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CME8121 - Process

Measurement
Piping & Instrumentation
Diagrams

Dr. C J OMalley
Piping & Instrumentation
Diagrams
The Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (often referred to simply
as the P&ID) shows the arrangement of process equipment on
a plant.
It will typically include the following items and how they are
linked together:
Equipment/Vessels
Pumps
Piping
Instruments
These items are represented by a combination of symbols and
tags
Piping & Instrumentation
Diagrams
P&IDs form a major step in the design of a
process plant and as such are typically put
together by a specialist design team
They are subsequently used as the basis for
not only the process plants control system,
but also other major tasks such as the HAZOP
study
Coulson & Richardson vol. 6 recommends
The piping Handbook (Holmes 1973) as a
useful reference for detailed design of P&IDs
Symbols used in P&IDs
The symbols used on P&IDs come from a set of
standard symbols defined by the following British
Standards
BS1646: 1979 (ISO 3511/I-1977). Symbolic
representation for process measurement control
functions and instrumentation.
BS1553: 1977. Specification for graphical symbols for
general engineering. Piping systems and plant.
Links to the *.pdf of these documents is on
BlackBoard
Access to standards on campus via the library website
http://libguides.ncl.ac.uk/standards
Typical Symbols

Valv
e Centrifug
e

Fired Turbin
Open e
Heater/Boile
Tank
r

Centrifugal Water Cooled


Motor Condenser
Pump
Heat
Exchanger

Filte
Shell &
r Bursting
Tube
Disc
Pipe Representations

Symbols are typically connected together by


pipe lines for process units
Tag Numbers
Tag numbers are written inside a circle often referred
to as a bubble or a balloon.
They contain letter codes which describe the function
of the elements and a reference number which is
used for identification purposes
It is important to note that the codes refer to the
function of the object rather than its design or mode
of operation (we will revisit this later)
The following slides contains a list of letter codes for
tag numbers adapted from the ISA S 5.1
documentation
Tag Numbers
First Letter Succeeding Letters

Measured/Initiating Variable Modifier Read-Out/Passive Function Output Function Modifier

A Analysis Alarm

B Burner or Combustion Users Choice Users Choice Users

C Users Choice (e.g. Conductivity) Control

D Users Choice (e.g. Density) Differential

E Voltage or emf Sensor or Primary Element

F Flow rate Ratio/Fraction

G Users Choice Sight Glass or Viewing Device

H Hand High

I Electrical Current Indicate

J Power Scan

K Time or Schedule Rate of Change Control Station

L Level Light (Pilot) Low

M Users Choice (e.g. Moisture/Humidity) Momentary Middle

N Users Choice Users Choice Users Choice Users Choice

O Users Choice Orifice or restriction

P Pressure or Vacuum Point (Test)

Q Quantity (e.g. Conc./Conductivity) Integrate/Totalise

R Radiation Record or Print

S Speed or Frequency Safety Switch

T Temperature Transmit

U Multivariable Multifunction Multifunction Multifunction

V Vibration or Mechanical Analysis Valve or Damper

W Weight or Force Well or Pocket

X Unclassified X-axis Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified

Y Event, State or Presence Y-axis Relay, Compute or Convert

Z Position or Dimension Z-axis Driver, Actuator or Other


Example Tag codes

FG - Flow Sight
Glass
FE - Flow
Orifice Plate
FV - Flow Valve
ref: Process Automation Handbook (Love,
2007)
Numbering of elements depends on the convention
used.
Serial vs Parallel
Additional Symbols for use with
Tags
You will also have noted addition functions on the P&ID
which are used in conjunction with the tags when the tag
code alone is insufficient to describe the function of the
device.
Additional function symbols
AVG d/dt REV
+ or - < >
1:1
1:n f(x) xn
Symbols for Computer Based
Systems

Undefined logic
Shared Display Computer
or sequence
& Control Function
control

Shared Display Input Channel Output Channel


& Control
P&ID Dos and Donts
The following list is a guide to what SHOULD be included on a P&ID

All Process Equipment: Identified by an equipment number. Equipment should be


represented roughly in proportion to each other and show the location of inlets and outlets

All Pipes: Identified by a line number. The pipe size (Diameter and Length) should be shown
along with the material of construction. This can be included as part of the line ID#

All Valves: Identified by a valve number. Again the size should deb shown. In addition, the
type of valve should be specified either by using the specific valve symbol or included in the
valve number code.

Ancillary fittings such as sight glasses and steam traps, with an associated identification
number

Pumps, identified by a pump number/code

All control loops and instruments with associated identification numbers

The P&ID should resemble the process flow sheet an the same equipment identification
numbers should be used on both diagrams. (Ref: Coulson & Richardson)
P&ID Dos and Donts
The following list is a guide to what SHOULD NOT be included on a P&ID

Equipment rating or capacity

Primary instrument tubing and valves

Pressure, Temperature and Flow data

Elbow, tees and similar standard fittings

Extensive explanatory notes

For simple processes it is typical to include service lines (Water, gas, steam
etc) as part of the P&ID, but for complex ones they are usually provided on
a separate diagram to avoid cluttering the drawing. Regardless, the service
connections to the process equipment should be shown on the P&ID
Piping and Instrumentation Diagram for MTG100FC Engine Tests
TI 7, H
TC1M1 - M10 excha
IC
TI TI TI TI
IGNITC1
TA22C TA22A TA21C TA21A
Ingnitor
TI PI BS TI PI
Box C1 TI
TA22B PT22 FLAMDETC1 TA21B PT21 TE
TA62
10 x
TE
TE TE TE PT BE TE TE TE PT
6, Recuperator

3, SOFC Inlet 2, Air Heater C1

IC
IC
VMPWMC1
VPPWMC1 Rota
Atmosphere
S
S
IC
S

From sample probe at


SVGAS3
FO
S

C1 exit
IC IC
SVGAS1 SVGAS2

Fuel flow C1 MFM Emission PT


S S Analysis
Fuel Supply
E TE
AIT
EMICO2
Fuel flow C2 MFM
E
AIT
EMIO2 S
Process Air Exhaust SPE
E
AIT
IC EMINOX
IC
VMPWMC2 VPPWMC2 ST
E
AIT
Regulator Valve Blow Off Valve EMICO
S S
IC IC E
TBVCOOL TBVDEP AIT 5,
EMIUHC T
I I FO
P P S
TY TY

IC
IGNITC2