • 2. Force is proportional to acceleration. Given the answer to Synthesis question 1, how would you describe the relationship between acceleration and mass?

Synthesis 2. Force is proportional to acceleration. Given the answer to Synthesis question 1, how would

Synthesis

  • 3. If we launch a rocket that has been designed to produce a constant force, will the acceleration at initial launch be the same as the acceleration just before the fuel is completely expended?

Synthesis 3. If we launch a rocket that has been designed to produce a constant force,

Synthesis

  • 4. A similar experiment is set up so that a force sensor is used to drag a 1.5 kg brick across a table while a motion sensor measures its acceleration. Several trials are conducted, but the slope of the force versus acceleration graph is consistently about 2. What would explain the difference? What would you do to improve the results?

Synthesis 4. A similar experiment is set up so that a force sensor is used to

Multiple Choice Question

  • 1. If two potatoes are launched from a potato launcher that applies the same force,

Make your selection below

then take a snapshot of this page.

  • a) the heavier potato will be traveling faster than the lighter one.

Multiple Choice Question 1. If two potatoes are launched from a potato launcher that applies the
  • b) the lighter potato will be traveling faster than the heavier one.

  • c) regardless of their mass, they will be traveling at the same velocity.

  • d) there is not enough information to draw a conclusion.

Multiple Choice Question

  • 2. A roller coaster is designed to deliver 3g of acceleration at the bottom of a loop. The mass of

Make your selection below

then take a snapshot of this page.

the cart is 500 kg and the rider is 100 kg. If the

track is designed to withstand 15,000 N of force

without buckling, will the cart and rider make it

through the loop?

  • a) No, this ride will likely end in disaster.

Multiple Choice Question 2. A roller coaster is designed to deliver 3g of acceleration at the
  • b) Yes, the cart and rider will easily make it past the dip.

  • c) Yes, but a second rider of equal size would not

make it through.

  • d) There is not enough information to draw a

conclusion.

Multiple Choice Question

  • 3. A 1000 kg rocket is launching with its engine

producing a force of 39240 N. What is its

acceleration?

  • a) 9.81 m/s 2

  • b) 39.24 m/s 2

  • c) 1000 m/s 2

  • d) 29.43 m/s 2

Make your selection below

then take a snapshot of this page.

Multiple Choice Question 3. A 1000 kg rocket is launching with its engine producing a force

Multiple Choice Question

  • 4. The acceleration of an object is ___________

Make your selection below

then take a snapshot of this page.

  • a) proportional to the mass of the object and the force being applied.

  • b) proportional to the mass of the object, and inversely proportional to the force being applied.

Multiple Choice Question 4. The acceleration of an object is ___________ Make your selection below then
  • c) proportional to the net force being applied and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

  • d) always perpendicular to the force of gravity.

Multiple Choice Question

  • 5. The net force on an object is ______________

    • a) proportional to the force of gravity.

    • b) the vector sum of the individual forces acting on the object.

    • c) always balanced by the normal force.

    • d) both A and C.

Make your selection below

then take a snapshot of this page.

Multiple Choice Question 5. The net force on an object is ______________ a) proportional to the

Congratulations!

You have completed the lab.

Please remember to follow your teacher's instructions for cleaning-up and submitting

your lab.

Congratulations! You have completed the lab. Please remember to follow your teacher's instructions for cleaning-up and

References

ALL IMAGES WERE TAKEN FROM PASCO DOCUMENTATION, PUBLIC DOMAIN CLIP ART, OR WIKIMEDIA FOUNDATION COMMONS:

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http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Launch_of_Space_Shuttle_Atlantis.jpg

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