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Define exponential functions that have bases other

than e
Differentiate and integrate functions that have
other bases
Use Exponential functions to model compound
interest and exponential growth
The base of the natural exponential function is e. This base can
be used to assign meaning to a general base a

The laws of exponents apply here as well:

1. a0 = 1
2. axay = ax+y
3. ax/ay = ax y
4. (ax)y= axy
Ex 1 p. 360 Radioactive Half-life Model
The half-life of carbon-14 is about 5715 years. A sample
contains 1 gram of carbon-14. How much will be present in
10,000 years?
Solution: Let t = 0 represent the present time and y represent the
amount (in grams) of carbon-14. Using a base of , you can model y by
the equation

1 5715 If t = 0, y = 1 gram. If t = 5715, then y = , which

y would be correct.
1 5715
y .2973468
Remember, this is just the change of base rule youve seen
before, just in a new setting!
Logarithmic Properties still apply
1. log a 1 0
2. log a xy log a x log a y
3. log a log a x log a y
4. log a x n n log a x

Exponential functions f ( x) a x
and logarithmic functions g ( x) log a x
are inverse functions
So as review, well work with these properties with bases other
than base e
Ex. 2a, p. 361
Take the log base 3 to each side
log3 3 log 3


x log 3 35
x 5
Ex. 2b, p. 361

7 log 2 x Exponentiate each side using

base 2

2 2
7 log 2 x

2 x

128 x
When thinking of these derivatives, it is often helpful to think of
them as natural exponential things or as natural log things.

d d ln a x d
e log a x d 1 ln x
dx dx dx dx ln a
ln a x d
e ln a x
1 1
ln a x
e ln a x ln a ln a a x
Ex 3 p. 362 Differentiating functions to other bases.
Find the derivative of each function.

a. y 2x y ' (ln 2)2 x

b. y 25 x y ' (ln 2)2 (5) 5ln 2 25 x


c. y log sin x log with no base shown is

a common log, base 10
cos x cot x
(ln10)sin x ln10
Sometimes an integrand will work with a exponential
function involving another base than e. When this occurs, we
can do one of two things convert to base e using the formula
a x e(ln a ) x and integrate, or integrate directly, using the
following formula:
1 x
a dx ln a a C

Ex 4 p. 363 Integrating an exponential function with base 3

1 x
3 dx 3 C
ln 3
When the power rule was introduced in Ch. 2, we limited it to
rational exponents. Now the rule is extended to cover all real
This next example compares the derivatives of four different
functions involving exponents. Be CAREFUL!
d 2e
a. e 0 Constant rule
d 2x
b. e 2e2 x Exponential rule
d e
c. x ex e 1 Power rule
d. x x yx x
Logarithmic differentiation required!
ln y ln x x x ln x
y' 1
x ln x(1) 1 ln x
y x
y ' y 1 ln x x x
1 ln x
5.5a p.366/ 3-60 mult 3