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Describe the symptoms, causes, and treatments


Female infertility
Ovarian Cysts
Breast Cancer
Human Papillomavirus
The cause of about 1/3 of
infertility of couples

Diagnosed after a couple cannot

get pregnant after a year of trying

Can be caused by many factors

Associated w/ hormonal imbalances
Result from altered function of
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, or
Typically after long use of birth control

Structural abnormalities
Small or bicornuate uterus
Obstruction of fallopian tubes
Scar tissue or endometriosis
Access of viable sperm
Change in vaginal pH
Due to infection or douches
Excessively thick cervical mucus
Development of antibodies in female
to particular sperm
Smoking by male or female
For hormonal causes:
Fertility drugs artificially supplement
hormones which trigger follicle

For obstructive disorders:

Surgery can correct blockages
Artificial Insemination
Intrauterine Insemination
Healthy sperm are placed inside the uterus at the
time of ovulation

In Vitro Fertilization
Retrieve mature eggs from a female,
fertilize them with sperm in a dish in
a lab, return them to the uterus to
Take 3 minutes to write a
comparison of female infertility
to male infertility in your notes.

Be sure to compare both the

causes and treatments of
Irregular menstrual periods

Pelvic pain during intercourse,

before/after menstruation

Multiple fluid-filled sacs form
under serosa that covers ovary

An ovarian follicle either doesnt

release its ovum during ovulation
or a follicle that has released its
ovum produces large amount of
estrogen and progesterone.
Birth control pills can help
reduce the risk of producing
cysts in the future

Surgery may be necessary if

the cyst is growing quickly
Major cause of death in women
Incidence continues to increase after
age of 20
Strong genetic predisposition
identification of specific genes related to
Hormones also a factor
Specifically exposure to high estrogen
Long period of regular menstrual cycles (early
menarche to late menopause)
No kids (nulliparily)
Delay of 1st pregnancy
Role of exogenous estrogen (birth control
pills, supplements) still controversial
Initial sign is single, hard, painless nodule
Mass is freely movable in early stage,
and becomes fixed later
Advanced signs
Fixed nodule
Dimpling of skin
Discharge from nipple
Change in breast contour

Biopsy confirms diagnosis of malignancy

Cause is unknown

Breast cells begin to rapidly

regenerate. The cells
accumulate and form a mass.
Preferred; removal of tumor
Sometimes necessary
Some lymph nodes removed as well
# removed depends on the spread of the tumor cells
Impairs draining of lymph; swelling and stiffness of arm
Chemo and radiation
Useful for eradicating undetected
In most cases, the body will
eliminate the virus before it can
create symptoms

Warts on genitals

Can lead to cervical cancer

The most common sexually transmitted
infection in the United States

The infection enters through an small

abrasion or cut on the upper layer of the

The virus can be contracted by oral sex

as well
Over the counter topical
ointments (salicylic acid)

Surgical removal or freezing with

liquid nitrogen