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PRESENTATION ON DEVELOPING WRITING SKILLS

BY J.BALAMURALI
BY J.BALAMURALI
COMMUNICATIONTRAINER
COMMUNICATION TRAINER
WHAT IS READING?
Languages are generally taught and assessed in terms of
the 'four skills': listening, speaking, reading, and
writing. Listening and reading are known as 'receptive'
skills while speaking and writing are known as
'productive' skills

Writing is usually the fourth language skill that we


learn. To write clearly it is essential to understand and
apply grammar, punctuation, vocabulary and sentence
structure.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Jayalalithaa's health: Tamil Nadu CM's condition


greatly improves in last 48 hours, AIADMK relieved.
Multiplesourceshave
__________thattheconditionof
TamilNaduChiefMinisterJ
Jayalalithaahas___significantly
inthepast48hoursandshehas
been______theventilatorduring
theday.Sheisonrespiratory
supportonlyforsometimeinthe
nightasaprecautionary_______.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

TheCMhowever,still________tobe__theCriticalCare
unit__ApolloHospital.Apartfrom__________,her
treatmentincludesmedicationtohelpherin_________and
alsonebulisation."Wearenotsoworriedanymore.Wearea
lotmorerelieved,"saidasourcewhoisawareofJayalalithaa's
treatment.
AIADMKleaderswhohave________toinformationfrom
insidetheCriticalCareunitatApolloHospitalsalsoconfirm
thatJayalalithaais________."Sheisalsoawareofwhatis
_________aroundher,"saysCRSaraswathi,spokespersonof
theAIADMK.
THEDAILY
NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Thenextstepwouldbeto______moveherawayfromthe
bed,whereshehasbeenformorethanthreeweeksnow,and
makehersitona________.Passivephysiotherapythat
Apollo'smedical_________saytheCMisundergoing,is
partofthetreatmenttohelpherdothis.
But________theimprovement,ApolloHospitalandthe
TamilNadugovernmentarefightingshyofannouncingitto
theworld.ThatisbecauseexperienceshowsthatanARDS
(AcuteRespiratoryDistressSyndrome)patientevenwhenhe
orsheshows_________improvementis______vulnerable.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

ARDSisa___________medicalcondition,characterised
byinflammationinthelungs.ARDSistriggeredby
pneumoniaandsepsis,oneofthereasonswhyintensivistDr
RichardBeale,anexperiencedinvestigatorinthefieldof
sepsis,ARDSandclinicalnutrition,wasflowninfrom
LondontotreattheCM.Anintensivistbydefinitionisa
doctorwhospecialisesintreatingcriticallyillpatients.
ExpertspointoutthatARDSisknowntohaveahigh
mortalityofupto50percent.Whenitisaccompaniedwith
otherailments,itonlycomplicatestheissueandthe
treatment.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

InJayalalithaa'scase,herdiabetes,hypertensionandcellulitis
ailmentsmentionedinher2014bailpleaattheKarnataka
Highcourtwerefactorstheteamofdoctorstookintoaccount.

"Ifitwasa30yearoldpatient,thebodyrecoversthatmuch
faster.SincetheCMis68,sheneedsthatmuchmorecare,"said
asource.Givenhermedicalhistory,doctorsareoftheopinion
thatherrecoveryisremarkable.Buttheywouldwanttomonitor
herforsomemoretimeaswithherdiabetes,theriskof
secondaryinfectionsalwaysexists.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Hospitals,especiallyIntensiveCareUnits,areamorerisky
placeforcriticalpatients.Thatisbecausehospitalsare
teemingwithvirulentbacteria.Ifaninfectioniscontracted
fromthecommunity,itrequiresabasicantibioticfor
treatment.

ButifapatientcontractsaninfectionfromtheICU,bacteriais
likelytoberesistanttobasicantibioticsanddoctorshaveto
prescribehighendantibiotics.Suchpotentantibioticsinhigh
dosagecanleadtosideeffectslikediarrhea,renalfailure,
myopathyandneuropathy.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Inordertoensureagainstanysuchcomplication,Jayalalithaa
hasbeenkeptinapartoftheCriticalCareunitwherenoother
patientisadmitted.Thismeansgettingasecondaryinfectionis
outofthequestion.
ItisexpectedthatiftheCMcontinuesthesamepaceof
progress,shecouldbeoutofhospitalsoon.However,shewould
stillneedsignificantrest,careandphysiotherapyforatleasttwo
months.
ItisnotclearwhetherApollodoctorswouldpreferJayalalithaa
torestundertheirsupervisionatthehospitalorsendherhome
bytheendofOctober.
THEDAILY
NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Doctors,whoarevisiblyrelievednow,werenotinthesamestate
ofmindearlierthisweek.Infact,thehospitalinconsultation
withDr.RichardBealeandtheteamofspecialistsfromAIIMS
hadreportedlydecidedthatifthereisafurtherdeteriorationin
Jayalalithaa'shealth,shewillbeshiftedtoeitherAIIMSinNew
Delhiortoahospitalabroad.

