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A tool for Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management

Total Made up of whole

Management An art of planning, organizing, directing


and controlling the assigned activities that takes place to
accomplish objectives.
According to F.W. Taylor (Father of scientific Management),
Knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that
they do it in the best and cheapest way.

Quality -
Quality is an attribute of a product or service that fulfills or exceeds the
human expectations. These expectations are based on the intended use and
selling / service price.
According to definition of ISO 8402,
Totality of characteristics of an entity that bears on its ability to
satisfy stated and implied needs.
Quality Gurus Speak On Quality

J M Juran Fit for use

W. Edward Deming Continuous


Improvement

Philip Crossby Conformance to


specifications

Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa Most Economical,


useful and always satisfactory to the
customer or audience
Techniques Employed for TQM
Benchmarking

Business Process Re-engineering

Kaizen

Quality Circle

Total Productive Maintenance

Six Sigma

Poka Yoka

Quality Function Deployment


WHY Quality Circles

Quality Circle is one of the employee


participation methods.

Itcreates conditions and environment of


work that stimulates commitment
towards excellence.

Quality Circles utilize the potential of


people for improvement in quality.
Genesis of Quality Circles
Before the World War II, quality control pioneers existed in Japanese
companies such as Toshiba.
In 1949, after the war the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers
(JUSE) was established to educate people about Quality Circle.
On July 10, 1950, W.Edwards Deming started an eight day seminar on the
theory of statistical Quality Control.
Deming discussed how to make control charts and how to sample and
inspect products.
From this solid foundations, the Japanese established quality control
departments in their companies.
They found that some aspects had to be altered to fit the Japanese
workplace.
One of these alterations resulted in the formation of QUALITY CIRCLE.
Pioneers like, K. Ishikawa, Juran were the basis for creating quality circles.
They used such statistical quality control techniques as Pareto charts,
cause and effect diagrams.
The spirit of quality circle embodied in the efforts of all those pioneers who
recognized the need for improvement.
Philosophy
Quality Circles are a people building
philosophy
It represents a philosophy of managing people
specially those at the grass root level as well as
a clearly defined mechanism and methodology
for translating this philosophy into practice and a
required structure to make it a way of life.
It is bound to succeed where people are
respected and are involved in decisions,
concerning their work life, and in environments
where peoples capabilities are looked upon as
assets to solve work-area problems.
The Quality Circle philosophy calls for a
progressive attitude on the part of the
management
Definition of Quality Circle
A small group of between three and
twelve people who do the same or
similar work, voluntarily meeting
together regularly for about an hour per
week in paid time, usually under the
Leadership of their own supervisor, and
trained to identify, analyze, and solve
some of the problems in their work,
presenting solutions to management,
and where possible, implementing the
solutions themselves.'
Finer points from the Definition

A small group of three to twelve people


Voluntarily meeting together
Meeting regularly for about an hour per week
In paid time
Under the leadership of their own supervisor
To identify, analyze and solve problems in their
work
Presenting solutions to management
Implementing the solutions themselves
Multi-faced objectives of QC
a. Change in attitude.
From I dont care to I do care
Continuous improvement in quality of work life
through humanization of work
b. Self Development
Bring out Hidden Potential of people
People get to learn additional skills
c. Development of Team Spirit
Individual v/s Team I could not do it, but the
team did it
Eliminate interdepartmental conflict
d. Improved Organizational Structure
Positive working environment
Total involvement of people at all levels
Higher motivational level
Structure of a Quality Circle
Top
Management

Steering
Committee

Coordinator

Facilitator

Leader

Members

Non-QC members
Roles and Responsibilities
Steering Non QC
Top Management Committee
Coordinator Facilitator Leader Members
Members

The Success of the quality circle depends


solely on the attitude of the top
management and plays an important
role to ensure the success of
implementation of quality circles in the
organization.
Roles and Responsibilities
Top Steering Coordinator Facilitator Leader Members
Non QC
Management Members
Committee

Steering committee called middle


management consists of chief executive
heads of different divisions or a
coordinator plays a positive role in quality
circles activities for the success of the
efforts.
The meetings are conveyed at least once in
one or two months interval.
Roles and Responsibilities
Top Steering Non QC
Management Committee Coordinator Facilitator Leader Members
Members

Coordinator, who also acts as a


facilitator, is an individual responsible for
coordinating and directing the quality
circles activities within an organization and
carries out such functions as would make
the operations of quality circles smooth,
effective and self-sustainable.
Roles and Responsibilities
Top Steering Non QC
Management Committee
Coordinator Facilitator Leader Members
Members

