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Earthquake Awareness
Earthquake Awareness
C.RameshBabu M.E., PhD (Pursuing) Assistant Professor (Senior Grade), Department of Civil Engineering,
C.RameshBabu M.E., PhD (Pursuing)
Assistant Professor (Senior Grade),
Department of Civil Engineering,

Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi

15BS202 ENVIRONMENTAL

SCIENCE AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT
SCIENCE AND DISASTER
MANAGEMENT

DISASTER AND ITS IMPACTS

UNIT IV

Definition of Disaster, Hazard, Vulnerability, Risk Types Natural disasters (earthquake, landslides, flood, cyclones, tsunami and drought) Manmade disasters (Chemical, nuclear and biological) Disaster impacts (environmental, physical, social, ecological and economical) Case studies.

Where do earthquakes occur?
Where do earthquakes occur?
 You must know this… earthquakes take place at locations where there are mountains. If you
 You must know this… earthquakes take
place at locations where there are
mountains. If you want to know the exact
locations, take the relief globe from your
drawing room and run your finger along
the mountain line. You now have the
complete data on where most earthquakes
have been occurring in the world.
Now, that is not the end of it. Earthquakes  can and have been occurring at
Now, that is not the end of it. Earthquakes
can
and
have been
occurring at other
locations too, particularly where there are
not necessarily any major mountain
ranges; the 1993 earthquake in Deccan
plateau of Marathwada in central India is a
recent example of this from our country.
This means that in India, virtually over
60% of the area is under the threat of
moderate to strong earthquake shaking.
Why do earthquakes Occur?
Why do earthquakes Occur?
There is a large differential pressure and temperature between the center of the Earth and its
There is a large differential pressure and temperature
between the center of the Earth and its surface; the
pressure inside is about 4 million atmospheres and the
temperature about 6000°C. So most matter inside the
Earth is in the hot molten form of lava. This gradient
coupled with the presence of magnetic field of the Earth,
generates a circulation of the Earth's mass - from the
North Pole to the South Pole along the axis and from South
Pole to the North Pole along the surface.
Of course, the rate of this motion is very small, on an average of about 2
Of course, the rate of this motion is very small, on
an average of about 2 inches per year in active
earthquake areas.
The journey of the Earth's mass from the South
Pole
to
the
North
Pole
is
what
all
of
us
participate in.
Understandably, since the pace of motion is not
uniform across the entire Earth, some parts
move faster than the others do. Consequently,
the Earth‘s surface can be visualised to consist
of a number of pieces, called tectonic plates,
which move towards the North Pole.
Also, the motion of these plates is not a smooth one but happens in fits and
Also, the motion of these plates is not a smooth
one but happens in fits and starts, thanks to the
limited strength of the Earth's material to resist
the strains generated by these relative motions.
So, every time a tectonic plate moves more than
its neighbour and slips over it, large amount of
strain energy is suddenly released and there is a
tremor of the Earth, which we call as an
earthquake. The junctions of these plates are
named as faults. Again, many of these faults lie
along the mountains that all of us observe.
The Journey of the Plates
The Journey of the Plates

What Is Seismology?

Seismology is the study of earthquakes and seismic waves that move through and around the earth. A seismologist is a scientist who studies earthquakes and seismic waves. What Are Seismic Waves? Seismic waves are the waves of energy caused by the sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an explosion. They are the energy that travels through the earth and is recorded on seismographs. Types of Seismic Waves There are several different kinds of seismic waves, and they all move in different ways. The two main types of waves are body waves and surface waves. Body waves can travel through the earth's inner layers, but surface waves can only move along the surface of the planet like ripples on water. Earthquakes radiate seismic energy as both body and surface waves.

BODY WAVES

Traveling through the interior of the earth, body waves arrive before the surface waves emitted by an earthquake. These waves are of a higher

frequency than surface waves.

P WAVES

The first kind of body wave is the P wave or primary wave. This is the fastest kind of seismic wave, and, consequently, the first to 'arrive' at a seismic station. The P wave can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers of the earth. It pushes and pulls the rock it moves through just like sound waves push and pull the air. Have you ever heard a big clap of thunder and heard the windows rattle at the same

time? The windows rattle because the sound waves were

pushing and pulling on the window glass much like P waves

push and pull on rock. Sometimes animals can hear the P waves of an earthquake. Dogs, for instance, commonly begin

barking hysterically just before an earthquake 'hits' (or more

specifically, before the surface waves arrive). Usually people can only feel the bump and rattle of these waves.