Thatpossibilityhasnowbeenfirmlyruledout."Shewillcome
outlikeatigress,"saidasource.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Jayalalithaa's health: Tamil Nadu CM's condition


greatly improves in last 48 hours, AIADMK relieved.
Multiplesourceshaveconfirmed
thattheconditionofTamilNadu
ChiefMinisterJJayalalithaahas
improvedsignificantlyinthepast
48hoursandshehasbeenoffthe
ventilatorduringtheday.Sheis
onrespiratorysupportonlyfor
sometimeinthenightasa
precautionarymeasure.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

TheCMhowever,stillcontinuestobeintheCriticalCareunit
atApolloHospital.Apartfromantibiotics,hertreatment
includesmedicationtohelpherinbreathingandalso
nebulisation."Wearenotsoworriedanymore.Wearealot
morerelieved,"saidasourcewhoisawareofJayalalithaa's
treatment.
AIADMKleaderswhohaveaccesstoinformationfrominside
theCriticalCareunitatApolloHospitalsalsoconfirmthat
Jayalalithaaisconscious."Sheisalsoawareofwhatis
happeningaroundher,"saysCRSaraswathi,spokespersonof
theAIADMK.
THEDAILY
NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Thenextstepwouldbetoslowlymoveherawayfromthe
bed,whereshehasbeenformorethanthreeweeksnow,and
makehersitonachair.PassivephysiotherapythatApollo's
medicalbulletinssaytheCMisundergoing,ispartofthe
treatmenttohelpherdothis.
Butdespitetheimprovement,ApolloHospitalandtheTamil
Nadugovernmentarefightingshyofannouncingittothe
world.ThatisbecauseexperienceshowsthatanARDS
(AcuteRespiratoryDistressSyndrome)patientevenwhenhe
orsheshowsdramaticimprovementisdeemedvulnerable.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

ARDSisalifethreateningmedicalcondition,characterised
byinflammationinthelungs.ARDSistriggeredby
pneumoniaandsepsis,oneofthereasonswhyintensivistDr
RichardBeale,anexperiencedinvestigatorinthefieldof
sepsis,ARDSandclinicalnutrition,wasflowninfrom
LondontotreattheCM.Anintensivistbydefinitionisa
doctorwhospecialisesintreatingcriticallyillpatients.
ExpertspointoutthatARDSisknowntohaveahigh
mortalityofupto50percent.Whenitisaccompaniedwith
otherailments,itonlycomplicatestheissueandthe
treatment.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

InJayalalithaa'scase,herdiabetes,hypertensionandcellulitis
ailmentsmentionedinher2014bailpleaattheKarnataka
Highcourtwerefactorstheteamofdoctorstookintoaccount.

"Ifitwasa30yearoldpatient,thebodyrecoversthatmuch
faster.SincetheCMis68,sheneedsthatmuchmorecare,"said
asource.Givenhermedicalhistory,doctorsareoftheopinion
thatherrecoveryisremarkable.Buttheywouldwanttomonitor
herforsomemoretimeaswithherdiabetes,theriskof
secondaryinfectionsalwaysexists.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Hospitals,especiallyIntensiveCareUnits,areamorerisky
placeforcriticalpatients.Thatisbecausehospitalsare
teemingwithvirulentbacteria.Ifaninfectioniscontracted
fromthecommunity,itrequiresabasicantibioticfor
treatment.

ButifapatientcontractsaninfectionfromtheICU,bacteriais
likelytoberesistanttobasicantibioticsanddoctorshaveto
prescribehighendantibiotics.Suchpotentantibioticsinhigh
dosagecanleadtosideeffectslikediarrhea,renalfailure,
myopathyandneuropathy.
THEDAILYNEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Inordertoensureagainstanysuchcomplication,Jayalalithaa
hasbeenkeptinapartoftheCriticalCareunitwherenoother
patientisadmitted.Thismeansgettingasecondaryinfectionis
outofthequestion.
ItisexpectedthatiftheCMcontinuesthesamepaceof
progress,shecouldbeoutofhospitalsoon.However,shewould
stillneedsignificantrest,careandphysiotherapyforatleasttwo
months.
ItisnotclearwhetherApollodoctorswouldpreferJayalalithaa
torestundertheirsupervisionatthehospitalorsendherhome
bytheendofOctober.
THEDAILY
NEWS
www.dailynews.com THE WORLDS FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER - Since 1879

Doctors,whoarevisiblyrelievednow,werenotinthesamestate
ofmindearlierthisweek.Infact,thehospitalinconsultation
withDr.RichardBealeandtheteamofspecialistsfromAIIMS
hadreportedlydecidedthatifthereisafurtherdeteriorationin
Jayalalithaa'shealth,shewillbeshiftedtoeitherAIIMSinNew
Delhiortoahospitalabroad.

