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CHEMISTRY AND THE SCIENTIFIC

METHOD
CHAPTER 1

ON YOUR OWN:
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ANNOUNCEMENTS:
1) LABS START NEXT MONDAY
2) PASS SESSION STARTS NEXT WEEK
3) LAB HANDOUT FOR THE LAB TECHNIQUES AND
DENSITY EXPERIMENT. THE FIRST PRE-LAB QUIZ
WILL BE POSTED ON SAPLING SOON (PROBABLY
FRIDAY) AND IS DUE FOR ALL STUDENTS IN ALL
SECTIONS AT NOON ON MONDAY, AUGUST 31.
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
Apply the scientific method to problem solving
Convert between various units of measurements
Use dimensional analysis to problem solving
Temperature scales and conversions
Differentiate between precision and accuracy.
Use significant digits in mathematical calculation

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CLIMATE CHANGE

Based on the data above, what can you infer?


THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Qualitative Data

Quantitative Data
MEASUREMENTS

Scientific Notation
On average the diameter of a human hair is 0.0000000025
m

The distance from the earth to mars is about 54,600,000 Km.


UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
Equivalence between liters and meters
TEMPERATURE SCALES

Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin


Boiling point
of water 212 F 100 C 373 K

180F 100C 100 K


1.8 F

F ( x C x ) 32F
1.0C
Freezing point 32 F
K 273.5 x C 0 C 273 K
of water

Notice that 1 kelvin degree = 1 degree Celsius


TEMPERATURE CONVERSION EXERCISES

Complete the following table:


oF oC K
82 ___ ___
___ 22 ___
___ ___ 78
DENSITY

Density mass (g)


volume (cm3)

Platinum
Mercury

Aluminum

13.6 g/cm3 21.5 g/cm3 2.7 g/cm3


DENSITY EXERCISES

The density of pure silver is10.5 g/cm3 at 20 C. What is the


volume of 5.25 g of silver? (ANS: 0.5 cm3)
A rectangular block has dimensions of 2.5 cm x 3.5 cm x 10.0
cm. The mass of the block is 615.0 g. What is the density of
the of the block? (ANS: 7.02 g)
MAKING MEASUREMENTS

Precision is a measure of how closely individual


measurements agree with one another.
Accuracy refers to how closely individually measured
numbers agree with the correct or "true" value.
Average Deviation:Difference between each result and the
average result
Percent of error:
(
Significant Figures

In order to convey the appropriate uncertainty in a reported number, we must


report it to the correct number of significant figures. The number of significant
figures are all digits known with certainty plus one that is estimated
A calculated result can be no more precise than the least precise piece of
information that went into the calculation.
Guidelines for determining the # of significant figures:
1. To determine the number of significant figures in a measurement, read the number
from left to right and count all the digits, starting with the first digit that is non zero.
2. When a number ends in zeros but contains no decimal point, the zeros may or may
not be significant130 cm (2 or 3 significant figures); 10,300 g (3, 4, or 5 significant
figures).
3. When adding or subtracting numbers, the number of decimal places in the answer
should be equal to the number of decimal places in the number with the fewest
places.
4. When multiplying or dividing, the number of significant figures in the answer should
be the same as the quantity with the least number of significant figures.
5. When rounding off, the last digit to be retained is increased by one only if the
following digit is 5 or greater.
EXERCISES
What is the number of significant figures in
405000?
Four samples are weighed using four
different balances. The masses are 0.94 kg,
58.2 g, 1.55 g and 250 mg. How should the
total mass be reported?
A 0.680 g sample of paraffin oil with a
density of 0.858 g/cm3 was spread over the
surface of water in a large beaker which has
a diameter of 154 mm. How thick is the oil
layer in centimeters?
PROBLEM SOLVING
Identify what the problem is asking. Also identify the
units of the answer.
Identify what information is given. Not everything will be
spelled-out in a problem. You might have to draw on your
knowledge or reference sources, such as textbooks, for
equations or conversion factors. There can also be extra
information given that is not needed to solve the problem.
Factor: The numerator of the factor must be equivalent to the
denominator. For example: 1 lb. = 454 g, then the factor is (1
lb)/(454 g) or (454 g/1 lb)
Look for paths to get from what is given to what is
asked. If a problem-solving strategy is not obvious, and it
usually isn't, start working forward from the given
information, and work backwards from what the problem
asks. If possible, break the problem down into smaller
parts.
Evaluate the reasonableness of a result. If the result is
not reasonable, e.g., wrong units or unreasonable order of
magnitude, look for possible errors and reevaluate your
approach.
DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

Approach to solve problems using units.


In a nut-shell you have to write an equation equating the question
to the given value.
? (units) = given (units)
To go from the given value to the question you must multiply by
factors

How many liters of gasoline are required to fill a 16


gallon gasoline tank?
3.8L
? of gasoline (L) 16 gallon x
1 gallon
EXERCISES

A 76.00-pound flask of mercury costs $145.00. The density of


mercury is 13.534 g/cm3.
Find the price of one cubic inch of mercury.
What is the price of 1 lb of mercury?
What is the price of one gram of mercury?
What is the price of one cubic inch of mercury?
It takes 2.350 cubic inches of mercury to make one
manometer. Find the price of the mercury used to make 17
manometers..
EXERCISES

A certain hybrid car has a mileage rating of 43 miles per


gallon. If the car makes a trip of 269 miles, how many gallons
of gasoline will be used?
If a bullet travels at 965.0 m/s, what is its speed in miles per
hour?
EXERCISES

In a certain city, electricity costs $0.12 per kWh.


What is the annual cost for electricity to power a
lamp-post for 5.00 hours per day with
a 100.-watt incandescent light bulb
an energy efficient 25-watt fluorescent bulb
that produces the same amount of light?
Assume 1 year = 365 days
A typical incandescent bulb costs $0.89 and
lasts for about a year; a typical energy efficient
fluorescent bulb costs about $3.49 and lasts
for about 3 years. Is the additional cost of the
fluorescent bulb justified?
EXERCISES

If your front lawn is 21.0 feet wide and 20.0 feet long, and
each square foot of lawn accumulates 1050 new snow flakes
every minute, how much snow (in kilograms) accumulates on
your lawn per hour? Assume an average snow flake has a mass
of 1.80 mg.