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Basic Computer Concepts

IT Fundamentals
Lesson 1

Objectives

• State the basic computer concepts.
• Exhibit competence and cooperation in
executing basic windows operations.
• Demonstrate the basic windows operations.

Basic Computer Concepts

• Considered one of the most important
inventions of the 20th century, computers have
become prevalent throughout our society.
 Computers are found everywhere—from cell phones
with embedded cameras to computerized
components in automobiles to our ATM machines.
 Computers help us learn about health and medicine,
space and time, and matter and energy, to name just
a few topics.
• The ways in which a computer can be used are
as limitless as a person's imagination.

and produces a result (output). data information . • The instructions and/or programs that control the computer are called software • The physical parts of the system are called hardware • A computer processes and produces . processes data. stores data.Computers and Computer Systems • A computer is an electronic device that receives data (input).

Data • datum (singular) • Raw facts and symbols • Representations of meaningful objects and events Information • The summarization of data • Data processed to increase knowledge of the person using the data .

Information .

a linked sequence of punched cards controls the weaving patterns in Jacquard’s loom . inhabitants of the first known civilization in Sumer keep records of commercial transactions on clay tablets.A Brief History of the Computer • In 4000-1200 BCE. • The first mechanical adding machine invented by Blais Pascal in 1642. • In 1801. • Abacus is invented in Babylonia in 3000 BCE.

and were designed initially for military and governmental uses. • Computers were developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s.A Brief History of the Computer • In 1833. . Countess of Lovelace. Her notes were published in 1843. • The world’s first computer programmer was Augusta Ada King. Babbage’s difference engine (automatic calculator).

• Using the microprocessor technology. Bill Gates worked with IBM to develop the disc operating system for the IBM PC. the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) is considered the first programmable electronic computer in United States. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak built the first Apple (Apple I) computer in 1976. who at that time worked for Intel.A Brief History of the Computer • In 1946. Ted Hoff. . • The microprocessor was developed in 1971 by Dr. • In 1980.

A Brief History of the Computer Generations of Computer Generation Characteristics First Generation (1942 – 1955) • Based on vacuum tubes • Examples include ENIAC and Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) Second Generation (1955 – • Used transistors 1964) • Examples include IBM 7094 series. IBM 1400 series. CDC 164 Third Generation (1964 – 1975) • Used integrated circuits (ICs) • A single IC chip is consisted of thousands of transistors .

A Brief History of the Computer Generations of Computer Generation Characteristics Fourth Generation (1975 – • Started with the invention of Present) microprocessor • Intel produced the first microprocessor which is the Intel 4004 Fifth Generation (Present – • Based on Artificial Intelligence Beyond) • Computer can understand spoken words and imitate human reasoning .

First Generation of Computer .

Second Generation of Computer .

Third Generation of Computer .

Fourth Generation of Computer .

Fifth Generation of Computer .

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Parts of the Computer • System unit – contains the computer’s circuitry Microprocessor Memory .

Parts of the Computer • Storage devices Hard disk DVD drive USB flash disk .

Parts of the Computer • Input devices  Keyboard and mouse • Output devices  Monitor  Printer  Speaker .

Classifying Computers • Supercomputers • Mainframe computers • Workstations • Microcomputers • Microcontrollers • Servers .

modeling molecules and breaking encryption codes • Tianhe-2 – as of 2013. designing aircraft. • Most expensive and fastest computer • Sample tasks: forecasting weather. this was developed by China's National University of Defense Technology . this is the fastest computer in the world with 33.86 petaflops (quadrillions of calculations per second).Supercomputers • High-capacity machines with thousands of processors that can perform more than several trillion calculations per second.

Tianhe-2 .

to large.or air-cooled computers that vary in size from small. airlines. depending on their use. • These are used by banks. .Mainframe Computers • Water. to medium. and insurance companies for processing millions of transactions.

Workstations • Expensive. powerful personal computers usually used for complex. . and engineering calculations and for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. scientific. mathematical.

Microcomputers • Also called personal computers (PCs) • Stand-alone machines or are connected to a computer network • Tower PCs. Notebooks. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) .

Tower PCs • Microcomputers whose case sits as a “tower” .

battery. keyboard. .Notebooks • Also called laptop computers. • Light-weight portable computers with built-in monitor. and AC adapter that can be plugged into an electrical outlet. hard-disk drive.

planners. address books. • Combine personal organization tools-schedule. to-do lists-with the ability in some cases to send email and faxes. .Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) • Also handheld computers or palmtops.

specialized microprocessors installed in “smart” appliances and automobiles. • Tiny.Microcontrollers • Also called embedded computers. .

and other devices. • The entire network is called a client/server network. workstations. • The clients are linked by a wired or wireless network. . • A central computer that holds collections of data (databases) and programs for connecting or supplying services to PCs.Server • Or network server. which are called clients.

Server .