Thatpossibilityhasnowbeenfirmlyruledout."Shewillcome
outlikeatigress,"saidasource.
A SAMPLE ACTIVITY
TO DEVELOP
YOUR READING SKILLS
Multiple sources have confirmed that the condition of Tamil Nadu
Chief Minister J Jayalalithaa has improved significantly (notably,
considerably) in the past 48 hours and she has been off the
ventilator (repsirator, breathing apparatus) during the day. She is
on respiratory support only for some time in the night as a
precautionary (preventive, protective) measure (step, procedure,
means).
The CM however (but, yet, though), still continues to be in the
Critical Care Unit (CCU) at Apollo Hospital. Apart from antibiotics
(a medicine that inhibits the growth of or destroys
microorganisms), her treatment includes medication (medicine,
tablets, drugs) to help her in breathing and also nebulisation
(administering medication into the lungs). "We are not so worried
any more. We are a lot more relieved since this Monday," said a
source who is aware of Jayalalithaa's treatment.
AIADMK leaders who have access (right of entry, approach) to
information from inside the Critical Care Unit at Apollo Hospitals
also confirm that Jayalalithaa is conscious (aware of and
responding to one's surroundings) . "She is also aware of what is
happening around her," says CR Saraswathi, spokesperson
(representative, speaker) of the AIADMK.

The next step would be to slowly move her away from the bed,
where she has been for more than three weeks now, and make her
sit on a chair. Passive physiotherapy that Apollo's medical bulletins
(official statement, notice, announcement) say the CM is
undergoing (suffering, feeling, experiencing, go through), is part
of the treatment to help her do this.
But despite (in spite of, even though) the improvement, Apollo
Hospital and the Tamil Nadu government are fighting shy (introvert,
reserved, timid) of announcing it to the world. That is because
experience shows that an ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress
Syndrome) patient even when he or she shows dramatic
improvement, is deemed (think, consider, judged) vulnerable (weak,
at risk, helpless).
ARDS is a life-threatening (serious, grave, critical) medical condition,
characterized (indicate, specify, describe the features of) by
inflammation (irritation, swelling, soreness) in the lungs. Pneumonia
is the trigger (a small device that releases a spring or catch and so
sets off a mechanism, especially in order to fire a gun ) / (activate,
cause, start) for ARDS and that is one of the reasons why intensivist
(critical care physician) Dr. Richard Beale, an experienced
investigator (examiner, researcher) in the field of sepsis (infection),
ARDS and clinical nutrition, was flown (take flight, travel in an
airplane , run away) in from London to treat the CM.
Experts (specialists, professionals) point out that ARDS is known to
have a high mortality (death, humanity) of up to 50 percent. When it
is accompanied (go together with), with other ailments, it only
complicates (make difficult, make matters worse) the issue and the
treatment. In Jayalalithaa's case, her diabetes (describes a group of
metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose levels),
hypertension (high blood pressure) and cellulitis (bacterial infection
involving the inner layers of the skin) ailments (illness, sickness,
disease) mentioned in her 2014 bail (the temporary release of an
accused person awaiting trial ) plea (appeal, request, excuse) at the
Karnataka High court were factors the team of doctors took into
account (a report or description of an event or experience, a record or
statement of financial expenditure and receipts).
"If it was a 30-year-old patient, the body recovers (get well, improve,
make progress) that much faster. Since the CM is 68, she needs that
much more care," said a source.
Given her medical history, doctors are of the opinion (view, belief,
estimation) that her recovery (healing, revival, improvement) is
remarkable (notable, significant, noteworthy). But they would want
to monitor her for some more time as with her diabetes, the risk of
secondary infections always exists.
Hospitals, especially Intensive Care Units, are a more risky place for
critical patients. That is because hospitals are teeming (packed,
crowded, loaded) with virulent (strong, dangerous, active) bacteria.
If an infection is contracted from the community, it requires a basic
antibiotic for treatment. But if a patient contracts an infection from
the ICU, bacteria is likely to be resistant (unwilling, opposed to,
opposing) to basic antibiotics and doctors have to prescribe high-
end antibiotics. Such potent (strong, powerful, effective) antibiotics
in high dosage (measured quantity, prescribed amount) can lead to
side effects like diarrhea, renal failure (kidney failure), myopathy
(disease of the muscles) and neuropathy (disease of the nerves).
In order to ensure against any such complication (difficulty,
problem, barrier), Jayalalithaa has been kept in a part of the
Critical Care Unit where no other patient is admitted. This means
getting a secondary infection is out of the question.

