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Biomedical Instrumentation I

Lecture-4: Biopotential Amplifiers & Filters

Dr Muhammad Arif, PhD


m.arif@faculty.muet.edu.pk
https://sites.google.com/site/mdotarif/teaching/bmi
Lecture Outline
Introduction to Biopotential Amplifiers
Low, Medium, and High Gain Biopotential Amplifiers
Typical Biopotential Amplifier Requirements
Operational Amplifiers
Basic Operational Amplifier Configurations
Summing Amplifier
Differential Amplifier
Main Stages of a Biopotential Amplifier
Instrumentation Amplifier
Isolation Amplifiers
Chopper Stabilized Amplifier
Integrators
Differentiators
Log-Antilog Amplifiers
Active and Passive Filters
Analog Filter Response Characteristics
Biopotential Amplifiers
Biopotential amplifier is a term given to amplifiers used to process
biopotential signals (e.g., ECG, EMG, EEG, EOG, etc.).

The designation applies to a large number of different types of amplifiers


(i.e., instrumentation amplifier, isolation amplifier, etc.).

The basic function of biopotential amplifier is to increase the amplitude of a


weak electric signal of biological origin.

Biopotential amplifiers typically process voltages, but in some cases they


also process currents.

The frequency response of typical bioelectric amplifiers may be from dc (or


near dc, i.e., 0.05 Hz) up to 100 kHz.
Biopotential Amplifiers
Some biopotential amplifiers are ac-coupled, while some are dc-coupled.

The dc-coupling is required where input signals are clearly dc or changes


very slowly.

At frequencies as low as 0.05Hz, the ac-coupling should be used instead of


dc-coupling.

This is to overcome the electrode offset potential.

Also, the skin-electrode interface generates dc offsets.

The gain of biopotential amplifiers can be low, medium or high (x10, x100,
x1000, x10000).
Biopotential Amplifiers
Low Gain Biopotential Amplifiers

i. Gain factors x1 and x10.

ii. The unity-gain amplifier is mainly for isolation, buffering and possibly
impedance transformation between signal source and readout device.

iii. Used for measurement of action potentials and other relatively high-
amplitude bioelectric events.
Biopotential Amplifiers
Medium Gain Biopotential Amplifiers

i. Gain factors x100 and x1000.

ii. Used for recording of ECG, EMG, etc.


Biopotential Amplifiers
High Gain Biopotential Amplifiers

i. Gain factors over x1000.

ii. Used in very sensitive measurement such as EEG.


Typical Biopotential Amplifier Requirements

The basic requirements that a biopotential amplifier has to satisfy are:

1.Biopotential amplifiers should have high input impedance i.e., greater than 10
M.

2. Safety: the amplifier should protect the organism being studied.


Careful design to prevent macro and micro shocks.
Isolation and protection circuitry to limit the current through the electrode to
safe level.

3.Output impedance of the amplifier should be low to drive any external load
with minimal distortion.

4.Gain of the amplifier is greater than x1000 as biopotentials are typically less
than a millivolt.
Typical Biopotential Amplifier Requirements

6. Most biopotential amplifiers are differential amplifier as signals are recorded


using a bipolar electrodes which are symmetrically located.

7. High common mode rejection ratio (CMMR): biopotentials ride on a large


offset signals or noise.

8. Rapid calibration of the amplifier in laboratory conditions.

9. Adjustable gains:
Often the change in scale is automatic.
Therefore calibration of the equipment is very important.
Typical Biopotential Amplifier Requirements

10. The physiological process to be monitored should not be influenced in any


way by the amplifier.

