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Chapter 1

Introduction

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Introduction 1-1
Chapter 1: Introduction
Our goal: Overview:
get feel and whats the Internet
terminology whats a protocol?
more depth, detail network edge
later in course network core
approach:
access net, physical media
use Internet as
Internet/ISP structure
example
performance: loss, delay,
throughput
protocol layers, service
models
network modeling

Introduction 1-2
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-3
Whats the Internet: nuts and bolts view
millions of connected
PC
computing devices: hosts = end Mobile network
systems (=station/nodes) server
Global ISP
running network apps wireless
laptop
Web/Outlook/P2P/Gaming
cellular
communication links handheld Home network
fiber, copper, radio, satellite Regional ISP
transmission rate = bandwidth access
(in bps) points
wired Institutional network
routers: forward packets
links
(chunks of data)
SOHO router
Core(backbone) router
router
Post office handles mails

Introduction 1-4
Cool internet appliances

Web-enabled toaster +
weather forecaster

IP picture frame
http://www.ceiva.com/

Worlds smallest web server


http://www-ccs.cs.umass.edu/~shri/iPic.html Internet phones

Digital Camera
Introduction 1-5
Whats the Internet: nuts and bolts view
protocols control sending, router workstation
receiving of msgs
server
e.g., TCP, IP, HTTP, FTP, PPP, mobile
P2P
local ISP
Internet: network of
networks
loosely hierarchical
public Internet versus private regional ISP
intranet
(office/home/military)
Internet standards
RFC: Request for comments
IETF: Internet Engineering
company
Task Force
network
Homework #1 : RFC vs. IETF Introduction 1-6
Whats the Internet: a service view
communication infrastructure
enables distributed
applications:
Web, email, games, e-commerce,
file sharing
Established by ISP/NSP
communication services
provided to apps:
Connectionless unreliable
VOIP/Webcam/surveillance/
connection-oriented reliable
Ftp/E-mail/...

Q: on-line Game ?
Q: remote GAS reading and
control ?
Introduction 1-7
Whats a protocol?
network protocols:
human protocols:
machines rather than
whats the time? humans
I have a question all communication activity
Introductions in Internet governed by
Yes/No symbol protocols
Super straight
India vs. Taiwan
Enemy or Friend ? (FAKE!)
specific msgs sent
specific actions taken when protocols define format,
msgs received, or other order of msgs sent and
events received among network
entities, and actions
Q : driving rule, exam ?
taken on msg
Q : friendship ?
Q : restaurant order process?
transmission, receipt
Introduction 1-8
Whats a protocol?
a human protocol and a computer network protocol:

Hi TCP connection
req
Hi
TCP connection
Got the response
time? Get http://www.awl.com/kurose-ross
2:00
<file>
time

Q: Other human protocols?


Introduction 1-9
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-10
A closer look at network structure:
network edge:
applications and
hosts (PC) peer-peer
network core:
routers
network of
networks client/server

access networks,
physical media:
communication links
Ethernet/wireless
Introduction 1-11
The network edge:
end systems (hosts):
run application programs
e.g. Web, email
at edge of network
client/server model
client host requests, receives
service from always-on server
e.g. Web browser/server;
email client/server
peer-peer model:
minimal (or no) use of
dedicated servers
e.g. Gnutella, KaZaA
Introduction 1-12
Network edge: connection-oriented service

Goal: data transfer TCP service [RFC 793]


between end systems
reliable, in-order byte-
handshaking: setup stream data transfer
(prepare for) data loss: acknowledgements
transfer ahead of time and retransmissions
Hello, hello back human flow control:
protocol
sender wont overwhelm
set up state in two receiver
communicating hosts
Postoffice box congestion control:
senders slow down sending
TCP - Transmission
rate when network
Control Protocol congested
Internets connection-
oriented service Introduction 1-13
Network edge: connectionless service

Goal: data transfer Apps using TCP:


between end systems HTTP (Web), FTP (file
same as before! transfer), Telnet
UDP - User Datagram (remote login), SMTP
Protocol [RFC 768]: (email)
connectionless
unreliable data Apps using UDP:
transfer streaming media,
no flow control teleconferencing, DNS,
no congestion control Internet telephony