It is expected that if the CM continues the same pace (speed,


rate, time) of progress (development, improvement,
advancement), she could be out of hospital soon. However, she
would still need significant rest, care and physiotherapy for at
least two months. It is not clear whether Apollo doctors would
prefer Jayalalithaa to rest under their supervision at the hospital
or send her home by the end of October.
Doctors, who are visibly relieved now, were not in the same
state of mind earlier this week. In fact, the hospital in
consultation (discussion, meeting, talk) with Dr. Richard Beale
and the team of specialists from AIIMS had reportedly decided
that if there is a further deterioration (worsening, weakening,
decline) in Jayalalithaa's health, she will be shifted to either
AIIMS in New Delhi or to a hospital abroad (overseas).

That possibility has now been firmly (confidently, strongly,


powerfully) ruled out (eliminate, exclude, cancel). "She will
come out like a tigress," said a source.
Some common errors
Incorrect: Have you received any informations?
Correct: Have you received any information?
The word information is uncountable in English. It does not have a plural
form.
Incorrect: We have bought new furnitures.
Correct: We have bought new furniture.
The word furniture does not have a plural form in English. To denote the
singular aspect of the noun, you can use an article of furniture or a piece of
furniture.
Incorrect: The machineries were expensive.
Correct: The machinery was expensive.
The word machinery does not have a plural form. It is uncountable and takes
a singular verb.
Incorrect: The sceneries here are beautiful.
Correct: The scenery here is beautiful.
Incorrect: Do not carry heavy luggages during travel.
Correct: Do not carry heavy luggage during travel.
Some common errors

Incorrect: He conveyed these news to his relatives.


Correct: He conveyed this news to his relatives.
The words scenery, luggage and news are uncountable in English.
They do not have a plural form.

Incorrect: There is no place in this compartment.


Correct: There is no room in this compartment.

Incorrect: Have you read this poetry?


Correct: Have you read this poem?

Incorrect: He has gone to foreign.


Correct: He has gone abroad.
Correct: He has gone to foreign countries.
ONE WORD / TWO WORDS LEARNING TIPS
In order to: Always used with space.
Example: In order to ensure against any such complication, Jayalalithaa has
been kept in a part of the Critical Care Unit.
In to: Used as two words when comes before a verb.
Example: The nurse came in to take off her bandages.
She was rushed in to be treated.
Into: Used as one word when comes before a non.
Example: She was rushed into the emergency room.
The trainer got into the class.

Some time: Used as two words when it refers to a duration of time.


Example: The visitors wanted to talk to her for some time.
I want to listen to the music for some time.
Sometime: Used as one word when it refers to some point in time.
Example: She had her toe amputated sometime in June.
I met him sometime in January.
ONE WORD / TWO WORDS LEARNING TIPS

Up to: This word is always used as two words.


Example: Her progress in health was not up to the doctors expectation.
The discount is up to 50%.

At least: Always used as two words.


Example: You should score at least 50% to pass the exam.

In fact: Always used as two words.


Example: In fact, her condition is worsening than what it was earlier.

Side effects: Always used as two words.


Example: Antibiotics in high dosage can lead to side effects .

Everyday / Every day: Used as one word when it plays the role of an adjective, in
all other instances, it is written as two words.
Example: Please bring your notebooks to class every day.
Happiness is an everyday affair.
LETS APPLY!!

Over time/overtime _________________, weve seen


dramatic changes.
Ive worked over time/overtime _________________,
several days this week.
Ill get around to it ______________ some
time/sometime.
He is _____________________ all ways/always correct.
We have to acknowledge that all ways/always.
___________ of God are allways/always ___________
correct and good for us.
Abbreviations Vs Acronyms

Abbreviations: Anabbreviation(from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a


shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken
from the word or phrase. Eg: USA, ICU, CCU, ARDS.

Acronyms: An abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words and
pronounced as a word. Eg: LASER, AIIMS, AIDS, NASA.

