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English for Academic

Issues in Undergraduate
Writing and Reading
Group 1 :
Andira Ghea Fitria 16178006
Feby Ariyanti 16178019
Tia Marita 16178043
The History

Learner-centered approaches
Encouraged students to write fluently without direct
correction or focus on norm.

The Process Movement

Introduced to students pedagogies for writing, such as
invention, drafting, and revising text.
Current Discussion and Research,
and Pedagogical Implications

Text analysis and social construction

Moves analysis
Voice and social construction
Authors stance and social construction

Academic literacy in context

Effective texts are written for specific contexts, for specific situations in which the
writer is attempting to get something done.
The New London Group suggests 3 implications for teachers :

a) Teachers need seriously view literacy as socially constructed

b) Writers are constrained in any public literacy act not only by their own
purposes but also by the context.

c) Student literacies should consist of working with several modal designs.

In what theoretical and pedagogical frameworks should academic
writing classes be taught?

The concept of the social construction of texts in their multimodal forms

should be central to our teaching.

What should the content of academic reading and writing classes


A writing course should be devoted to develop students research skills,

and encouraging them to view purposeful writing and reading as situated
and genre driven.
What are we educating students for?

If students are to be educated as critical and observant citizens in

democratic societies, teachers need to assist them in researching how
writing can be effective in different situations, and how they can make
their textual voices heard within academic and political communities.

What is the place of contrastive rhetoric (CR) in the scheme of


The social construction of texts and issues such as voice and stance are
very much part of CR research. Teachers need to be sensitive to the
possibility of different linguistic and social perceptions among speakers
of different languages.

Practitioners are beginning to receive concrete help from

social constructivists. But it is a hard sell, many teachers have
little time to read about the relationship between theory and
practice. It is so much easier to teach context-free text structures.
Teacher should encourage students to think of each writing task
has the rules, but they vary, depending on the team, the situation,
and multiplicity of other factors.
Ear Learners and Error
in US College Writing
Group 1
Andira Ghea Fitria 16178006
Feby Ariyanti 16178019
Tia Marita 16178043
Ear Learner

People whose their first language is not

English, but they have learn English
principally through their ears: They
listened, took in oral language, such as
from teachers, television, videos, etc. In
this case, they are the second-generation
US residents.
Ear Learners and Disadvantages

Students non-academic spoken English is not valued by

the school system or by the teachers in the system.

Resident students are often saddled with prior academic

experiences that have led to failure, and the fear of
failure can interfere with or even negate learning.

They lack learning strategies and confidence, and they

have little information about college academic cultures.
Ear Learners VS Eye Learners

Both learning English as an additional language.

Both are diverse in individual aptitudes and personalities, preferred

learning styles and strategies, goals and motivation.

Both need guidance, and well-informed teachers who can facilitate

their learning.

Both differ in their language errors because they learn English

Strengths of Ear Learners

They have well-developed English oral fluency, and good listening


They understand reduced forms effortlessly, and they speak in highly

complex sentence structures without difficulty.

They recognize classroom behaviour.

They have control over what is hot and what is not.

They share a negative attitude towards the typical ESL classes they
test into.
Characteristics of Ear Learner English as a
Second Dialect

Short, simplex phrases, complex sentence

Short version of questions

Heavy use of personal pronoun

Frequent use of present tense

Limited range of academic vocabulary

Specialized vocabulary used to mark group membership

Writing Errors and Grammar Practice of US

Grammar errors
Errors become part the students internal grammar, because they contains
elements from both their L1 and L2 language. Many of errors in typical
developmental students essays were reiterations of a few consistent error

Grammar Practice and Errors

Some research demonstrated that grammar study impact only a little in students

Error Gravity
Research on ESL, errors included word order, verb tense, and word choice. Some
errors are listed as less serious errors, such as article errors, incorrect preposition
choice, lack of pronoun agreement, coma splices, and spelling errors.
Treatable Errors
Teacher should take a look on the level of difficulty that students have
in learning and remediating specific English language structures. Students may
be able to identify, correct, and monitor some of their errors easily. But some
errors, such as article and preposition errors, take a lifetime to remediate.

Strategies for Solutions

First solution is to help students not only to identify and correct their
errors but also to prioritize them.
Second, reading their writing aloud seems to help students hear errors
in that they often unconsciously some of their errors.
Third, peer tutors and NES friends can serve as editors and language

Both teacher and student who are willing to identify

and correct standard English errors cannot expect that
improvement in students writing will be neither quick nor
easy. Writing development of the students should continue
to occur during students study period in college.