P waves are also known as compressional waves, because of the pushing and pulling they do. Subjected to a P wave, particles

move in the same direction that the the wave

is moving in, which is the direction that the

energy is traveling in, and is sometimes

called the 'direction of wave propagation'.

S WAVES The second type of body wave is the S wave or secondary wave, which is the second wave

you feel in an earthquake. An S wave is slower than a P wave and can only move through solid rock, not through any liquid medium. It is this property of S

waves that led seismologists to conclude that the

Earth's outer core is a liquid. S waves move rock particles up and down, or side-to-side--perpindicular

to the direction that the wave is traveling in (the

direction of wave propagation).

SURFACE WAVES

Travelling only through the crust, surface waves are of a lower frequency than body waves, and are easily distinguished on a seismogram as a result. Though they

arrive after body waves, it is surface waves that are

almost enitrely responsible for the damage and

destruction associated with earthquakes. This damage and the strength of the surface waves are reduced in

deeper earthquakes.

LOVE WAVES

The first kind of surface wave is called

a Love wave, named after A.E.H. Love, a British mathematician who worked out the

mathematical model for this kind of wave in

1911. It's the fastest surface wave and moves the ground from side-to-side.

Confined to the surface of the crust, Love

waves produce entirely horizontal motion.

RAYLEIGH WAVES

The other kind of surface wave is the Rayleigh wave, named for John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh, who mathematically predicted the existence of this kind of wave in 1885. A Rayleigh wave rolls along the ground just like a wave rolls

across a lake or an ocean. Because it rolls, it moves the ground up and down, and side-to-side in the same direction that the wave is moving. Most of the

shaking felt from an earthquake is due to the

Rayleigh wave, which can be much larger than the other waves.