CHOOSE THE RIGHT OPTION

CM - Abbreviations/Acronyms
Dr. - Abbreviations/Acronyms
ICU - Abbreviations/Acronyms
CCU - Abbreviations/Acronyms
NATO - Abbreviations/Acronyms
MNC - Abbreviations/Acronyms
AIADMK - Abbreviations/Acronyms
BASIC - Abbreviations/Acronyms
Application of contextual thinking using
homonyms, homophones, homographs)

Mean (nasty, narrow, cheap) / mean (middle, average) / mean


(indicate/denote, imply, intend,

Contacted (communicated, called, written, phoned, emailed) / contracted


(thin, slim, slender)

Team (group, crew, panel) / teem (crowd, swarm, abound)

Weather (climate, meteorological conditions / whether (expressing a doubt or


choice between alternatives)

bullet in / bulletin: Bring the bullet in / bulletin.


Homonyms/homographs:
Patient (enduring, tolerant, persevering)/ patient (person receiving
medical treatment)

Contacted / contracted

AIIMS / aims

Whether / weather

State / state

Mind (pay attention, beware, watch / mind (brain, intellect)

Week (a period of seven days) / weak (feeble, delicate)

Shows (displays, expresses) / shows (plays, movies, films)


Capitalization: Capitalizationis the writing of a word with its
first letter in uppercase and the remaining letters in lowercase.

Capitalize the first word of a document and the first word after
a period.
Eg: Multiple sources have confirmed that the health condition of
Tamil Nadu Chief Minister J. Jayalalithaa has improved
significantly.

Capitalize proper nounsand adjectives derived from proper


nouns.
Eg: Chairman of the Board William Bly will preside at the
conference.

Capitalize specific geographical regions. Do not capitalize points


of the compass.
Eg: We had three relatives visit from the West.
Go west three blocks and then turn left.
Brand names: Hyundai, LG, Crocin, Lenovo.

Companies, Institutions: RVS Educational Trust, Infosys.

Days of the week and months of the year: Sunday,


Monday, January, October.

Governmental matters
Congress,the U.S. Constitution

Holidays: Christmas, Diwali, Pongal, Independence day.

Natural and manmade landmarks


Mount Everest, the Hoover Dam, the Ganges, Taj Mahal

Manmade structures:
the Empire State Building, the Eiffel Tower, the Titanic
Planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter.

Races, nationalities, and tribes: Eskimo, Badaga, Jew, East


Indian, Caucasian.

Religions and names of deities: Bible, Christ, Islam,


Hindu.

Special occasions: the Olympic Games, Jallikattu Festival

Streets, roads, towns, cities, states, districts,


countries : Nehru Nagar, Sulur, Kamarajar Street, Cochin,
Idukki, India, Asia.
Masculine Vs Feminine
Grammatical gender is a system of noun classification. A common gender
classification includesmasculineandfemininecategories.Masculinenouns are
words for men, boys and male animals.Femininenouns are words for women,
girls and female animals.

Actor actress Husband wife


Author authoress King queen
Bachelor spinster Man woman
Bridegroom bride Master mistress
Brother sister Murderer murderess
Daddy mummy Nephew niece
Duke duchess Poet poetess
Man woman Policeman policewoman
Emperor empress Prince princess
Father mother Sir madam
Grandfather grandmother Son daughter
Heir heiress Uncle aunt
Hero heroine Waiter waitress
Host hostess Tiger tigress
LETS APPLY!!
MASCULINE OR FEMINIE?

Host -
Lioness -
Prophetess -
Lord -
Maid -
Princess -
Niece -
Emperor -
Waiter -
Tigress -
Heir -
Gentlemen -
Male -
Cow -
Hen -
Words with re- / re
There is really only one rule that you need to learn to determine when to
hyphenate withre.

Rule:Use hyphen with the prefixre-only whenre-meansagain.

Re-cover/recover
Eg:Will she recover from her illness?
I have re-covered the sofa twice.

Re-create : to create again

Recreate to refresh by means of relaxation and enjoyment, as restore


physically or mentally

Represent: signify, denote, stand for

Re-present: to present again


Recollect: remember, recall, think of
Re-collect: to collect again

Re-serve: to serve again


Reserve: standby, store, book, set aside, keep

Re-sign: to sign again


Resign: leave, quit, give up job

Restore: bring back, return, reestablish, to return


Re-store: to store again
LETS APPLY!!
Select the correct answer
Please call the restaurant toreservea table.
Please call the restaurant tore-servea table.

Iresentthe file to you last night.


Ire-sentthe file to you last night.

Ill print out the letters again, and you canresignthem.


Ill print out the letters again, and you canre-signthem.

The tennis player will re-serve.


The tennis player will reserve.

Dont repress your emotions.


Dont re-press your emotions.

The contractor will re-lay the carpet.


The contractor will relay the carpet.