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# Chapter 4

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To define & balance oxidation reduction reaction
To define molarity of solution
To perform calculations associated with dilution
To determine the amount of a species by
gravimetric analysis
To calculate the quantity of substance in a titrated
solution

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Students will be able to

## Solve quantitative problems related to

calculate the quantity of substance in a
titrated solution, the amount of a species by
gravimetric analysis, define molarity of
solution and perform calculations associated
with dilution

## Solve the qualitative problems related to

define & balance oxidation reduction
reaction
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4.1 Ionic theory of solutions and solubility rules
4.2 Molecular and ionic equations
4.3 Precipitation reactions
4.4 Acid-base reactions

These sections need not be covered as they are either not in syllabus or
will be covered in a detail in later chapters

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Oxidation Number
For a monatomic ion, the actual charge of the atom
or a hypothetical charge assigned to the atom in the
substance using simple rules.

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Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers

element is zero.

## 2. Monatomic ions: The oxidation number of an atom in

a monatomic ion equals the charge on the ion.

## 3. Oxygen: The oxidation number of oxygen is 2 in most

of its compounds. (An exception is O in H2O2 and other
peroxides, where the oxidation number is 1.)

## 4. Hydrogen: The oxidation number of hydrogen is +1 in

most of its compounds. (The oxidation number of
hydrogen is 1 in binary compounds with a metal such
as CaH2.)

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5. Halogens: The oxidation number of fluorine is 1.
Each of the other halogens (Cl, Br, I) has an
oxidation number of 1 in binary compounds

## 6. Compounds and ions: The sum of the oxidation

numbers of the atoms in a compound is zero. The
sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms in a
polyatomic ion equals the charge on the ion.

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Potassium permanganate, KMnO4, is a
purplecolored compound; potassium manganate,
K2MnO4, is a greencolored compound. Obtain the
oxidation numbers of the manganese in these
compounds.

##  obtain the oxidation number of the chlorine atom in

each of the following:
(a) HClO4 (perchloric acid)
(b) ClO3- (chlorate ion)

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Halfreaction One of two parts of an oxidationreduction
reaction, one part of which involves a loss of
electrons and the other part of which involves a
gain of electrons

## Oxidation The halfreaction in which there is a loss of

electrons by a species

## Reduction The halfreaction in which there is a gain of

electrons by a species

## Oxidizing agent A species that oxidizes another species; it is itself

reduced.
Reducing agent A species that reduces another species; it is itself
oxidized.

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Common OxidationReduction Reactions

## Combination reaction A reaction in which two substances combine to

form a third substance.

## Decomposition reaction A reaction in which a single compound reacts to give

two or more substances.

## Displacement reaction A reaction in which an element reacts with a

compound, displacing another element from it.

## Combustion reaction A reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen,

usually with the rapid release of heat to produce a
flame.

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In the following reactions, label the oxidizing agent and the
reducing agent.

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First, identify what is oxidized and what is
reduced by determining oxidation numbers.

## For the reaction

Zn(s) + Ag+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Ag(s)
0 +1 +2 0

## Zn is oxidized from 0 to +2.

Ag+ is reduced from +1 to 0.

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Next, write the unbalanced halfreactions.
Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) (oxidation)
Ag+(aq) Ag(s) (reduction)

## Now, balance the charge in each half reaction by

Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e (oxidation)
e + Ag+(aq) Ag(s) (reduction)

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Since the electrons lost in oxidation are the same as
those gained in reduction
we need each halfreaction to have the same number of
electrons
To do this, multiply each halfreaction by a factor so that
when the halfreactions are added, the electrons cancel

## Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e (oxidation)

2e + 2Ag+(aq) 2Ag(s) (reduction)

## Zn(s) + 2Ag+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + 2Ag(s)

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Balancing OxidationReduction Reactions - exercise

## Balance the following oxidationreduction reactions

by the half-reaction method.

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moles of solute
Molarity (M )
liters of solution

## To prepare a solution, add the measured amount of solute to a

volumetric flask, then add water to bring the solution to the mark

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A sample of 0.0512 mol of iron(III) chloride, FeCl3, was
dissolved in water to give 25 mL of solution. What is the
molarity of the solution?

##  A 50mL volume of AgNO3 solution contains 0.0285 mol

silver nitrate. What is the molarity of the solution?

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 An aqueous solution is made from 0.798 g of potassium
permanganate, KMnO4. If the volume of solution is 50 mL, what is the
molarity of KMnO4 in the solution?

## A sample of oxalic acid, H2C2O4, weighing 1.192 g is placed in a

100mL volumetric flask, which is then filled to the mark with water.
What is the molarity of the solution?

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When a higher concentration solution is used to
make a lessconcentration solution, the moles of
solute are determined by the amount of the
higherconcentration solution. The number of moles
of solute remains constant.

MiVi = MfVf

## Note: The units on Vi and Vf must match.

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 A chemist starts with 50 mL of a 0.4 M NaCl solution and dilutes it
to 1000 mL. What is the concentration of NaCl in the new solution?

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 You wish to prepare 0.12 M HNO3 from a stock solution of
nitric acid that is 15.8 M. How many milliliters of the stock
solution do you require to make up 1L of 0.12 M HNO3?

##  A chemist wants to prepare 0.50 M HCl. Commercial

hydrochloric acid is 12.4M. How many milliliters of the
commercial acid does the chemist require to make up 1.5 L of
the dilute acid?

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A type of quantitative analysis in which the amount of a
species in a material is determined by converting the
species to a product that can be isolated completely and
weighed.

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reaction of Ba(NO3)2 The BaCrO4 precipitate
with K2CrO4 forming is being filtered. It can
then be dried and
the yellow BaCrO4
weighed.
precipitate.

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A type of quantitative analysis based on
titration.

## A procedure for determining the amount of

substance A by adding a carefully measured
volume with a known concentration of B until the
reaction of A and B is just complete.

Example: Titration

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 ZnS(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2S(g)
How many milliliters of 0.0512 M HCl are required to react with
0.392 g ZnS?

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 What volume of 0.250 M HNO3 reacts with 44.8 mL of 0.15 M Na2CO3
in the following reaction?
2HNO3(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) 2NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l ) + CO2(g)

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 A flask contains 49.8 mL of 0.150 M Ca(OH)2. How
many milliliters of 0.350 M Na2CO3 are required to react
completely with the calcium hydroxide in the following
reaction?

## Na2CO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) CaCO3(s) + 2NaOH(aq)

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To define & balance oxidation reduction reaction
To define molarity of solution
To perform calculations associated with dilution
To determine the amount of a species by
gravimetric analysis
To calculate the quantity of substance in a titrated
solution

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