Measuring an Earthquake
Measuring an Earthquake
 Earthquakes can be measured in terms of force, duration, and location.  Many scientific instruments
Earthquakes can be measured in
terms of force, duration, and
location.
Many scientific instruments and
comparative scales have been
developed to take these
measurements. Seismographs
measure all three parameters.
 The Richter scale describes the force or intensity of an earthquake.  Naturally, the destruction
The Richter scale describes the force
or intensity of an earthquake.
 Naturally, the destruction caused by
earthquakes
can
be
measured
in
many other ways: numbers of people
left injured, dead, or
 homeless,
damage
and
reconstruction costs, government
and business expenditures, insurance
costs, school days lost, and in many
more ways.
Himalayan Seismicity Plate tectonics studies reveal that the Himalayan  mountain ranges were formed when Indo-
Himalayan Seismicity
Plate tectonics studies reveal that the Himalayan
mountain ranges were formed when Indo-
Australian plate collided with the Eurasian plate.
The Indian subcontinent, once part of the
supercontinent called Gondwanaland, which
consisted also of present-day Africa and
Antartica, broke away about 100 million years
ago and crawled northwards across the Tethys
Sea before ramming into Asia.
Himalayan Uplift
Himalayan Uplift
April 2015 Nepal earthquake
April 2015 Nepal earthquake
 The April 2015 Nepal earthquake (also known as the Gorkha earthquake) killed more than 9,000
The April 2015 Nepal earthquake (also
known as the Gorkha earthquake) killed
more than 9,000 people and injured more
than 23,000. It occurred at 11:56 NST on
25 April, with a magnitude of 7.8M w or
8.1M s [2] and a maximum Mercalli
intensity of IX (Violent).
 Its epicenter was east of the district of Lamjung, and its hypocenter was at a
 Its epicenter was east of the district
of Lamjung, and its hypocenter was
at a depth of approximately 15 km
(9.3 mi). It was the worst natural
disaster to strike Nepal since
the 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake.
Indian Seismic Codes
Indian Seismic Codes
 IS 1893 (Part I), 2002, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (5
 IS
1893
(Part
I),
2002,
Indian
Standard
Criteria
for
Earthquake
Resistant Design of Structures (5 th
Revision)
 IS 4326, 1993, Indian Standard Code
of Practice for Earthquake Resistant
Design and Construction of Buildings
(2 nd Revision)
 IS 13827, 1993, Indian Standard Guidelines for Improving Earthquake Resistance of Earthen Buildings  IS
IS 13827, 1993, Indian Standard
Guidelines for Improving Earthquake
Resistance of Earthen Buildings
IS 13828, 1993, Indian Standard
Guidelines for Improving Earthquake
Resistance of Low Strength Masonry
Buildings
IS 13920, 1993, Indian Standard Code of
Practice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced
Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic
Forces
 IS 13935, 1993, Indian Standard Guidelines for Repair and Seismic Strengthening of Buildings
 IS
13935,
1993,
Indian
Standard Guidelines for Repair
and Seismic Strengthening of
Buildings
Earthquakes: prediction, forecasting and mitigation  More than 200,000 earthquakes are recorded each year, though it
Earthquakes: prediction,
forecasting and mitigation
 More than 200,000 earthquakes are recorded
each year, though it is estimated that several
million occur globally. Many of these go
undetected because their magnitude is small or
they
occur
in
areas
which
are
not
closely
monitored. Most seismic events (earthquakes)
are very minor, and do not cause any damage –
they may not even be felt by the local
population. Others cause devastation, much of it
due to collapsing buildings.
Can we predict earthquakes?  Earthquake forecasting and prediction is an active topic of geological research.
Can we predict earthquakes?
 Earthquake
forecasting
and
prediction
is
an
active topic of geological research. Geoscientists
are able to identify particular areas of risk and, if
there is sufficient information, to make
probabilistic forecasts about the likelihood of
earthquakes happening in a specified area over
a specified period. These forecasts are based on
data gathered through global seismic monitoring
networks, high-density local monitoring in
known risk areas, and geological field work, as
well as from historical records.
 It is not currently possible to make deterministic predictions of when and where earthquakes will
 It
is
not
currently
possible
to
make
deterministic predictions of when and
where earthquakes will happen. For this to
be possible,
it
would
be
necessary to
identify a ‘diagnostic precursor’ – a
characteristic pattern of seismic activity or
some other physical, chemical or biological
change, which would indicate a high
probability of an earthquake happening in
a small window of space and time.
So far, the search for diagnostic  precursors has been unsuccessful. Most geoscientists do not believe
So far, the search for diagnostic
precursors has been unsuccessful.
Most geoscientists do not believe
that there is a realistic prospect of
accurate prediction in the
foreseeable
future,
and
the
principal focus of research is on
improving the forecasting of
earthquakes.
Why are earthquakes difficult to predict?  Most earthquakes result from the sudden release of stress
Why are earthquakes difficult to
predict?
 Most earthquakes result from the sudden
release of stress in the earth’s crust, which
has
built
up
gradually due
to tectonic
movement, usually along
an
existing
geological fault. The crust’s response to
changing stress is not linear (that is, it is
not directly proportional, making
prediction of behaviour more difficult),
and is dependent on the crust's complex
and highly variable geology.
As a result, it is very difficult to build accurate  simulations which predict tectonic events.
As a result, it is very difficult to build accurate
simulations which predict tectonic events.
Laboratory experiments which attempt to
reproduce these physical processes can add to
our understanding, but cannot accurately reflect
the complexities of real-world geological
settings. A further difficulty is that earthquakes
originate beneath the ground, often many
kilometres down, so data gathering depends on
remote observation techniques and measuring
effects at the surface. Even measuring the
prevailing stress in the crust is challenging, as it
requires drilling several kilometres into the
ground.
Earthquake Awareness for Individuals and Institutions  Nobody can assure earthquake safety unless everybody in the
Earthquake Awareness for
Individuals and Institutions
Nobody can assure earthquake safety
unless everybody in the community is
aware of earthquake consequences and
gets prepared.
Being prepared alone will not work always
for others. Therefore, a massive
awareness program for making prepared
individuals from all communities and
different stakeholders is a must.
AWARENESS FOR COMMUNITY Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment and  First Aid etc. aim to make aware
AWARENESS FOR
COMMUNITY
Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment and
First Aid
etc.
aim
to
make
aware
individuals of
the
community
on
the
associated hazards and vulnerabilities;
prepositioning the emergency supplies;
making response plan; and make capable
to
cope
with disasters using locally
vailable resources.
 Many squads, containing 6 responders in each, are prepared so far in different communities, who
Many squads, containing 6 responders in
each, are prepared so far in different
communities, who have successfully
responded for saving lives in the real
disasters. However, considering the
national scenario many thousands of such
squads are required.
Earthquake Vulnerability Tour The Earthquake Vulnerability Tour can be  initiated . It is a guided
Earthquake Vulnerability
Tour
The Earthquake Vulnerability Tour can be
initiated . It is a guided tour in a defined
route
/
location
to
observe
different
vulnerability factors. The
tour
aims
to
point
out
how
vulnerable
the city's
buildings and critical
facilities,
such
as
schools and
fire
stations,
are
to
the
earthquakes.
Earthquake Vulnerability Tour in Kathmandu
Earthquake Vulnerability Tour in
Kathmandu
 This tour will help to know the ground reality of our cities which may help
 This
tour
will
help
to
know
the
ground reality of our cities which may
help
to
reduce
the
level
of
earthquake risk in our cities.
Public Education on Earthquakes
Public Education on Earthquakes
Post Disaster Assistance The immediate impact of an earthquake affects  all sectors of the community
Post Disaster Assistance
The immediate impact of an earthquake affects
all sectors of the community and local
authorities should initially emphasize search
and rescue of victims. Secondly,
emergency medical assistance must be
provided especially during the first 72 hours.
Third, a damage and needs assessment
survey, should be conducted to inform
local and international agencies of needs.
Fourth, the survivors will require relief  assistance such as food, water and emergency shelter. Attention
Fourth, the survivors will require relief
assistance such as food, water and
emergency shelter. Attention
should be given to reopening roads, re-
establishing communications, contacting
remote areas and conducting
disaster assessments.
Mitigation
Mitigation
 The golden rule is that there is no standard solution to mitigate a disaster risk.
 The golden
rule
is
that
there
is
no
standard
solution to mitigate a disaster risk. The goal is to
minimize the impact of disaster. Possible risk
reduction measures Engineered structures
(designed and built) to withstand ground
shaking. Architectural and engineering inputs
put together to improve building design and
construction practice. Develop earthquake
resistant construction techniques.
Public awareness, sensitization and training  programmes for Engineers, Architects, Structural designers, Builders, Masons etc. Reduce
Public awareness, sensitization and training
programmes for Engineers, Architects, Structural
designers, Builders, Masons etc.
Reduce possible damages from secondary
effects. e.g., identify potential landslide sites and
restrict construction in those areas.
In earthquake prone areas insurance should be
obtained for buildings under construction and
those in use.
Insurance policies for natural disasters should be
made compulsory and priced specifically on
available scientific data of hazards in the region.
Solution to Vulnerability
Solution to Vulnerability
India and Natural Disasters India is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world.
India and Natural Disasters
India is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world.
  • Over 65% land area vulnerable to earthquakes;