Facilitator acts as a catalyst, innovator, promoter and


teacher and is nominated by the management. His Roles
are as follows:
i. Communicating with all levels of management and
obtaining their support;
ii. Facilitating the training of QC leaders and members;
iii. Maintaining an open and supportive environment;
iv. Ensure objectivity in the activities of QC;
v. As a mediator in problem solving;
vi. As a resource person to the circle;
vii.Evaluating the cost and benefits of the QC program and
reporting it to the management
Roles and Responsibilities
Top Steering Non QC
Management Committee
Coordinator Facilitator Leader Members
Members

The leader is chosen by the members amongst themselves and is


rotated on a regular basis. His role is mainly as follows:

i. Training members on problem solving techniques with the


assistance of the facilitator as and when required;
ii. Fostering the spirit of cooperation amongst the members;
iii. Assisting the circle members in record keeping and in the
preparation of management presentations;
iv. Conducting meeting in an orderly and effective manner;
v. Encouraging other people to become members;
vi. Enforcing team discipline and channelizing the efforts effectively
Roles and Responsibilities
Top Steering
Coordinator Facilitator Leader Members Non QC
Management Committee
Members

Members of the quality circles are a small group of people from


the same work area or doing similar type of work whereas non-
members are those who are not the members of the QC but
provide suggestions. Members are expected to;

i. Attend meetings regularly;


ii. Direct their efforts towards solving work-related problems;
iii. Identifying problems, contributing ideas, undertaking
research and investigating (where necessary) and assisting
the QC in problem solving;
iv. Participating in management presentations
Launching of Quality Circle
The steps involved are:
Expose middle level executives to concept.
Explain concept to the employees and invite them
to volunteer as members of Quality Circle.
Nominate senior officials as facilitators.
Form a steering committee.
Arrange training of coordinators, facilitators and
members.
Fix meetings for Quality Circles to meet.
Formally inaugurate the Quality Circle.
Arrange necessary facilities for Quality circle
meetings and its operations.
Training

The most important aspect of a successful


Quality Circle is its caliber to perform as a
team and identify, research and solve
problems.
Appropriate training needs to be imparted
for the optimum performance by the Quality
Circle. Training comprises of:
Brief orientation program for top management
Program for middle level executives.
Training for facilitators.
Training for circle leaders and members.
Organizational Readiness

The readiness of the management to sanction


and support Quality Circle is fundamental to
its success. Organizational Readiness can be
assessed by scrutiny of answers to the
following questions:
Is the organization and management competent
enough?
Is management willing to settle for long term
benefits if short term ones do not materialize?
Is the management flexible and committed
enough?
Is management willing to accept involvement
and share power?
Action and Implementation

Assess

Recommend Quality Circle

Clean

Report

Analyse
Process of operation
Problem Identification
identify the number of problem

Problem Analysis
clarified and analysed

Generate alternative solutions


Identify and evaluate causes and generate
number of possible solutions
Select most appropriate solutions
Identify & generate causes
Generate possible alternative solutions

Prepare plan for action


convert solutions to reality

Present solution to management


Fore approval

Implement of solution
Evaluated recommended solution
How to use the concept
With the help of 3 main parts:
Identifying
Free to brainstrom
List & analyzed each problem
Analyzing
Focus on one problem
Create an appropriate solution
Involves opinion from member & researcher
Results of Analysis
Prepare to solve the problem
Explain in- how it works, what solution result
should be
Results- shown to the managers & group
How QC Circle Works
Selection of
theme

Presentation Study
Formation of Registration
QC Circle of QC circle

Recorded Planning of
Conclusion
by Quality improvement

Control
Section of
plant
Conformation Execution of
of effect improvement

QC circle grand meeting


of each division

QC circle grand meeting Circles acknowledged for


of each plant excellence participate in the
grand meetings of other firms
Companywide QC circle
grand meeting
Implementing quality circles

Quality circles require top management


support
Personal characteristics of facilitators
are critical
Scope of project needs to be small
enough to be capably addressed by the
team
Success of other teams has positive
peer pressure effect
Presentation Organization
Implementation 8 to 10
Monitoring members, same
area moderators

Solution Training
Problems Group Processes
Data collection
Result
Problem Analysis

Problem Problem ID
Analysis Brainstorming
Data collection & List
Analysis
alternatives
Cause & effect
Consensus
Brainstorming
Brainstorming is a group
participative technique. It unlocks
and discloses the untapped
creative talents and resources in
people.
It is a technique for gathering the
greatest number of ideas, which
in turn, spark enthusiasm and
originality amongst the member
of the QC.
Brainstorming is used when the
Circle want to:

1.Identifly a problem
2.Investigate the cause
3.Find a solution
Tools
Control Chart
Scatter Diagram
Histogram
Cause & Effect diagram
Flowchart
Check-sheet
Pareto Diagram
Pareto Chart
Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) Italian
economist
20% of the population has 80% of the
wealth
Juran used the term vital few, trivial
many. He noted that 20% of the quality
problems caused 80% of the dollar loss.
A Pareto Chart
A Control Chart is
simply a run chart Control Chart
with statistically
determined upper
(Upper Control UCL
Limit) and possible
lower (Lower
Control Limit) lines
average
drawn on either side
of the process
average.
LCL

