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LINEAR FUNCTION

A function f is a linear function if


f(x)=mx + b, where m and b are real
numbers, and m and f(x) are not both
equal to zero.

f(x) = mx + b
m = the coefficient of x
= the slope of the line
b = a real number
POINT SLOPE FORMULA
y - y1 = m( x - x1 )
where; p( x,y ) = the unknown point on the
line
p1( x1,y1 ) = the given point on the line
Example; p1(1,2) & p2(3,6)
6 2 4
m= = =2
3 1 2
The equation: y 2 = 2( x 1)
y = 2( x 1) + 2
= 2x 2 + 2 = 2x , y = 2x
Ex1.to sell more t-shirts, the class needs to
charge a lower price as indicated in the following
Target number of shirt Price per t-shirt
table:
sale
500 540
900 460
1300 380
1700 300
2100 220
2500 140
P(x) = the price function, price in which you can sell
x(number of t-shirts).
P(x) = represents each data point in the table.
Using the SLOPE FORMULA m = (y2-y1)/(x2-x1)
x1,y1-values @ point 1, x2,y2-values @ point 2
pt1-(500,540) and pt2-(900,460)

460 540 80 1
m= = =-
900500 400 5
1
y - y1 = m (x - x1); y - 540 = - ( x - 900 )
5
1
y 540 = - x - 180
5
Y = 180 + 540 - 0.2x
y = 720 0.2x
The price function p(x)= 720 0.2x
QUADRATIC FUNCTION
- is any function in the form
f(x) = ax2 + bx + c
where a,b & c are real numbers and a 0

y = x2 or f(x) = x2 is a quadratic function


where b & c are both equal to 0 and a = 1

*the graph of any quadratic function is called a parabola


Line of symmetry- one side is a
f(x) = Y reflection of the other side
x2

VERTEX- the point where the


line of symmetry crosses the
parabola, minimum point of
the graph
X
Positive coefficient of x2 , opens
upward
y VERTEX- maximum
point

x f(x) = - x2

Line of axis of
symmetry

Negative coefficient of x2 opens


downwad
The coefficient of x2 is positive, the parabola opens upward.
The coefficient of x2 is negative, the parabola opens downward.
ax2 + bx + c, opens upward
-ax2 + bx + c, opens downward
If the parabola opens upward,
the vertex is the minimum point
If the parabola opens downward,
the vertex is the maximum point
The vertical line passing through the vertex is the axis of
symmetry
FORMULA (Vertex point coordinates)

x coordinate, h = -

2
,
y coordinate, k = f(x)

VERTEX form of a Quadratic Function


f(x) = a(x-h)2 + k, a 0
If a > 0, the parabola opens upward
If a < 0, the parabola opens downward
the vertex at (h,k)
2
f(x)= 2 -12x +16
a = 2; b = -12; c = 16
12
h= - =- = 3 x coordinate
2 2(2)
f(x) = 2(3)2 12(3) + 16 = - 2 y coordinate
h = 3 k = -2
y y Line of symmetry
Y = ax2 X=h

Y=a(x-h)2 + k

Vertex(h,k)
x
k
Vertex(0,0)
x
h
Find the dimensions of the largest rectangular
garden that can be enclosed by 60 meter of fencing. x
x & y = the lengths of the sides of the garden.
Area, A = x . y
Perimeter = 2x + 2y = 60
x + y = 30 divide both sides by 2 y
y = 30 x subtract both sides by x
Area, A = x (30 x)
= 30x x2 or A = - x2 + 30x
A = -(x2 30x + 225) + 225 add 225 both sides
= -(x -15)2 + 225 vertex form (h,k)
h = 15 ; k = 225
dimensions, x = 15 then y = 30 15 = 15
area = 15 x 15 = 225 square meters
Constant function and Identity Function
A linear function is a constant function if f(x)= mx + b,
where m = 0, and b = any real number, thus, f(x) = b
A linear function is an identity function if f(x)= mx + b,
where m = 1, and b = 0. thus, f(x) = x
Examples:
a. f(x) = 7 4x; b) h(x)= -2; c. f(x) = 3x 2
d. e. f.