Introduction 1-14
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-15
The Network Core
mesh of interconnected
routers
the fundamental
question: how is data
transferred through net?
circuit switching:
dedicated circuit per
call: telephone net /
hot line / Train / MRT
packet-switching: data
sent thru net in
discrete chunks
INTERNET / Roadway

Introduction 1-16
Network Core: Circuit Switching

End-end resources
reserved for call
link bandwidth, switch
capacity
dedicated resources:
no sharing
(money oriented)
circuit-like
(guaranteed)
performance
call setup required

Introduction 1-17
Network Core: Circuit Switching
network resources dividing link bandwidth
(e.g., bandwidth) into pieces
divided into pieces frequency division
pieces allocated to calls time division
resource piece idle if wavelength division
not used by owning call code division
(no sharing)

Bandwidth Wastage
Q : Class room /
Airplane / Hotel ?

Introduction 1-18
Circuit Switching: FDM and TDM
Example:
FDM
4 users

frequency

time
TDM

frequency

time
QWDM/CDM ???
Introduction 1-19
Numerical example
How long does it take to send a file of
640,000 bits from host A to host B over a
circuit-switched network?
All links are 1.536 Mbps
Each link uses TDM with 24 slots
500 msec to establish end-to-end circuit

Work it out!

A500ms+ (640kb/1536kb/s)*24
= 500ms + 10s = 10.05s
Introduction 1-20
Network Core: Packet Switching
each end-end data stream resource contention:
divided into packets aggregate resource
user A, B packets share demand can exceed
network resources amount available
each packet uses full link
congestion: packets
bandwidth
queue, wait for link use
resources used as needed
store and forward:
(on demand)
packets move one hop
at a time
Bandwidth division into Node receives complete
packet before forwarding
pieces
Dedicated allocation Q : Rest Room / Bus / BookStore
Resource reservation BoyorGirl Friend ?
Introduction 1-21
Packet Switching: Statistical Multiplexing
10 Mb/s
A Ethernet statistical multiplexing C

1.5 Mb/s
B
queue of packets
waiting for output
link

D E

Sequence of A & B packets does not have fixed


pattern statistical multiplexing.
In TDM each host gets same slot in revolving TDM
frame.
Introduction 1-22
Packet switching versus circuit switching
Packet switching allows more users to use network!
1 Mb/s link
each user:
100 kb/s when active
active 10% of time

N users
circuit-switching: 1 Mbps link
10 users

packet switching:
with 35 users,
probability > 10 active
less than .0004
A : P = S{10<x<36}(p^x)((1-p)^(35-x)) , p=0.1 Introduction 1-23
Packet switching versus circuit switching
Is packet switching a slam dunk winner?

Great for bursty data


resource sharing
simpler, no call setup

Excessive congestion: packet delay and loss


protocols needed for reliable data transfer,
congestion control
Q: How to provide circuit-like behavior?
bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video apps
still an unsolved problem (chapter 6)

Introduction 1-24
Packet-switching: store-and-forward
L
R R R

Takes L/R seconds to Example:


transmit (push out) packet L = 7.5 Mbits
of L bits on to link or R bps R = 1.5 Mbps
(transmission delay)
delay = 15 sec
Entire packet must arrive
at router before it can be
transmitted on next link:
store and forward
delay = 3L/R

Introduction 1-25
Packet Switching: Message Segmenting

Now break up the message


into 5000 packets
Each packet 1,500 bits
1 msec to transmit
packet on one link
pipelining: each link
works in parallel
Delay reduced from 15
sec to 5.002 sec

Introduction 1-26
Packet-switched networks: forwarding
Goal: move packets through routers from source to
destination
well study several path selection (i.e. routing) algorithms
(chapter 4)
datagram network:
destination address in packet determines next hop
routes may change during session (dynamic route)
analogy: driving, asking directions
virtual circuit network:
each packet carries tag (virtual circuit ID), tag
determines next hop
fixed path determined at call setup time, remains fixed
thru call (fixed route)
routers maintain per-call state
Introduction
analogy : freeway (baggage) 1-27
Network Taxonomy
Telecommunication
networks

Circuit-switched Packet-switched
networks networks

FDM Networks Datagram


TDM WDM CDM
with VCs Networks

Datagram network is not either connection-oriented


or connectionless. (concept !!!)
Internet provides both connection-oriented (TCP) and
connectionless services (UDP) to apps.
Introduction 1-28
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-29
Access networks and physical media
Q: How to connect end
systems to edge router?
residential access nets
institutional access
networks (school,
company)
mobile access networks

