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Chapter 2: Western Origins of Art Education

Source : History of Art Education by Arthur D. Efland (1989)


Teachers College, Columbia University, New York and London

Report by : Martin Goli-Cruz 2007- 45881


Greeks
Greeks

Being an artist is an unworthy profession.


Only children of highborn pursue arts.
Type of Learnings : Apprenticeship
Theatre
Dramatic, Satyr Plays (Dionysus)
Comedy
Promote cultural Identity
Greeks
Medea by Euripedes
Pericles
Alexander the Great
Spartans
They use dances, songs and narration of stories to
uplift spirits of warriors
Solon and Pericles
Concept of education good life, development of the whole
personality : physical, intellectual , aesthetic and moral aspects.
Duty and Obligation
Paideia Individual sense of identity with the culture
Music: for the soul ( mousike)
Became integral part of Greek educational experiences
Sophist teacher of leaders
Polis - city or state
Ethos spirit of a culture
Hellnistic
Box Wood Drawings - Pamphilus
Plato The Republic

Imitations of Imitations -
pictures and painting do tell the
whole truth it just a
representation
Art is Danger to social decorum
Because it is highly influential.
Aristotle -Poetics
Oedipus killed his father marry his mother
Laws of Tragedy

Tragedy is the imitation of an action


(mimesis) according to the law of
probability or necessity.
Plot, Characters, Diction, Thought,
Spectacle, Melody
complete, having unity of action
Actors and Directors

good or fine. fitness of character (true to type); e.g.


valor is appropriate for a warrior but not for a woman.
true to life (realistic)
consistency
necessary or probable.
true to life and yet more beautiful (idealized,
ennobled).
Katharsis purge

Plato vs Aristotle

Plato: Aritist are instrument processing or


copying something that had prior existences
Artist has no true knowledge of their actions.

Aristotle: Artist are masters of making imitations


Views and opinions on Art

Art is pleasurable

Arts as vehicle for


civic education and
central component of
kind leisure.
Livius Andronicus

translated home and Iliad to


Latin
Cieceros De Oratore

Purpose of Education: produce


a good man skilled in speaking
and can serve the state.
Seneca

Artes liberales :
Sculpture and drawing ,
Scriptwriting , Theatre
(Liberal Arts )
Stoic Philosophy

Stoicism teaches the development of self-control and


fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotions
Plotinus

Art is a revelation and


imitation
Arts is form of
intellectual
apprehension , arts is
accessible to the
senses
Middle Ages or Medieval Period
Barbarian Invasion
Secular activity
Rise of the Feudal System,

Theatre
Liturgical drama, mystery plays, morality
plays, farces and masques, mime,
Pantomime
Liturgical Plays
Mime
Stage Design
Monastics Schools, Scriptoria
and workshops
Monk working in fields
Guilds
Theophilus Presbyter

The Various Arts (Diverisis Artribus)- technology in medival


period , arrangement of workrooms , making tools
Workshops
Workshops
Renaissance Period
Theatre

Tragedy, Comedy , Shakespeare,


Morality
Vittorino Da Feltre

Develop curriculum
and methods
imparting the new
learning
Marsilio Ficino

Converted Platos Dialogues


Leon Battista Alberti

Theory called Historia


Treatise of De pictura
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci

Trattato della pittura by Raffaelo du Fresne

Painting was a science


Mona lisa
Michelangelo di Lodovico
Buonarroti Simoni
Giogorio Vasari

Accademia Del
Disegno
Louis XIV - The Sun
ART AS A POLITCAL PROPAGANDA
Roger Bacon & John Locke

Image of glory and grandeur Divine right of kings


Philipp Melanchton

Foramation of New Schools


The French Academy of
Painting and Sculpture
Fre Art De Chambray
Fre Art De LIdee de la perfection de
peinture Chambray
Andre Felibein

Sequence : Still life,


Landscapes , live subjects
Charles Le Brun -Expression des
Passions
Industrial Revolution
Thomas Aquinas

Summa Theologica
God Created nature and
it laws it was good and
humanity in natural
state was good also
Jean Jacques Rousseau - Emile
Adam Smith -Division of Labor
Laissez faire economics
Benjamin Franklin
Classical education & practical studies
Sources

http://www2.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/poetics.html. Outline of Aristotle's Theory of Tragedy in the


POETICS

History of Art Education by Arthur D. Efland (1989)


Teachers College, Columbia University, New York and London