  • 70% of land under cultivation prone to drought;

  • 5% of land (40 million hectares) to floods;

  • 8% of land (8,000 km coastline) to cyclones.

  • A Major Disaster occurs every 2-3 years;

  • 50 million people affected annually

  • 1 million houses damaged annually along with human,social and

other losses

  • During 1985-2003, the annual average damage due to natural disasters has been estimated at 70 million USD

The Myths  It Can’t Happen to Us.
The Myths
 It Can’t Happen to Us.
The Nature’s forces are so  Deadly the Victims will Die anyway. There is Nothing We
The Nature’s forces are so
Deadly the Victims will Die
anyway.
There is Nothing We Can Do.
Definition of Disaster A Disaster is an event that occurs in most cases suddenly and unexpectedly,
Definition of Disaster
A Disaster
is
an
event
that
occurs
in
most
cases
suddenly and unexpectedly, causing severe
disturbances to people, objects and environment,
resulting
in
loss
of life ,property
and
health
of the
population. Such a situation
causes disruption in
normal pattern of life, generating misfortune,
helplessness and
suffering
affecting
the
socio-
economic structure of a region/country to such an
extent that
there
is
a
need
for
assistance
or
immediate outside intervention.
Ingredients of a Disaster A phenomenon or event which constitutes  a trauma for a population/environment.
Ingredients of a Disaster
A phenomenon or event which constitutes
a trauma for a population/environment.
A vulnerable point/area that will bear the
brunt of the traumatizing event.
The failure of local & surrounding
resources to cope with the problems
created by the phenomenon.
Types of Disasters  Natural - Manmade 
Types of Disasters
Natural
- Manmade
Disasters affecting India
Disasters affecting India
EARTHQUAKE  VOLCANIC ERUPTION  TSUNAMI  CYCLONE  FLOOD  LANDSLIDE  BUSHFIRE  DROUGHT
EARTHQUAKE
VOLCANIC ERUPTION
TSUNAMI
CYCLONE
FLOOD
LANDSLIDE
BUSHFIRE
DROUGHT
MAJOR ACCIDENT (FIRE, EXPLOSION)
CIVIL UNREST

