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Environmental Health

Effects of Solid Waste Pollution


By
Dr. Syed Shajee Husain
Definition of Environmental Pollution:
The introduction of different harmful pollutants into certain environment
that make this environment unhealthy to live in

Definition of Solid Waste Pollution:


Any form of garbage, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant,
water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other
discarded materials including solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained
gaseous material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and
agricultural processes
Solid Waste

REFUSE
Solid waste in urban areas
LITTER
Solid waste in rural areas
GARBAGE
Waste from preparation, cooking and consumption of food
Major Sources of Solid Waste

Agriculture and
Industry
Municipal
Home
Street
Market

Total Production is 0.5-2.5 kg per capita


Features of solid waste:
Corrosive
these are wastes that include acids or bases that are
capable of corroding mental containers, e.g. tanks
Ignitability
this is waste that can create fires under certain condition,
e.g. waste oils and solvents
Reactive
these are unstable in nature, they cause explosions, toxic
fumes when heated.
Toxicity
waste which are harmful or fatal when ingested or
absorb.
Composition of Solid Waste

Food
Plastics
Street Garbage
Others (paper, glass,
metals, rubber)
Hazards of Solid Waste

Aesthetical nuisance
Breeding of vectors/rodents
Air Pollution
Injuries
Water and Soil pollution
3 Steps of Waste disposal

Storage

Collection

Disposal
3 Steps of Waste disposal
Storage

Small Covered dust bins


Large Community Bins
3 Steps of Waste disposal
Collection

House to house by sweepers


From community Bin by
Municipal corporation
(Lorry with Crain)
3 Steps of Waste disposal
Disposal

DUMPING Thrown in low lying area


Unacceptable and a health hazard

Sanitary Landfill Most satisfactory method


(A large prepared area for Refuse undergoes natural decomposition in 4-6 months
disposal of waste) Refuse is also converted into HUMUS by composting

Incineration
When refuse is dangerous
(burning waste at high
Produced with high frequency e.g hospitals
temperatures)
Dug in rural area where no other mechanism is available
Manure Pits (Done on daily basis)
In 4-6 months gets converted into manure

BURIAL Suitable for Camps


Dumping in Low Lying Area
Sanitary Landfill Composting
Incineration
Manure Pits
GLOBAL SITUATION
Every year, an estimated 11.2 billion tones of solid waste is collected
worldwide

Decay of the organic proportion of solid waste is contributing about 5


per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions

Every year, an estimated 11.2 billion tons of solid waste are collected
worldwide

Of all the waste streams, waste from electrical and electronic


equipment containing new and complex hazardous substances
presents the fastest-growing challenge in both developed and
developing countries.
Recommended Solutions:

Minimization of waste

Where waste cannot be avoided, recovery of materials and


energy from waste as well as remanufacturing and recycling
waste into usable products should be the second option

Recycling leads to substantial resource savings. For example,


for every ton of paper recycled, 17 trees and 50 per cent of
water can be saved.

Moreover, recycling creates jobs this sector employs 12


million people in Brazil, China and United States alone.
Situation in Malaysia
As documented in 9 Malaysia Planned(RM9) , our national domestic
recycling is just hovering around 5%. There was only 1% increase
per year. It is expected only 22% in 2020. This number is still very
low comparing to other developed country as in Japan which is
current practice is 50%.
Solid Waste legislation in Malaysia

Control of Toxic and Hazardous Wastes


Environmental Quality (Schedule wastes): Regulation 1989
Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Schedule waste treatment and
disposal facilities): Order 1989
Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Schedule waste treatment and
disposal facilities): Regulation 1989

Integration of Environment and Development


Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact
Assestment): Order 1987
THANKS