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Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College,


Topic:-Stretching or Drawing of Spun Fibres
Submitted to:- Er. Praveen Kumar(OIC Textile dept.)
Submitted by:- Suraj ( BT4090032),
T.E.-7th sem.
Stretching or Drawing of Spun Fibres
What is Drawing?

It is defined as a process of stretching spun fiber on a roller at

a specific draw ratio to significantly align the fiber molecules
result in a higher degree of crystallinity, orientation and
enhance physical properties.

Synthetic fibres produced by melt spinning or wet or dry

spinning processes have very high extensibility value and low
strength .
Drawing also Stabilizes the filament to the physical, chemical
or atmospheric influences.
Drawing consists of irreversible elongation of as-spun yarn in
solid state to 20-2000 percent of its original length.

The extent to which a fibre can be drawn is dependent,

amongst other things, on the spinning speeds employed in the
extrusion of the fibre.
The drawing methodologies also vary depending on spinning
speeds and end use applications.
Drawing methodologies
Fibres spun speed Type of extruded Description
6000 m/min FOY used directly without the need for drawing
for some special end uses
4000 to HOY the drawing operation is generally integrated
with spinning
1500 to POY either draw-twisted, draw-textured or the
drawing operation is integrated with
500 to 1500 LOY generally draw-twisted
Why do we need Drawing?

To develop the fiber strength, polymer molecules in both the

crystalline and the non-crystalline regions are further oriented

by elongating the fiber between two rolls at different speeds.

Higher draw ratio generally leads to higher molecular

orientation and thus higher fiber strength.


Mostly, increasing the drawing speed (higher elongation rate),

drawing at a temperature lower than appropriate, or increasing
the orientation of the feeder yarn from the spinning process
decreases the fiber uniformity and quality.
Therefore, spinning and drawing are best operated as an
integral process to control the fiber morphology, physical
properties, and end-uses.
Drawing condition

Draw ratio
Draw speed
Draw temperature
The drawing unit
The nature of the load-extension behaviour
The mechanism of drawing through a neck

When a fibre is drawn, some portion of it will be under higher

stress than the remainder.
the stress-strain curve is steep and small differences in stress
here will not make the strain level in the weaker portion much
different from that in the remainder.
At the yield point, however, small differences in stress values
will produce large differences in strain and hence the thin
portion will start getting thinner
A neck will appear and the material will start drawing through
the neck.
For drawing through a neck, it is essential that as soon as the
neck is formed, the thin portion must strain harden to a
constant diameter.
Neck formation is caused by mechanical instability occasioned
by strain softening, and cold drawing or drawing through a
neck is accomplished by stabilization of the neck through
strain hardening resulting from molecular orientation.
Influence of drawing on structure and properties
of fibres
Drawing-induced structural changes
The influence of draw ratio on crystallinity
for polypropylene fibre is presented in Fig.
It can be seen that crystallinity increases
initially with increasing stretch ratio and
then tends to peak at around a draw ratio of
Above this level the crystallinity shows a
significant decrease.
The amorphous layer thickness, however,
continues to rise, though at a reduced rate.
Drawing Stress

While an increase in draw ratio increases

molecular orientation, it also increases the
drawing tension
A high drawing tension results in chain
scission so the maximum permitted draw
ratio for a given drawing condition will be
limited by the rate at which the molecular
discontinuities accumulate.
Molecular Discontinuities

In the first stages of the stretching process the concentration of

end groups varies only slightly and the number of
discontinuities increases rapidly as stretching continues.
The process of orientation stretching terminates when the
concentration of end groups reaches a critical magnitude.
The critical concentration of end groups for specimens
stretched at room temperature is reached sooner and at a lower
draw ratio than for a polymer orientation-stretched at a
temperature nearer the melting point.