GENERAL EFFECTS OF DISASTER

GENERAL EFFECTS OF DISASTER LOSS OF LIFE  INJURY  DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PROPERTY.
LOSS OF LIFE  INJURY  DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PROPERTY.  DAMAGE TO AND
LOSS OF LIFE
INJURY
DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PROPERTY.
DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PRODUCTION.
DISRUPTION OF LIFESTYLE
LOSS OF LIVELIHOOD.
DISRUPTION TO ESSENTIAL SERVICES
DAMAGE TO NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE
DISRUPTION TO GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEMS
NATIONAL ECONOMIC LOSS
SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL AFTER
EFFECT.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
“AN APPLIED SCIENCE WHICH SEEKS, BY THE SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS OF DISASTERS, TO IMPROVE MEASURES
“AN APPLIED SCIENCE WHICH
SEEKS, BY THE SYSTEMATIC
OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS OF
DISASTERS, TO IMPROVE
MEASURES RELATING TO
PREVENTION, MITIGATION,
PREPAREDNESS, EMERGENCY
RESPONSE AND RECOVERY.”

Disaster Management Cycle

Disaster Management Cycle

Response Recovery Prevention & Mitigation Preparedness
Response
Recovery
Prevention & Mitigation
Preparedness

RESPONSE

RESPONSE Response measures are usually those which are taken  immediately prior to and following disaster
Response measures are usually those which are taken  immediately prior to and following disaster impact.
Response measures are usually those which are taken
immediately prior to and following disaster impact.
Typical measures include :
Implementation of plans
Activation of the counter-disaster system
Search and Rescue
Provision of emergency food, shelter, medical
assistance etc.
Survey and assessment
Evacuation measures

RECOVERY

RECOVERY  Recovery is the process by which communities and the nation are assisted in returning

Recovery is the process by which communities

and the nation are assisted in returning to their proper level of functioning following a disaster.

Three main categories of activity are normally regarded as coming within the recovery segment: Restoration Reconstruction
Three main categories of activity are normally
regarded as coming within the recovery
segment:
Restoration
Reconstruction
Rehabilitation

PREVENTION & MITIGATION

PREVENTION & MITIGATION  Prevention : Action within this segment is designed to impede the occurrence

PREVENTION & MITIGATION  Prevention : Action within this segment is designed to impede the occurrence

Prevention : Action within this segment is designed to impede the occurrence of a disaster event and/or prevent such an occurrence having harmful effects on communities or key installations.

Mitigation : Action within this segment usually takes the form of specific programs intended to reduce
Mitigation : Action within this segment usually takes the form
of specific programs intended to reduce the effects of disaster

on a nation or community. For instance, some countries regard

the development and application of building codes (which can reduce damage and loss in the event
the development and application of building codes (which can
reduce damage and loss in the event of earthquakes and
cyclones) as being in the category of mitigation.
PREPAREDNESS
PREPAREDNESS

Preparedness is usually regarded as

comprising measures which enable

governments, organizations, communities and individuals to respond rapidly and effectively to disaster situations.
governments, organizations,
communities and individuals to
respond rapidly and effectively to
disaster situations.
PREPAREDNESS (Contd)
PREPAREDNESS (Contd)
Examples of Preparedness measures are :   The formulation & maintenance of valid, up-to-date counter-disaster
Examples of Preparedness measures are :
The formulation & maintenance of valid, up-to-date
counter-disaster plans
Special provisions for emergency action
The provisions of warning systems
Emergency communications
Public education and awareness
Training programs, including exercises and tests.
Principles of Disaster Management
Principles of Disaster
Management

