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After moulding, preparing the molten metal

plays an important role for casting.

The molten metal is extracted from the
furnace by melting the raw materials.
The various types of furnaces are:
1. Cupola furnace,
2. Electric arc furnace,
3. Pit furnace,
4. Tilting / Rotary furnace,
5. Open hearth furnace.
It is a cylindrical shaft furnace and the shell
is made of 6 12 mm thick boiler plate and
lined inside with refractory bricks. The
refractory bricks consist of oxides of silica
and alumina. This lining is thicker at the
bottom than in the upper regions.
On the basis of reactions the entire shaft of
the Cupola furnace is divided as:
1. Crucible Zone.
2. Tuyere Zone.
3. Combustion Zone.
4. Reducing Zone.
5. Melting Zone.
6. Preheating Zone.
7. Stack Zone.
Crucible Zone
It is between top of the sand bed and bottom
of the tuyeres.
The molten metal is accumulated here.
This is known as Well (or) Hearth of the

Tuyere Zone
It is between bottom of the tuyeres to top of
the tuyeres where hot air enters the furnace.
Combustion (or) Oxidizing Zone
The temperature reaches to 15000C 18500C
and the molten drops of cast iron enter into
the hearth.
The chemical reactions occur in this zone
C + O2 CO2 + Heat
Si + O2 SiO2 + Heat
Mn + O2 MnO2 + Heat
Reducing Zone
It extends from top of combustion zone to
top of the coke bed.
Here CO2 reduces to CO [Carbon Monoxide]
and the temperature drops above 12000C.
Due to these reactions the charge is
protected from any oxidation influence.
Melting Zone
It is the first layer of the iron above the coke
bed, melting of iron starts from this zone.
A considerable amount of iron is picked up
by the molten metal.
CO2 + C 2CO Heat (Reducing Zone)
3Fe + 2CO Fe3C + CO2 Heat
Preheating Zone
It is above melting zone and extends up to
bottom of the charging door.
This zone contains alternate layers of coke,
flux, pig iron, scrap and are heated up to
Stack Zone
It extends from preheating zone to the top of
cupola furnace.
In this the gasses evolve from the preheating
zone will be carried away to the atmosphere.
Preparation of the Cupola
Firing the Cupola
Charging the Cupola
Soaking of iron
Opening the air blast
Tapping and Slagging
Electric arc furnaces are used for melting
and refining all kinds of steels including
stainless steel and other alloy steels.
In this furnace, the source of heat is
continuous (or) established between the
electrodes and the charged material.
It converts electric energy to thermal energy
by creating arc between the electrodes and
the charge.
The charge is placed in a furnace through the
roof and then closed.
The electrodes are lowered.
The power supply is switched on.
The three carbon electrodes carry current.
Heat is generated when resistance is offered
to the electricity flow.
In this case, the metal charge provides
resistance and when the metal is melted, the
slag offers resistance within 2 hours.
The charge melts.
The power is switched off, the electrodes are
The furnace is tilted to pour the molten
metal in to the ladle.
The temperature in the furnace can be as
high as 19250c.
Arc furnaces are classified as follows.
1. Direct arc furnace,
2. Indirect arc furnace.
It consists of a round, bowl shaped carbon
hearth with a dome shaped roof supporting
one or more carbon electrodes through which
the current passes.
The arc forms between the charged material
and the electrode, the charge is heated both
by current passing through the charge and by
the radiant energy evolved by the arc.
This type of furnace can be used either
stationary or made to tilt.
The roof is usually so made that it can be
removed for charging purposes.
The capacity of these furnaces for
production work varies from 3 to 10 tons.
These are best suited for laboratory work
where very small quantity of a few kg is
needed for research work.
These furnaces give high melting rate, high
pouring temperature and excellent control of
metal analysis and temperature.
The fig shows the direct arc furnace.
Itconsists of a horizontal cylinder lined with
a refractory material with two electrodes on
the horizontal axis.
An arc is struck is between the electrodes in
the center of the furnace.
The arc doesnt come in contact with the
metal to be melted, the heat being given to
the charge by radiation from the arc and
reflection from the walls of the furnace.
The furnace is designed to give a rocking
motion as the melting proceeds, thus
quickening up the melt by distributing the
heat more rapidly.
The charging, tapping and slagging are done
through an opening in the side of the
It is used for the melting of non-ferrous
Its capacity may range from 30 to 150 kg.
The types of crucible furnace are:
1. Pit furnace
2. Coke fired stationery furnace
3. Oil fired tilting furnace
4. Pot furnace.
Asthe name implies, it is made in the form
of a pit below the ground level, so that the
crucible can be conveniently lifted,
operating from the floor of the shop.
Crucibles are made up of refractory materials or
alloy steels.
The crucible is placed in a pit below the floor
The furnace is usually fired with coke.
Sufficient coke is being packed round and above
the crucible pot, to melt and superheat the
charge without reheating with coke.
When the metal reaches the desired
temperature, the crucible is lifted from the pit
and the molten metal is poured in to the mould.
Itis provided with a removable fire gate and
ash pit below the furnace.
The inner lining of the furnace above the
gate is made of fire-bricks and the natural
draught provided by a tall chimney is
controlled by means of a loose brick or
damper at the foot of the stack.
Crucible furnaces are used to melt non-
ferrous metals like bronze, brass, aluminium
and zinc alloys.
The crucible is placed in a pit below the
floor level, it is fired with coke.
The charge to be melted is placed in
crucible; coke is packed around the crucible.
Natural draft is provided by a tall chimney.
Many crucibles can be placed in a single pit.
After the metal is melted, the covers are
removed, the crucibles are lift out with the
help of tongs and taken to pouring placed.
This furnace is used for melting non ferrous