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S-parameters

Whilst reading through this document you may find it useful to have access to the

Polar Si9000e PCB Transmission Line Field Solver, as this will aid your

understanding of S-parameters. Evaluation licenses are available from our

offices, contact details can be found on slide 43.

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S-parameters

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S-parameters

black box can be predicted

without any regard for the contents

of the black box.

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S-parameters

black box can be predicted

without any regard for the contents

of the black box.

anything:

a resistor,

a transmission line

or an integrated circuit.

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S-parameters

network with just 2 ports.

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S-parameters

network with just 2 ports.

Note :

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S-parameters

network or black box and detecting what waves exit from each port.

can be considered to be in

the form of waves travelling

in both directions.

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S-parameters

network or black box and detecting what waves exit from each port.

can be considered to be in

the form of waves travelling

in both directions.

some part of this signal

reflects back out of that port

and some portion of the signal

exits other ports.

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S-parameters

I have seen S-parameters described as S11, S21, etc. Can you explain?

reflected at Port 1 for the

signal incident at Port 1.

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S-parameters

I have seen S-parameters described as S11, S21, etc. Can you explain?

reflected at Port 1 for the

signal incident at Port 1.

is the ratio of the two

waves b1/a1.

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S-parameters

I have seen S-parameters described as S11, S21, etc. Can you explain?

exiting at Port 2 for the

signal incident at Port 1.

is the ratio of the two

waves b2/a1.

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S-parameters

I have seen S-parameters described as S11, S21, etc. Can you explain?

exiting at Port 2 for the

signal incident at Port 1.

is the ratio of the two S21? Surely that should be S12??

waves b2/a1.

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S-parameters

I have seen S-parameters described as S11, S21, etc. Can you explain?

exiting at Port 2 for the

signal incident at Port 1.

is the ratio of the two S21? Surely that should be S12??

waves b2/a1. S21 is correct! S-parameter convention

always refers to the responding port

first!

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S-parameters

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S-parameters

I have seen S-parameters described as S11, S21, etc. Can you explain?

describing the exiting waves from each port in terms of incident waves.

S11 = b1 / a1

S12 = b1 / a2

S21 = b2 / a1

S22 = b2 / a2

Note again how the subscript follows the parameters in the ratio (S11=b1/a1, etc...)

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S-parameters

because both the magnitude and phase of the input signal are

changed by the network.

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S-parameters

the real and imaginary parts (or the modulus and the phase angle)

of each of the four complex scattering parameters.

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S-parameters

How much gain (or loss) you get is usually more important than how much

the signal has been phase shifted.

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S-parameters

and the characteristic impedances of the

source and load used to measure it, and

the frequency measured at.

i.e.

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S-parameters

and the characteristic impedances of the

source and load used to measure it, and

the frequency measured at.

i.e.

In the Si9000e

if the load impedance is changed, the S-parameters change.thesource and load

impedance default is 50 Ohms,

if the source impedance is changed, the S-parameters change.

although this is configurable.

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and the characteristic impedances of the

source and load used to measure it, and

the frequency measured at.

i.e.

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S-parameters

A little math

of 2 port S-parameters:

the leading diagonal.

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S-parameters

A little math

of 2 port S-parameters:

the leading diagonal.

In the case of a 2-port network, that means that S21 = S12 and interchanging

the input and output ports does not change the transmission properties.

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A little math

of 2 port S-parameters:

the leading diagonal.

In the case of a symmetrical 2-port network, that means that S21 = S12 and

interchanging the input and output ports does not change the transmission

properties.

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S-parameters

A little math

S11 & S22, of the S-matrix are referred to as

reflection coefficients because they refer to

the reflection occurring at one port only.

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S-parameters

A little math

S11 & S22, of the S-matrix are referred to as

reflection coefficients because they refer to

the reflection occurring at one port only.

because they refer to what happens from one port to another.

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Larger networks:

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Larger networks:

each one representing a possible input-output path.

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Larger networks:

each one representing a possible input-output path.

number of ports.

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S-parameters

Larger networks:

each one representing a possible input-output path.

number of ports.

For the S-parameter subscripts ij, j is the port that is excited (the input port)

and i is the output port.

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Larger networks:

Yes i for output j for input

A Network may have any number of ports. logical ;-)

each one representing a possible input-output path.

number of ports.

For the S-parameter subscripts ij, j is the port that is excited (the input port)

and i is the output port.

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S-parameters

Larger networks:

each one representing a possible input-output path.

number of ports.

For the S-parameter subscripts ij, j is the port that is excited (the input port)

and i is the output port.

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S-parameters

Sum up

S-parameters change with frequency / load impedance / source impedance / network

S11 is the reflection coefficient

S21 describes the forward transmission coefficient (responding port 1st!)

S-parameters have both magnitude and phase information

Sometimes the gain (or loss) is more important than the phase shift and the phase

information may be ignored

S-parameters may describe large and complex networks

If you would like to learn more please consider evaluating the Polar Si9000e PCB

Transmission Line Field Solver. A 5 step process to generate, plot and export S-

parameters is included in the following slides.

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Using Polar Si9000e Field Solver to generate, plot and export S-parameters

Step 1: Select the transmission line structure and enter the parameters

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Using Polar Si9000e Field Solver to generate, plot and export S-parameters

Step 2: Switch to the Frequency Dependent tab and enter the frequency range

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S-parameters

Using Polar Si9000e Field Solver to generate, plot and export S-parameters

Step 3: Select Calculate to generate S-parameters and plot graph

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S-parameters

Using Polar Si9000e Field Solver to generate, plot and export S-parameters

Step 4: The S-parameter data may be plotted in a number of useful ways

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S-parameters

Using Polar Si9000e Field Solver to generate, plot and export S-parameters

Step 5: The same S-parameter data may be exported to a number of formats

Touchstone

Excel

.CSV

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S-parameters

Further reading:

Agilent papers

http://www.sss-mag.com/pdf/an-95-1.pdf

http://www.sss-mag.com/pdf/AN154.pdf

http://zone.ni.com/devzone/nidzgloss.nsf/webmain/D2C4FA88321195FE8625686B00542EDB?

OpenDocument

Other links:

http://www.sss-mag.com

http://www.microwaves101.com/index.cfm

http://www.reed-electronics.com/tmworld/article/CA187307.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-parameters

Online lecture OLL-141 S11 & Smith charts - Eric Bogatin

www.bethesignal.com

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