Keep in mind:
bandwidth (bits per
second) of access
network?
shared or dedicated?
Introduction 1-30
Residential access: point to point access

Dialup via modem (RADIUS)


up to 56Kbps direct access to
router (often less)
Cant surf and phone at same
time: cant be always on

ADSL: asymmetric digital subscriber line


up to 1 Mbps upstream (today typically < 256 kbps)
up to 8 Mbps downstream (today typically < 2 Mbps)
FDM: 50 kHz - 1 MHz for downstream
4 kHz - 50 kHz for upstream
0 kHz - 4 kHz for ordinary telephone

Q : Home PNA ? Power line ? VHDSL : 12Mbps Introduction 1-31


Residential access: cable modems

HFC: hybrid fiber coax


asymmetric: up to 30Mbps downstream, 2
Mbps upstream
network of cable and fiber attaches homes to
ISP router
homes share access to router
deployment: available via cable TV companies
FTTH (EPON) : 10/100Mbps from HINET

Introduction 1-32
Residential access: cable modems

Diagram: http://www.cabledatacomnews.com/cmic/diagram.html Introduction 1-33


Cable Network Architecture: Overview

Typically 500 to 5,000 homes

cable headend

home
cable distribution
network (simplified)

Introduction 1-34
Cable Network Architecture: Overview

cable headend

home
cable distribution
network (simplified)

Introduction 1-35
Cable Network Architecture: Overview

server(s)

cable headend

home
cable distribution
network

Introduction 1-36
Cable Network Architecture: Overview

FDM:
C
O
V V V V V V N
I I I I I I D D T
D D D D D D A A R
E E E E E E T T O
O O O O O O A A L

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Channels

cable headend

home
cable distribution
network

Introduction 1-37
Company access: local area networks
company/univ local area
network (LAN) connects
end system to edge router
Ethernet:
shared or dedicated link
connects end system
and router
10 Mbs, 100Mbps,
Gigabit Ethernet
LANs: chapter 5

Introduction 1-38
Wireless access networks
shared wireless access network
connects end system to router
via base station Access Point
wireless LANs: router
802.11 : 1/2 Mbps
802.11b (WiFi): 11 Mbps base
802.11a/g : 54 Mbps

station
802.11n : 300 Mbps (600Mbps)
802.11ac/ad : >1Gbps
wider-area wireless access
802.16e Wimax : 30 Mbps
Provided by telcom operator
3G ~ 384 kbps (2Mbps ~ 7Mbps) mobile
Will it happen?? Yes (HSDPA) hosts
WAP/GPRS in Europe (past)
IMT-Advanced (100/1000Mbps)
LTE-A
802.16m Introduction 1-39
Home networks
Typical home network components:
ADSL or cable modem
router/firewall/NAT
IDS/Anti-mailspam/Anti-virus/GamingQoS/VOIPGateway/
Storage/DownloadBox/PrinterShare/etc.,
Ethernet
wireless access point
wireless
to/from laptops
ADSL/cable router/
ADSL/cable
Modem firewall
headend
3G/WiMAX.. wireless
access
Ethernet point
Introduction 1-40
Physical Media
Twisted Pair (TP)
Bit: propagates between two insulated copper
transmitter/rcvr pairs wires
physical link: what lies Category 3: traditional
between transmitter & phone wires, 10 Mbps
receiver Ethernet
Category 5:
guided media:

100Mbps Ethernet
signals propagate in solid
media: copper, fiber, coax
unguided media:
signals propagate freely,
e.g., radio

Introduction 1-41
Physical Media: coax, fiber
Coaxial cable: Fiber optic cable:
glass fiber carrying light
two concentric copper
pulses, each pulse a bit
conductors
high-speed operation:
bidirectional
high-speed point-to-point
baseband: (digital) transmission (e.g., 5 Gps)
single channel on cable low error rate: repeaters
legacy Ethernet spaced far apart ; immune
broadband: (analog) to electromagnetic noise
multiple channel on cable
HFC