Risk & Hazard Assessment Planning Organization Resource Utilization Need for Specialists Training

RISK AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT  Disaster risk will be a combination of the likelihood of the

RISK AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT

RISK AND HAZARD ASSESSMENT  Disaster risk will be a combination of the likelihood of the
 Disaster risk will be a combination of the likelihood of the event and the vulnerability
Disaster risk will be a combination of the
likelihood of the event and the
vulnerability of a place to that event.
The hazard assessment will aim to deliver
accurate disaster information about
individual locations.
HAZARD ASSESSMENT Vulnerability to a particular hazard will include : Critical products, services, records and operations.
HAZARD ASSESSMENT
Vulnerability to a particular hazard will include :
Critical products, services, records and operations.
Hazardous materials
Potential effects of damage on stakeholders.
Likely financial costs.
Resources personnel and time available to make
preparations.
Level of insurance cover.
The combination of hazard and vulnerability
assessments will result in formulating total
risk assessment.
Principles of Disaster Management
Principles of Disaster Management
Planning : to have a clear and logical approach to dealing with  disasters.  to
Planning :
to have a clear and logical approach to dealing with
disasters.
to provide common reference for all departments and
authorities with roles.
to assist with information for sitting-up a multi-
functional organizational structure.
to form a basis for coordinated action.
to provide clear allocation of responsibilities.
to form a basis for reviewing and evaluating current
and future disaster management requirements.
to give a focus for disaster related training.

Principles of Disaster Management
Principles of Disaster Management
 Organisation : the nature of National Disaster Management  Authority (NDMA) Utilization of total governmental
 Organisation :
the nature of National Disaster Management
Authority (NDMA)
Utilization of total governmental structures/
resources i.e. National, State & Local level.
Co-ordination of non governmental resources
Community involvement
Clear lines of Authority and unity of
command
Special system requirements.
Principles of Disaster Management
Principles of Disaster Management
 Special system requirements. Emergency Operation Center/Control Center  Direction & Coordinating Authority  Communications 
 Special system requirements.
Emergency Operation Center/Control Center
Direction & Coordinating Authority
Communications
Warning Systems
Survey & Assessments
Information Management
Emergency Logistics

Organisation (Contd.) :

Principles of Disaster Management

Resource Utilization : •
Resource Utilization :
Principles of Disaster Management Resource Utilization : • Identification of resources • Assessment of resources with

Identification of resources

Assessment of resources with relation to their capability & availability Allocation of appropriate tasks Level of skill in handling allotted tasks and experience Activation time for deployment/availability Co-ordination with line authorities of resource organizations Coalition of accurate information for effective deployment of resources.

AGENCIES Governmental (Including Military  both at National & State Level). Non Governmental Organizations.  Community
AGENCIES
Governmental (Including Military
both at National & State Level).
Non Governmental Organizations.
Community groups both social &
religious.
International Volunteer organisation.

Principles of Disaster Management

Principles of Disaster Management

Need for Specialists :

Search & Rescue Survey & Damage Assessment First Aid & Triage Mobile Medical & Health Team Evacuation Animal Husbandry/Veterinary

Principles of Disaster Management
Principles of Disaster Management

Need for Specialists (Contd):

Emergency Welfare Emergency Shelter Emergency Logistics Staff for EOC (Emergency Operating Center) Information Management including public information needs. Specialists from field of disaster studies and research (Geologists, Meteorologists, etc.)

Principles of Disaster Management

Principles of Disaster Management
Training :
Training :

Identification of Training needs. Scope of Training programmes. Training policy. Implementation of training.

Principles of Disaster Management

Principles of Disaster Management

Training (Contd.):

Design of training should be compatible to support tasks required to be performed after

a Disaster at three levels. Foundational Training Team Training Combined Organizational Training.

National Disaster Management Framework

Ministry of Home Affairs - GoI
Ministry of Home Affairs - GoI
  • To make Disaster Management an integral part of National

Development Agenda

  • To promote Awareness and Education in Disaster Management

  • To promote Human Resource Development in Disaster Management (master plan for training and capacity building)

  • To develop Institutional Frameworks at the National and State levels for mainstreaming disaster management

  • To establish multi-hazard preparedness, mitigation and prevention plans at all levels

  • To enhance capacities at all levels for multi-hazard preparedness and response

Thank you
Thank
you