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Describe the symptoms, causes, and treatments

of:

Female infertility
Ovarian Cysts
Breast Cancer
Human Papillomavirus
The cause of about 1/3 of
infertility of couples

Diagnosed after a couple cannot


get pregnant after a year of trying

Can be caused by many factors


Associated w/ hormonal imbalances
Result from altered function of
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, or
ovaries
Typically after long use of birth control
pill

Structural abnormalities
Small or bicornuate uterus
Obstruction of fallopian tubes
Scar tissue or endometriosis
Access of viable sperm
Change in vaginal pH
Due to infection or douches
Excessively thick cervical mucus
Development of antibodies in female
to particular sperm
Smoking by male or female
For hormonal causes:
Fertility drugs artificially supplement
hormones which trigger follicle
maturation

For obstructive disorders:


Surgery can correct blockages
Artificial Insemination
Intrauterine Insemination
Healthy sperm are placed inside the uterus at the
time of ovulation

In Vitro Fertilization
Retrieve mature eggs from a female,
fertilize them with sperm in a dish in
a lab, return them to the uterus to
grow
Take 3 minutes to write a
comparison of female infertility
to male infertility in your notes.

Be sure to compare both the


causes and treatments of
infertility.
Irregular menstrual periods

Pelvic pain during intercourse,


before/after menstruation

Vomiting
Multiple fluid-filled sacs form
under serosa that covers ovary

An ovarian follicle either doesnt


release its ovum during ovulation
or a follicle that has released its
ovum produces large amount of
estrogen and progesterone.
Birth control pills can help
reduce the risk of producing
cysts in the future

Surgery may be necessary if


the cyst is growing quickly
Major cause of death in women
Incidence continues to increase after
age of 20
Strong genetic predisposition
identification of specific genes related to
cancer
Hormones also a factor
Specifically exposure to high estrogen
levels
Long period of regular menstrual cycles (early
menarche to late menopause)
No kids (nulliparily)
Delay of 1st pregnancy
Role of exogenous estrogen (birth control
pills, supplements) still controversial
Initial sign is single, hard, painless nodule
Mass is freely movable in early stage,
and becomes fixed later
Advanced signs
Fixed nodule
Dimpling of skin
Discharge from nipple
Change in breast contour

Biopsy confirms diagnosis of malignancy


Cause is unknown

Breast cells begin to rapidly


regenerate. The cells
accumulate and form a mass.
Surgery
Lumpectomy
Preferred; removal of tumor
Mastectomy
Sometimes necessary
Some lymph nodes removed as well
# removed depends on the spread of the tumor cells
Impairs draining of lymph; swelling and stiffness of arm
common
Chemo and radiation
Useful for eradicating undetected
micrometastases
In most cases, the body will
eliminate the virus before it can
create symptoms

Warts on genitals

Can lead to cervical cancer


The most common sexually transmitted
infection in the United States

The infection enters through an small


abrasion or cut on the upper layer of the
skin

The virus can be contracted by oral sex


as well
Over the counter topical
ointments (salicylic acid)

Surgical removal or freezing with


liquid nitrogen