Introduction 1-42
Physical media: radio
signal carried in Radio link types:
electromagnetic terrestrial microwave
spectrum e.g. up to 45 Mbps channels

no physical wire LAN (e.g., Wifi)


bidirectional 2Mbps, 11Mbps

propagation wide-area (e.g., cellular)


environment effects: e.g. 3G: hundreds of kbps

reflection satellite
obstruction by objects up to 50Mbps channel (or
interference multiple smaller channels)
270 msec end-end delay
geosynchronous versus low
altitude
Introduction 1-43
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-44
Internet structure: network of networks

roughly hierarchical
at center: tier-1 ISPs (e.g., UUNet, BBN/Genuity,
Sprint, AT&T), national/international coverage
treat each other as equals

Tier-1 providers
also interconnect
Tier-1 at public network
providers
Tier 1 ISP
NAP access points
interconnect (NAPs)
(peer)
privately
Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP

Introduction 1-45
Tier-1 ISP: e.g., Sprint
Sprint US backbone network
POP: point-of-presence

to/from backbone

peering

.

to/from customers

Introduction 1-46
Internet structure: network of networks

Tier-2 ISPs: smaller (often regional) ISPs


Connect to one or more tier-1 ISPs, possibly other tier-2 ISPs

Tier-2 ISPs
Tier-2 ISP pays Tier-2 ISP also peer
Tier-2 ISP privately with
tier-1 ISP for
connectivity to Tier 1 ISP each other,
rest of Internet NAP interconnect
tier-2 ISP is
at NAP
customer of
tier-1 provider Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP

Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP

Introduction 1-47
Internet structure: network of networks

Tier-3 ISPs and local ISPs


last hop (access) network (closest to end systems)

local
ISP Tier 3 local
local local
ISP ISP
ISP ISP
Local and tier- Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP
3 ISPs are
customers of Tier 1 ISP
higher tier NAP
ISPs
connecting
them to rest
Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP
of Internet
local
Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP
ISP
local local local
ISP ISP ISP Introduction 1-48
Internet structure: network of networks

a packet passes through many networks!

local
ISP Tier 3 local
local local
ISP ISP
ISP ISP
Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP

Tier 1 ISP
NAP

Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier-2 ISP


local
Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP
ISP
local local local
ISP ISP ISP Introduction 1-49
Introduction 1-50
TANET (Gigapop)

SONET: OC-3/12/48/192(10G)
=SDH :STM-1/4/16/64(10G)
Introduction 1-51
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-52
How do loss and delay occur?
packets queue in router buffers
packet arrival rate to link exceeds output link capacity
packets queue, wait for turn

packet being transmitted (delay)

B
packets queueing (delay)
free (available) buffers: arriving packets
dropped (loss) if no free buffers
Introduction 1-53
Four sources of packet delay
1. nodal processing: 2. queueing
check bit errors
time waiting at output
determine output link
link for transmission
Table lookup
depends on congestion
level of router

transmission
A propagation

B
nodal
processing queueing

Introduction 1-54
Delay in packet-switched networks
3. Transmission delay: 4. Propagation delay:
R=link bandwidth (bps) d = length of physical link
L=packet length (bits) s = propagation speed in
time to send bits into medium (~2x108 m/sec)
link = L/R propagation delay = d/s

Note: s and R are very


different quantities!
transmission
A propagation

B
nodal
processing queueing
Introduction 1-55
Caravan analogy
100 km 100 km
ten-car toll toll
caravan booth booth
Cars propagate at Time to push entire
100 km/hr caravan through toll
Toll booth takes 12 sec to booth onto highway =
service a car 12*10 = 120 sec
(transmission time) Time for last car to
car~bit; caravan ~ packet propagate from 1st to
2nd toll both:
Q: How long until caravan
100km/(100km/hr)= 1 hr
is lined up before 2nd toll
booth? A: 62 minutes

Introduction 1-56
Caravan analogy (more)
ten-car caravan

100 km 100 km

toll 1000 km/hr toll


booth booth
Yes! After 7 min, 1st car
Cars now propagate at at 2nd booth and 3 cars
1000 km/hr still at 1st booth.
Toll booth now takes 1 1st bit of packet can
min to service a car arrive at 2nd router
Q: Will cars arrive to before packet is fully
2nd booth before all transmitted at 1st router!
cars serviced at 1st See Ethernet applet at AWL
booth? Web site

