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GSM: elements and interfaces

radio cell
BSS
MS MS

Um radio cell

RSS BTS MS

BTS

Abis

BSC BSC
A

MSC MSC

NSS signaling
VLR VLR
ISDN, PSTN
HLR GMSC
PDN
IWF
O

OSS
EIR AUC OMC
GSM: system architecture
radio network and fixed
subsystem switching subsystem partner networks

MS MS
ISDN
PSTN
Um MSC

BTS Abis
BSC EIR
BTS

SS7
HLR

BTS VLR
BSC ISDN
BTS MSC PSTN
A
BSS IWF
PSPDN
CSPDN
System architecture: radio subsystem
radio network and switching
subsystem subsystem Components
MS MS
MS (Mobile Station)
BSS (Base Station Subsystem):
consisting of
Um BTS (Base Transceiver Station):
sender and receiver
Abis
BTS BSC (Base Station Controller):
BSC MSC controlling several transceivers
BTS

Interfaces
Um : radio interface
Abis : standardized, open interface with
A 16 kbit/s user channels
BTS
MSC A: standardized, open interface with
BSC 64 kbit/s user channels
BTS
BSS
System architecture: network and switching
subsystem network
subsystem
Components
fixed partner

MSC (Mobile Services Switching


networks

Center):
ISDN IWF (Interworking Functions)
PSTN ISDN (Integrated Services Digital
MSC Network)
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone
Network)
EIR PSPDN (Packet Switched Public
Data Net.)
CSPDN (Circuit Switched Public
SS7

HLR
Data Net.)

Databases
VLR HLR (Home Location Register)
MSC
ISDN VLR (Visitor Location Register)
IWF
PSTN EIR (Equipment Identity Register)
PSPDN
CSPDN
Radio subsystem
The Radio Subsystem (RSS) comprises the cellular mobile network up
to the switching centers
Components
Base Station Subsystem (BSS):
Base Transceiver Station (BTS): radio components including sender, receiver, antenna - if directed
antennas are used one BTS can cover several cells
Base Station Controller (BSC): switching between BTSs, controlling BTSs, managing of network
resources, mapping of radio channels (Um) onto terrestrial channels (A interface)

BSS = BSC + sum(BTS) + interconnection

Mobile Stations (MS)


GSM: cellular network
segmentation of the area into cells

possible radio coverage of the cell

idealized shape of the cell


cell

use of several carrier frequencies


not the same frequency in adjoining cells
cell sizes vary from some 100 m up to 35 km depending on user density, geography, transceiver power etc.
hexagonal shape of cells is idealized (cells overlap, shapes depend on geography)
if a mobile user changes cells handover of the connection to the neighbor cell