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# Biomedical Control Systems (BCS)

## Lecture 2: Block Diagram Reduction

Techniques

m.arif@faculty.muet.edu.pk
Components of a Block Diagram for
a Linear Time Invariant System
Introduction
A Block Diagram is a shorthand pictorial representation of the
cause-and-effect relationship of a system.

## The interior of the rectangle representing the block usually

contains a description of or the name of the element, or the
symbol for the mathematical operation to be performed on
the input to yield the output.

## The arrows represent the direction of information or signal

flow.
d
x y
dt
Introduction
The operations of addition and subtraction have a special
representation.

## The block becomes a small circle, called a summing point,

with the appropriate plus or minus sign associated with the
arrows entering the circle.

## Some books put a cross in the circle.

Introduction
In order to have the same signal or variable be an input to
more than one block or summing point, a takeoff point is
used.

## This permits the signal to proceed unaltered along several

different paths to several destinations.
Example-1
Consider the following equations in which x1, x2, x3, are
variables, and a1, a2 are general coefficients or mathematical
operators.

x3 a1 x1 a2 x2 5
Example-1
Consider the following equations in which x1, x2, x3, are
variables, and a1, a2 are general coefficients or mathematical
operators.
x3 a1 x1 a2 x2 5
Example-2
Consider the following equations in which x1, x2,. . . , xn, are
variables, and a1, a2,. . . , an , are general coefficients or
mathematical operators.

xn a1 x1 a2 x2 an 1 xn1
Example-3
Draw the Block Diagrams of the following equations.

dx1 1
(1) x2 a1 x1dt
dt b
d 2 x2 dx1
( 2) x3 a1 3 bx1
dt 2 dt
Open-Loop Transfer Function and Feed-forward
Transfer Function

The ratio of the feedback signal B(s) to the actuating error signal E(s) is
called the open-loop transfer function. That is,

The ratio of the output C(s) to the actuating error signal E(s) is called the
feed-forward transfer function, so that

If the feedback transfer function H(s) is unity, then the open-loop transfer
function and the feed-forward transfer function are the same.
Closed-Loop Transfer Function

The output C(s) and input R(s) are related as follows: since

## The transfer function relating C(s) to R(s) is called the closed-loop

transfer function.

C(s) is given by

## Matlab command to find the transfer function of cascaded system is;

Figure:
b) Equivalent Transfer Function.

Parallel Form:

## Matlab command to find the transfer function of parallel system is;

Parallel Form:

Figure:
a) Parallel Subsystems.
b) Equivalent Transfer Function.

Feedback Form:

## Figure: Feedback (Closed Loop) Control System.

The system is said to have negative feedback if the sign at the summing
junction is negative and positive feedback if the sign is positive.

## Matlab command to find the transfer function of feedback system is;

Feedback Form:

Figure:
a) Feedback Control System.
b) Simplified Model or Canonical Form.
c) Equivalent Transfer Function.

## The equivalent or closed-loop

transfer function is
Characteristic Equation
The control ratio is the closed loop transfer function of the
system.
C( s ) G( s )

R( s ) 1 G( s ) H ( s )

## The denominator of closed loop transfer function determines the

characteristic equation of the system.

## Which is usually determined as:

1 G( s )H ( s ) 0
Canonical Form of a Feedback Control System

The system is said to have negative feedback if the sign at the summing
junction is negative and positive feedback if the sign is positive.
B( s )
1. Open loop transfer function G( s ) H ( s )
E( s )
C( s )
2. Feed Forward Transfer function G( s )
E( s )
C( s ) G( s ) G(s )
3. control ratio
R( s ) 1 G( s ) H ( s )

B( s ) G( s ) H ( s )
4. feedback ratio
R( s ) 1 G( s )H ( s )

E( s ) 1 H (s )
5. error ratio
R( s ) 1 G( s ) H ( s )
C( s ) G( s )
6. closed loop transfer function
R( s ) 1 G( s ) H ( s )

7. characteristic equation 1 G( s )H ( s ) 0

## 8. closed loop poles and zeros if K=10.

Characteristic Equation
Unity Feedback System
Reduction techniques

G1 G2 G1G2

## 2. Combining blocks in parallel

G1
G1 G2
G2
Reduction techniques

## 3. Moving a summing point behind a block

G G
G
Reduction techniques
3. Moving a summing point ahead of a block

G G
1
G

G G
1
G

## 5. Moving a pickoff point ahead of a block

G G
G
Reduction techniques
6. Eliminating a feedback loop

G
G
1 GH
H

G
G
1 G

H 1

## 7. Swap with two neighboring summing points

A B B A
Block Diagram Transformation Theorems
Transformation Theorems Continue:
Transformation Theorems Continue:
Reduction of Complicated Block Diagrams:
Example-4: Reduce the Block Diagram to Canonical Form.
Example-4: Continue.