Introduction 1-57
Nodal delay
d nodal d proc d queue d trans d prop

dproc = processing delay (in us)


typically a few microsecs or less

dqueue = queuing delay (in us-s)


depends on congestion

dtrans = transmission delay (in ns-ms)


= L/R, significant for low-speed links

dprop = propagation delay (in us-ms)


a few microsecs to hundreds of msecs

Introduction 1-58
Queueing delay (revisited)

R=link bandwidth (bps)


L=packet length (bits)
a=average packet
arrival rate

traffic intensity = La/R

La/R ~ 0: average queueing delay small


La/R -> 1: delays become large
La/R > 1: more work arriving than can be
serviced, average delay infinite!
Introduction 1-59
Real Internet delays and routes

What do real Internet delay & loss look like?


(HW) Traceroute program: provides delay
measurement from source to router along end-end
Internet path towards destination. For all i:
sends three packets that will reach router i on path
towards destination
router i will return packets to sender
sender times interval between transmission and reply.

3 probes 3 probes
TTL=1 TTL=3
3 probes
TTL=2

Introduction 1-60
Real Internet delays and routes
traceroute: gaia.cs.umass.edu to www.eurecom.fr
Three delay measements from
gaia.cs.umass.edu to cs-gw.cs.umass.edu
1 cs-gw (128.119.240.254) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms
2 border1-rt-fa5-1-0.gw.umass.edu (128.119.3.145) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms
3 cht-vbns.gw.umass.edu (128.119.3.130) 6 ms 5 ms 5 ms
4 jn1-at1-0-0-19.wor.vbns.net (204.147.132.129) 16 ms 11 ms 13 ms
5 jn1-so7-0-0-0.wae.vbns.net (204.147.136.136) 21 ms 18 ms 18 ms
6 abilene-vbns.abilene.ucaid.edu (198.32.11.9) 22 ms 18 ms 22 ms
7 nycm-wash.abilene.ucaid.edu (198.32.8.46) 22 ms 22 ms 22 ms trans-oceanic
link
8 62.40.103.253 (62.40.103.253) 104 ms 109 ms 106 ms
9 de2-1.de1.de.geant.net (62.40.96.129) 109 ms 102 ms 104 ms
10 de.fr1.fr.geant.net (62.40.96.50) 113 ms 121 ms 114 ms
11 renater-gw.fr1.fr.geant.net (62.40.103.54) 112 ms 114 ms 112 ms
12 nio-n2.cssi.renater.fr (193.51.206.13) 111 ms 114 ms 116 ms
13 nice.cssi.renater.fr (195.220.98.102) 123 ms 125 ms 124 ms
14 r3t2-nice.cssi.renater.fr (195.220.98.110) 126 ms 126 ms 124 ms
15 eurecom-valbonne.r3t2.ft.net (193.48.50.54) 135 ms 128 ms 133 ms
16 194.214.211.25 (194.214.211.25) 126 ms 128 ms 126 ms
17 * * *
18 * * * * means no reponse (probe lost, router not replying)
19 fantasia.eurecom.fr (193.55.113.142) 132 ms 128 ms 136 ms

Introduction 1-61
Traceroute from NCU to TKU
1 140.115.70.254 (140.115.70.254) 11.367 ms 15.762 ms 16.632 ms
2 cc-ee.ncu.edu.tw (203.72.244.33) 0.354 ms 0.389 ms 0.369 ms
3 tyrc-ncu.ncu.edu.tw (203.72.244.225) 0.966 ms 0.871 ms 0.839
ms
4 10G-10GE-CHT-P1.TPC-NCUE.twaren.net (211.79.59.29) 1.486 ms
1.214 ms 1.202 ms
5 211.79.59.98 (211.79.59.98) 1.335 ms 1.545 ms 1.352 ms
6 xe-1-4.r1.taipeigigapop.rt.ascc.net (140.109.251.114) 2.355 ms
2.401 ms 2.372 ms
7 tku.taipeigigapop.rt.ascc.net (140.109.251.109) 3.316 ms 3.323 ms
3.656 ms
8 163.13.254.253 (163.13.254.253) 3.485 ms 3.327 ms 3.266 ms
9 gisgw.gis.tku.edu.tw (163.13.135.254) 3.591 ms 3.593 ms 3.348 ms
10 tube.ee.tku.edu.tw (163.13.132.61) 5.368 ms 5.635 ms 5.418 ms

