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• Lesson 2.2: The structure of the Atom • Lesson 2.3 The Synthetic Elements

Lesson 2.2: The structure of the Atom Lesson 2.3 The Synthetic Elements

Structure of Atom

  • Atom is the smallest particle of a substance that can exist by it self or be combined with other atoms to form a molecule.

All atoms consist of three sub-atomic particles:

  • 1. Protons

  • 2. Neutrons

  • 3. Electrons

Protons are the very small particle of matter that is part of the nucleus of an atom and that has a positive electrical charge.

Neutrons- are very small particle of matter that has no electrical charge and is part of nucleus of all atoms except hydrogen atoms

Electron- are the very small particle of matter that has a negative charge of electricity and that travels around the nucleus of an atom.


  • Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons. They have the same electronic structures as noble gasses. Metal atoms form a positive ions, while non-metal atoms form negative ions. The strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions are called ionic bonds.

  • If there will be a change in the number of electrons because of transferring or sharing of electrons, then the atom becomes an ion.

  • An atom that loses electrons becomes a positively charged ion and is called a cation.

  • An atom that gains electrons becomes negatively charged and is called an anion.

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

  • Dalton’s Atomic theory is a theory of the nature of matter:

  • All material substances are composed of minute particles or atoms of a

comparatively small number of kinds and all atoms of the same kind

are uniform in size , weight, and other properties.

  • Dalton’s Atomic theory is the theory that scientist believe to form a new element. But in the concept number 2 of Dalton’s atomic theory had change during late 1800 because isotopes were discovered or invented.

Synthetic Element

  • Are chemical elements that does not occur naturally on earth and can only be created artificially. So far, 24 synthetic elements have been created (those with atomic numbers 95-118). All are unstable, decaying with half lives ranging from 15.6 million years to a few hundred


  • The process of Producing Radio Active Elements is called Nuclear Reactions.

  • Synthetic elements are artificially prepared elements. They are radioactive and decay rapidly into a lighter elements.

Nuclear Reaction involved in the Synthesis of New Elements

  • Radioactive Decay- also known as radioactivity is the result of the random and spontaneous breakdown of the unstable nucleus of an atom. It is a type of ionizing radiation that interacts with matter to produce ions. An unstable nucleus is formed. This breakdown is called radioactive decay.

  • Types of radioactive decay:

  • 1. Alpha Radiation or Alpha Decay

  • 2. Beta Radiation or Beta- Decay

  • 3. Electron Capture

  • 4. Positron emission

  • 5. Gamma Decay

Nuclear Reaction involved in the

Synthesis of New Elements

  • Nuclear Transmutation- Is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another.

  • Combustion Reactions- always involve molecular oxygen. Anytime anything burns in the usual sense. It’s a combustion reactions are almost always exothermic (i.e. they give off heat)

  • Displacement reaction- is a chemical reaction in which a more reactive element from its compound. Both metals and non metals take part in displacement reactions. (i.e. reaction of iron nails with copper sulphate solution.