## However in this example step-6 does not apply.

Example-5: Simplify the Block Diagram.
Example-5: Continue.
Example-6: Reduce the Block Diagram.
Example-6: Continue.
Example-7: Reduce the Block Diagram. (from Nise: page-242)
Example-7: Continue.
Example-8: For the system represented by the following
block diagram determine:
1. Open loop transfer function
2. Feed Forward Transfer function
3. control ratio
4. feedback ratio
5. error ratio
6. closed loop transfer function
7. characteristic equation
8. closed loop poles and zeros if K=10.
Example-8: Continue
First we will reduce the given block diagram to canonical
form

K
s 1
Example-8: Continue

K
s 1

K
s 1
G
1 GH K
1 s
s 1
Example-8: Continue
B( s )
1. Open loop transfer function G( s ) H ( s )
E( s )
C( s )
2. Feed Forward Transfer function G( s )
E( s )
C( s ) G( s ) G(s )
3. control ratio
R( s ) 1 G( s ) H ( s )

4. feedback ratio B( s ) G( s )H ( s )
R( s ) 1 G( s )H ( s )

E( s ) 1 H (s )
5. error ratio
R( s ) 1 G( s ) H ( s )
C( s ) G( s )
6. closed loop transfer function
R( s ) 1 G( s ) H ( s )

7. characteristic equation1 G( s )H ( s ) 0

## 8. closed loop poles and zeros if K=10.

Example-9: For the system represented by the following block
diagram determine:
1. Open loop transfer function
2. Feed Forward Transfer function
3. control ratio
4. feedback ratio
5. error ratio
6. closed loop transfer function
7. characteristic equation
8. closed loop poles and zeros if K=100.
Example-10: Reduce the system to a single transfer function.
(from Nise:page-243).
Example-10: Continue.
Example-10: Continue.
Example-11: Simplify the block diagram then obtain the close-
loop transfer function C(S)/R(S). (from Ogata: Page-47)
Example-11: Continue.
Example-12: Reduce the Block Diagram.

H2

R _ C
+_ + G1 + G2 G3
+

H1
Example-12:

H2
G1
R _ C
+_ + + G1 G2 G3
+

H1
Example-12:

H2
G1
R _ C
+_ + + G1G2 G3
+

H1
Example-12:

H2
G1
R _ C
+_ + + G1G2 G3
+

H1
Example-12:

H2
G1
R _ C
G1G2
+_ + G3
1 G1G2 H1
Example-12:

H2
G1
R _ C
G1G2G3
+_ +
1 G1G2 H1
Example-12:

R G1G2G3 C
+_ 1 G1G2 H1 G2G3 H 2
Example-12:

R G1G2G3 C
1 G1G2 H1 G2G3 H 2 G1G2G3
Example 13: Find the transfer function of the following block
diagrams.

R(s ) Y (s )
G1 G2

H1 H2

H3
Solution:

1. Eliminate loop I

R(s ) A
G2 I
B
Y (s )
G1 G2
H1
1 GH2 H
2
2

H3
2. Moving pickoff point A behind block G2
1 G2 H 2

R(s ) A G2 B
Y (s )
G1
1 G2 H 2

1 G2 H 2 II
H1 1 G2 H 2
G2 H 3 H1 ( )
G2
H3 Not a feedback loop
3. Eliminate loop II

R(s ) G1G2 Y (s )
1 G2 H 2

H1 (1 G2 H 2 )
H3
G2

Y (s) G1G2

R( s ) 1 G2 H 2 G1G2 H 3 G1H1 G1G2 H1H 2
Superposition of Multiple Inputs
Example-14: Multiple Input System. Determine the output C due
to inputs R and U using the Superposition Method.
Example-14: Continue.
Example-14: Continue.
Example-15: Multiple-Input System. Determine the output C
due to inputs R, U1 and U2 using the Superposition Method.
Example-15: Continue.
Example-15: Continue.
Example-16: Multi-Input Multi-Output System. Determine C1
and C2 due to R1 and R2.
Example-16: Continue.
Example-16: Continue.

When R1 = 0,

When R2 = 0,
Skill Assessment Exercise: