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Intended Learning Outcomes

State the operation of final controller operated on


pneumatically,hydraulically or electrically
Sketches a diaphragm operated control valve
Describe characteristics of motor element and correcting
element
Describe the flow chracteristics of:
-meter valves
-vee ported valves
Control Valve
final controller or final control element
A control valve is a valve used to control
fluid flow by varying the size of the flow
passage as directed by a signal from a
controller. This enables the direct control
of flow rate and the consequential control
of process quantities such
as pressure, temperature, and liquid level.
Electrically Operated
The electric actuator uses an electric
motor to provide torque to operate a
valve. They are quiet, non-toxic and
energy efficient. However, electricity
must be available, which is not always
the case, they can also operate on
batteries.
Pneumatically Operated
Air (or other gas) pressure is the power
source for pneumatic valve actuators. Air
pressure acts on a piston or bellows
diaphragm creating linear force on a valve
stem. A pneumatic actuator may be arranged
to be spring-closed or spring-opened, with air
pressure overcoming the spring to provide
movement.
A "double acting" actuator use air applied to
different inlets to move the valve in the
opening or closing direction. A central
compressed air system can provide the clean,
dry, compressed air needed for pneumatic
actuators
Hydraulically Operated
Hydraulic actuators convert fluid pressure into
motion. Similar to pneumatic actuators, they
are used on linear or quarter-turn valves. Fluid
pressure acting on a piston provides linear
thrust for gate or globe valves. A quarter-turn
actuator produces torque to provide rotary
motion to operate a quarter-turn valve. Most
types of hydraulic actuators can be supplied
with fail-safe features to close or open a valve
under emergency circumstances. Hydraulic
pressure can be supplied by a self-contained
hydraulic pressure pump.
Diaphragm Operated Control Valve
Diaphragm actuators are made out of a round
piece of rubber and squeezed around its
edges between two side of a cylinder or
chamber that allows air pressure to enter
either side pushing the piece of rubber one
direction or the other.
A rod is connected to the center of the
diaphragm so that it moves as the pressure is
applied. The rod is then connected to a valve
stem which allows the valve to experience the
linear motion thereby opening or closing.
A diaphragm actuator is useful if the supply
pressure is moderate and the valve travel and
thrust required are low.
A Correcting
Unit
Determines by
compairing signal from
measuring element with
sending the desired
value.
It consist of the motor
element and the
correcting element
The Correcting Element
Is the part of the
correcting unit which
directly affects the value
of the controlled codition
Motor Element
Is the part of
correcting unit which
adjust the correcting
element response
signal from the
controlling unit