11. The measured signal should not be distorted.

12. The amplifier should provide the best possible separation of signal and
interferences.

13. The amplifier has to offer protection of the patient from any hazard of
electrical shock.

14. The amplifier itself has to be protected against damages that might result
from high input voltages as they occur during the application of defibrillators
or electrosurgical instrumentation.
Voltage and Frequency Ranges for
Some Important Biosignals
Operational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifier Circuit Symbol
Operational Amplifiers
Dual Power Supply Configuration for Operational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers
Dual Power Supply Connections for Operational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers
Typical Signal Voltage Sources for Operational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers
Differential and Common Mode Inputs for Operational Amplifiers

Ideally the differential gain should be, Ad =


The common mode gain should be, Acm = 0
The Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) = 20log10|Ad/Acm| =
Operational Amplifiers
The properties of Ideal Operational Amplifiers

1. Infinite open-loop voltage gain (Avol = )

2. Zero output impedance (Zo = 0)

3. Infinite input impedance (Zi = )

4. Infinite frequency response

5. Zero noise contribution


Operational Amplifiers
Practical Vs. Ideal Operational Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers
Open Loop Vs. Feedback

Note: Negative feedback is used to linearize a high-gain differential amplifier.


Operational Amplifiers
Comparator Operational Amplifier (Open-Loop or No Feedback)

.
Operational Amplifiers
Basic Operational Amplifier Configurations

There are many circuit configurations using op amps as the active device, but
only three basic classes of voltage amplifiers exist:

1. Inverting Amplifier
2. Non-inverting Amplifier
3. Unity Gain Non-inverting Amplifier
Operational Amplifiers
Basic Operational Amplifier Configurations

1. Inverting Amplifier
Operational Amplifiers
Basic Operational Amplifier Configurations

1. Inverting Amplifier (Circuit Detail Along with External Circuit Components )


Operational Amplifiers
Basic Operational Amplifier Configurations

2. Non-inverting Amplifier
Operational Amplifiers
Basic Operational Amplifier Configurations

2. Non-inverting Amplifier (Circuit Detail Along with External Circuit Components)


Operational Amplifiers
Basic Operational Amplifier Configurations

3. Unity Gain Non-inverting Amplifier

Also called voltage follower or non-inverting follower.


A 100% negative feedback is provided.
The unity gain non-inverting amplifier is used in applications such as output
buffering and impedance matching between a high source impedance and a
low-impedance input circuit.
Operational Amplifiers
Summing Amplifier or Multiple-Input Inverting Follower
Operational Amplifiers
Summing Amplifier or Multiple-Input Inverting Follower

Example: Find the output voltage in a circuit of summing amplifier, if R1, =


R2, = R3, = 10 k, R4, = 22 k, E1, = 100 mV, E2, = 500 mV, and E3, = 75 mV.

Solution
Differential Amplifier
A differential amplifier produces an output voltage that is proportional to the
difference between the voltage applied to the two input terminals.
Differential Amplifier
The voltage gain for the differential signals is the same as for the inverting
followers, provided the ratio equality of R2/R1 = R4/R3 is maintained.

Differential amplifiers are useful because it rejects common voltages while


amplifying the differential signal of interest.

Example:
Suppose equal 50 Hz supply noise is present on each input of the
differential amplifier, and one input is at 5 Vdc while the other is at 1 Vdc.

The circuit removes the noise and amplifies the 4 Vdc differential signal.
Main Stages of a Biopotential Amplifier
Three electrodes connect the patient to a preamplifier stage.
After removing dc and low-frequency interferences, the signal is connected
to an output low-pass filter through an isolation stage which provides
electrical safety to the patient, prevents ground loops, and reduces the
influence of interference signals.
Instrumentation Amplifier
A solution to both high-gain and high-input impedance problem.
Uses three operational amplifiers.
Two input amplifier is connected in the non-inverting follower configuration.
Third amplifier is connected as a simple dc amplifier circuit.
Instrumentation Amplifier
Instrumentation Amplifier
Advantages of Instrumentation Amplifier

i. Ability to obtain high gain with low resistor values.

ii. Extremely high input impedance.

iii. Superior rejection of common-mode signals.


Instrumentation Amplifier
Example: Find the gain of an instrumentation amplifier (IA) if the following
resistor values are used: R1, = 10 k. RG, = 500 , R2 = 10 k , and R3, =
100 k.
Isolation Amplifier
Some hospital patients are extraordinarily susceptible to electrical shock
hazards.

To prevent accidental internal cardiac shock, the manufacturers of modem


bioelectric amplifiers, especially those used in ECG recording, use isolation
amplifiers (iso-amps) for the direct patient connection.

These amplifiers provide as much as 10 M of insulation (isolation)


between the patient connector and the ac power main line cord.
Isolation Amplifier
Basic Design

Isolation Barrier

The isolation barrier can be


1.Inductive (i.e., Transformer),
2.Optical (i.e., Optocoupler),
3.Capacitive.
Isolation Amplifier
The isolation amplifier usually composed of the following;

1.Input Amplifier
2.Modulator
3.Isolation Barrier
4.Demodulator
5.Output amplifier

Modulation schemes include amplitude, voltage-to-frequency, duty cycle, pulse


width, and others.

Barrier can be optical, magnetic transformer, capacitive, or even heat transfer.

Electrical energy on the modulator side is converted to some "non-electrically


conductive energy in the barrier and then converted back to electrical energy
on the demodulator side.
Isolation Amplifier
Circuit Symbol
Isolation Amplifier
Isolation Amplifier Vs. Instrumentation Amplifier

Note: CMR = Common Mode Rejection, and IMR = Isolation Mode Rejection.
Isolation Amplifier
The modern isolation amplifiers serve three purposes:

1.They break ground loops to permit incompatible circuits to be interfaced


together while reducing noise.

2.They amplify signals while passing only low leakage current to prevent shock
to people or damage to equipment.

3.They withstand high voltage to protect people, circuits , and equipment.


Isolation Amplifier
Transformer Coupled or Carrier Type Isolation Amplifier
Isolation Amplifier
Single Package Transformer Coupled or Carrier Type Isolation Amplifier

(ISO212, Burr-Brown Corporation)


Isolation Amplifier
Optical Coupled Isolation Amplifier
Isolation Amplifier
Single Package Optical Coupled Isolation Amplifier

(ISO100, Burr-Brown Corporation)


Isolation Amplifier
Single Package Capacitive Coupled Isolation Amplifier

(ISO121, Burr-Brown Corporation)


Isolation Amplifier
Fiber Optic Isolation Amplifier

Fiber-optic isolation amplifier using voltage-to frequency converter eliminates


power supply feed through and noise coupling.

(Burr-Brown Corporation)
Analog channel-to-channel Isolation

(Eight Channel Differential Input DAS, Burr-Brown Corporation)


Analog Isolation

(Eight Channel Differential Input Medical Diagnostic System)


Digital Isolation

(Eight Channel Differential Input Medical Diagnostic System)


Chopper Stabilized Amplifier
The chopper amplifier helps to remove the noise and dc drift in high-gain
amplifiers which are used for very weak biopotentials.
Integrators
Integrators are function as low-pass filters.

Integration is a mathematical process that allows us to find the area under


the curve defined by a function.

If the function is a time dependent voltage, then the integrator circuit may be
used to integrate the voltage function.
Integrators
The transfer equation of the analog integrator is
Integrators
Integrator Operational Amplifier Circuit
Integrators
Example: An analog integrator uses a 1 M resistor and a 0.2 F
capacitor Find the output voltage after 1 sec if the input voltage is a
constant 0.5 V.

Solution
Differentiators
Differentiators are function as high-pass filters.

The differentiator circuit produces a voltage output proportional to the time


rate of change of the input signal voltage.

Differentiation is the inverse process of integration.

The circuit is similar to the integrator, except that the resistor R, and
capacitor C, have changed places.
Differentiators
The transfer function of a differentiator is
Differentiators
Differentiator Operational Amplifier Circuit
Differentiators
Example: Find the output voltage produced by an operational amplifier
differentiator, if R1, = 100 k, C1, = 0.5 F, and Ein has a constant slope
(i.e., a ramp function) of 400 V/s.

Solution
Log-Antilog Amplifiers
Logarithmic Amplifier
Log-Antilog Amplifiers
Antilog Amplifier
Filters
Filters may be classified as either digital or analog.

Digital Filters

Digital filters are implemented using a digital computer or special purpose


digital hardware, i.e., FIR and IIR filters.

Analog filters

Analog filters may be classified as either passive or active and are usually
implemented with R, L, and C components and operational amplifiers.
Filters
Active Filter

An active filter is one that, along with R, L, and C components, also contains an
energy source, such as that derived from an operational amplifier.

Passive Filter

A passive filter is one that contains only R, L, and C components. It is not


necessary that all three be present. L is often omitted (on purpose) from
passive filter design because of the size and cost of inductors and they also
carry along an R that must be included in the design.
Filters
Analog Filters
Analog Filter Response Characteristics
Av
Magnitude (dB)

Butterworth
Bessel
Chebyshev

Frequency (f)
f
Analog Filters
Butterworth Characteristics

Very flat amplitude, Av(dB) ,


response in the passband. Av
Role-off rate is
20dB/decade/pole.

Magnitude (dB)
Phase response is not
linear.
Used when all frequencies
in the passband must have
f
the same gain. Frequency (f)
Often referred to as a
maximally flat response.
Analog Filters
Chebyshev Characteristics

Overshoot or ripples in
Av
the passband.
Role-off rate greater than

Magnitude (dB)
20dB/decade/pole.
Phase response is not
linear - worse than
Butterworth.
Used when a rapid roll- f
off is required. Frequency (f)
Analog Filters
Bessel Characteristics

Flat response in the passband.


Role-off rate less than Av
20dB/decade/pole.

Magnitude (dB)
Phase response is linear.
Used for filtering pulse
waveforms without distorting
the shape of the waveform.
f
Frequency (f)
Analog Filters
Pole of the Filter

A pole is nothing more than an RC circuit.

A n-pole filter contains n-RC circuit.


Filters
Low-pass Filter
Analog Filters
Single Pole or First Order Low-pass Filter
A first order low pass Butter-worth filter using an RC network for filtering,
operational amplifier is used in non-inverting configuration, R1 and Rf decides
the gain of the filter.

Magnitude (dB)

Frequency (f)
Analog Filters
Single Pole or First Order Low-pass Filter
A first order low pass using an RC network for filtering, operational amplifier is
used in inverting configuration, R1 and R2 decides the gain of the filter.
Analog Filters
Two Pole (Sallen-Key) Low-pass Filter

C2

+V
R2 R1
+
vin
C1 vout
- Rf1
-V

Rf2
Analog Filters
Three Pole Low-pass Filter

Stage 1 Stage 2
C2

+V
R2 R1
+ +V
vin R3
+
C1
- Rf1 C3 vout
-V - Rf3
-V
Rf2

Rf4
Analog Filters
High-pass Filter
Analog Filters
Single Pole or First Order High-pass Filter

Magnitude (dB)
Frequency (f)
Analog Filters
Single Pole or First Order High-pass Filter
Analog Filters
Two Pole (Sallen-Key) High-pass Filter

R2

+V
C2 C1
+
vin
R1 vout
- Rf1
-V

Rf2
Analog Filters
Band-pass Filter
Analog Filters
Single Pole or First Order Band-pass Filter
Analog Filters
Two Pole Band-pass Filter

C2 R4

+V
R2 R1 +V
+ C4 C3
vin +
C1 - R3
Rf1 - vout
-V
Rf3
-V
Rf2
Rf4
Stage 1 Stage 2
Two-pole low-pass Two-pole high-pass
Analog Filters
Two Pole Band-pass Filter Response

Av

Stage 2 Stage 1
response BW response

f
f1 fo f2

Bandwidth (BW) = f2 f1
Quality Factor (Q) = f0 / BW
Analog Filters
Band-reject or Band Stop or Notch Filter
Analog Filters
Band-reject or Band Stop or Notch Filter
The band reject filter is designed to block all frequencies that fall within its
bandwidth.

The band reject filter circuit is made up of a high pass filter, a low-pass
filter and a summing amplifier.

The summing amplifier will have an output that is equal to the sum of the
filter output voltages.
Av(dB)
Low pass
filter low-pass high-pass

f1
Summing
amplifier
{
-3dB

High pass
filter

vin vout

f2 f
f1 f2
Analog Filters
Band-reject or Band Stop or Notch Filter
Analog Filters
Band-reject or Band Stop or Notch Filter Response
Questions?