Introduction 1-62
Packet loss
queue (aka buffer) preceding link in buffer
has finite capacity
when packet arrives to full queue, packet is
dropped (aka lost)
lost packet may be retransmitted by
previous node, by source end system, or
not retransmitted at all

aka : also known as

Introduction 1-63
Throughput
throughput: rate (bits/time unit) at which
bits transferred between sender/receiver
instantaneous: rate at given point in time
average: rate over long(er) period of time

server,
server sendswith link
bits pipe capacity
that can carry link that
pipe capacity
can carry
file of
(fluid) F bits
into pipe Rs bits/sec
fluid at rate Rfluid
c bits/sec
at rate
to send to client Rs bits/sec) Rc bits/sec)

Introduction 1-64
Throughput (more)
Rs < Rc What is average end-end throughput?

Rs bits/sec Rc bits/sec

Rs > Rc What is average end-end throughput?

Rs bits/sec Rc bits/sec

bottleneck link
link on end-end path that constrains end-end throughput
Introduction 1-65
Throughput: Internet scenario

Rs
per-connection
Rs Rs
end-end
throughput:
R
min(Rc,Rs,R/10)
in practice: Rc or Rc Rc
Rs is often Rc
bottleneck

10 connections (fairly) share


backbone bottleneck link R bits/sec
Introduction 1-66
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 History

Introduction 1-67
Protocol Layers
Networks are complex!
many pieces:
hosts
Question:
routers
Is there any hope of
organizing structure of
links of various media
network?
applications
protocols
Or at least our discussion
hardware, software of networks?

Its a monster!
Introduction 1-68
Organization of air travel

ticket (purchase) ticket (complain)

baggage (check) baggage (claim)

gates (load) gates (unload)

runway takeoff runway landing

airplane routing airplane routing


airplane routing

a series of steps

Introduction 1-69
Layering of airline functionality

ticket (purchase) ticket (complain) ticket

baggage (check) baggage (claim baggage

gates (load) gates (unload) gate

runway (takeoff) runway (land) takeoff/landing

airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing

departure intermediate air-traffic arrival


airport control centers airport

Layers: each layer implements a service


via its own internal-layer actions
relying on services provided by layer below

Introduction 1-70
Why layering?
Dealing with complex systems:
explicit structure allows identification,
relationship of complex systems pieces
layered reference model for discussion
modularization eases maintenance, updating of
system
change of implementation of layers service
transparent to rest of system
e.g., change in gate procedure doesnt affect
rest of system
layering considered harmful?
?
Introduction 1-71
Internet protocol stack
application: supporting network
applications application
FTP, SMTP, STTP (Structured
Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
transport
transport: host-host data transfer
TCP, UDP
network
network: routing of datagrams from
source to destination link
IP, routing protocols
link: data transfer between physical
neighboring network elements
PPP, Ethernet
physical: bits on the wire
Introduction 1-72
source
message M application
Encapsulation
Segment/datagram
Ht M transport
packet Hn Ht M network
frame Hl Hn Ht M link
physical
Hl Hn Ht M link Hl Hn Ht M
physical

switch

destination Hn Ht M network Hn Ht M
M application Hl Hn Ht M link Hl Hn Ht M
Ht M transport physical
Hn Ht M network
Hl Hn Ht M link router
physical

Introduction 1-73
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 Networks under attack: security
1.9 History
Introduction 1-74
Network Security
attacks on Internet infrastructure:
infecting/attacking hosts: malware, spyware,
worms, unauthorized access (data stealing, user
accounts)
denial of service: deny access to resources
(servers, link bandwidth)
Internet not originally designed with
(much) security in mind
originalvision: a group of mutually trusting
users attached to a transparent network
Internet protocol designers playing catch-up
Security considerations in all layers!
Introduction 1-75
What can bad guys do: malware?
Spyware: Worm:
infection by downloading infection by passively
web page with spyware receiving object that gets
records keystrokes, web itself executed
sites visited, upload info self- replicating: propagates
to collection site to other hosts, users
Virus Sapphire Worm: aggregate scans/sec
infection by receiving
in first 5 minutes of outbreak (CAIDA, UWisc data)

object (e.g., e-mail


attachment), actively
executing
self-replicating:
propagate itself to
other hosts, users
Introduction 1-76
Denial of service attacks
attackers make resources (server, bandwidth)
unavailable to legitimate traffic by overwhelming
resource with bogus traffic

1. select target
2. break into hosts
around the network
(see malware)
target
3. send packets toward
target from
compromised hosts

Introduction 1-77
Sniff, modify, delete your packets
Packet sniffing:
broadcast media (shared Ethernet, wireless)
promiscuous network interface reads/records all
packets (e.g., including passwords!) passing by

A C

src:B dest:A payload


B
Ethereal software used for end-of-chapter labs
is a (free) packet-sniffer [Homework!]
more on modification, deletion later
Introduction 1-78
Masquerade as you
IP spoofing: send packet with false source address

A C

src:B dest:A payload

Introduction 1-79
Masquerade as you
IP spoofing: send packet with false source address
record-and-playback: sniff sensitive info (e.g.,
password), and use later
password holder is that user from system point of
view
C
A

src:B dest:A user: B; password: foo

Introduction 1-80
Masquerade as you
IP spoofing: send packet with false source address
record-and-playback: sniff sensitive info (e.g.,
password), and use later
password holder is that user from system point of
view
later ..
C
A

src:B dest:A user: B; password: foo

Introduction 1-81
Network Security
more throughout this course
chapter 8: focus on security
crypographic techniques: obvious uses and
not so obvious uses

Introduction 1-82
Chapter 1: roadmap
1.1 What is the Internet?
1.2 Network edge
1.3 Network core
1.4 Network access and physical media
1.5 Internet structure and ISPs
1.6 Delay & loss in packet-switched networks
1.7 Protocol layers, service models
1.8 Networks under attack: security
1.9 History
Introduction 1-83
Internet History
1961-1972: Early packet-switching principles
1961: Kleinrock - 1972:
queueing theory shows
ARPAnet
effectiveness of packet-
demonstrated publicly
switching
NCP (Network Control
1964: Baran - packet-
Protocol) first host-
switching in military nets
host protocol
1967: ARPAnet conceived
first e-mail program
by Advanced Research
ARPAnet has 15 nodes
Projects Agency
1969: first ARPAnet
node operational

Introduction 1-84
Internet History
1972-1980: Internetworking, new and proprietary nets
1970: ALOHAnet satellite Cerf and Kahns
network in Hawaii internetworking principles:
1973: Metcalfes PhD thesis minimalism, autonomy -
proposes Ethernet no internal changes
1974: Cerf and Kahn - required to
architecture for interconnect networks
interconnecting networks best effort service
late70s: proprietary model
architectures: DECnet, SNA, stateless routers
XNA
decentralized control
late 70s: switching fixed
define todays Internet
length packets (ATM
architecture
precursor)
1979: ARPAnet has 200 nodes Ex. Three Principles of the People
San Min Zhu Yi Introduction 1-85
Internet History
1990, 2000s: commercialization, the Web, new apps
Early 1990s: ARPAnet Late 1990s 2005s:
decommissioned (23 years old)
more killer apps: instant
1991: NSF lifts restrictions on
commercial use of NSFnet messaging, P2P file sharing
(decommissioned, 1995) network security to forefront
early 1990s: Web est. 50 million host, 100
hypertext [Bush 1945, Nelson million+ users
1960s] backbone links running at Gbps
HTML, HTTP: Berners-Lee
Web Server : Alibaba on
UNIX workstation (1992) Now,you are in this stage !

Orz
1994: Mosaic, later Netscape
late 1990s: Too late ?!
commercialization of the Web

Introduction 1-86
Introduction: Summary
Covered a ton of material!
Internet overview You now have:
whats a protocol? context, overview,
network edge, core, access
network
packet-switching versus
feel
circuit-switching of networking
Virtual circuit switch
Internet/ISP structure more depth, detail to
follow!
performance: loss, delay
layering and service models
Client-server
Peer-2-peer
Introduction
history
1-87

www.cnpaf.net
RFC 1-3039 in Chinese (simplified format)
Total : 4749 RFCs

Introduction 1-88
HomeWork
Sixth Edition
pp96-98: R12, R26
pp99-104: P2, P5, P7, P15, P25
pp105 Wireshark Lab (Do it with P15)
XML? HTML5?

Text your homework and submit it via


blackboard(BB).

Introduction 1-89