The UCL is three standard deviations above the average and


the LCL is three standard deviations below the average.
Purpose: When Scatter Diagram
you need to
display what 100
happens to one
variable when

Test Scores
80
another variable
changes in order 60
to test a theory
that the two 40
variables are
related. It shows 20
possible cause and 0
effect relationships.
It cannot prove that 30 60 90 120 150
one variable Study Time Minutes
causes the other, but it does make it clear whether a relationship exists
and the strength of that relationship. The direction and tightness of the
cluster give a clue to the strength of the relationship between the two
variables. If you find the values being repeated, circle that point as
many times as appropriate.
Histogram: When you need to discover and
display the distribution of data by bar graphing
HISTOGRAM the number of units in each category.
A Histogram displays the distribution of measurement data, such as scores, size, time,
or temperature. This is critical since we know that all repeated events will produce
results that vary over time. A Histogram reveals the amount of variation
that any process has within it.

Acceptable Bus Arrival Time


Assuming that the
15
14
perfect arrival time is
frequency

Lower limit 9 Upper limit


10 6
8 7 8:00 and the goal is to
4 4
5 1 2 3 2 arrive within 5 minutes
0 of the scheduled
2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 2
07:5
07:5
07:5
07:5
08:0
08:0
08:0
08:0
08:0
08:1
08:1 arrival time, attention
arrival tim e at school needs to be paid to
the causes of the later
60 data points (10 bus drivers logged their arrival times.
arrival time over 6 day period of time)
This diagram represents the relationship
between some effect and all the possible
causes. Major Major
The major causes might be summarized Cause Cause
under categories referred to as People,
Methods, Materials, Procedures,
Machinery, Environment, and/or Policies.
However, a QC may use any major

EFFECT
category that emerges or helps people
think creatively.
From this well-defined list of possible
causes, the most likely are identified and
selected for further analysis.
When examining each cause, look for
things that have changed, deviations from
the norm or patterns. For each cause, ask,
Why does it happen? and list the
Major Major
responses as branches off the major Cause Cause
causes. This way, a QC looks for causes
that appear repeatedly, and reach a team
consensus.
Measurement Man Machines

Faulty testing equipment Poor supervision Out of adjustment

Incorrect specifications Lack of concentration Tooling problems

Improper methods Inadequate training Old / worn

Quality
Inaccurate Problem
temperature Poor process
control Defective from vendor design
Ineffective quality
Not to specifications management
Dust and
Dirt Material- Deficiencies
handling problems in product
design

Environment Materials Method


Flowchart
Flowcharts are a graphical
description of how work is done,
and are used to describe
processes that are to be improved.
Flowcharts provide excellent
documentation of a program and
can be useful for examining how
various steps in a process are
related to each other. Sometimes
it is helpful to draw two flowcharts,
one with the actual steps in a
process and one with how the
process should work. Comparing
the two charts will show where
there are differences and where
problems generally arise.

" Draw a flowchart for whatever you do. Until you do, you do
not know what you are doing,you just have a job.
Flowchart Symbols

Activity Complex
activity

Contribution
Decision Group
meeting

Report

The End!
Multiple
reports
Checksheet
Checksheets form a systematic means of collecting and analysing
data.They are special types of data collection forms,and facilitate an
organised way of data presentation.

Shifts
Sample
checksheet
showing defect
type and
Defect Type

corresponding
shift in which

each
occurs,and its
frequency

Benefits of Quality Circles

Rise Organizational moral


Inspire more effective team work
Promote Job involvement
Create problem solving capabilities by
members of QCs themselves
Promote personal and leadership
development
Improve communication within the
organization
Promote cost function
Increase employee motivation
QC Allows benefits from
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) - involvement of the
workforce in process improvement.
Lean manufacture includes all of the following participative
concepts -
SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Dies) and set up time reduction
5S/5C or CANDO.
Autonomation (JIDOKA) - using single part production methods and
the Kanban approach.
Root Cause Analysis.
Poka Yoka (mistake proofing).
Quality related Cost reduction.
Flexible Work groups.
Improved overall performance
Limitations and problems of QC
Lack of management commitment and
support
Resistance by middle management
Lack of clear objectives
Unrealistic expectations for fast results
Failure to get solutions implemented
Inadequate training
QUALITY CIRCLE AT WORK

XEROX one of the most well known firms in the world has
benefitted from it.
Xerox reduced waste production by 65000 tonnes annually-with
the help of Quality Circles.

United Airlines one of the largest carriers in the USA


Quality circles at UA helped tackle the issue of no-shows and
sick leaves.
Result: Sick leaves were down by 17% and UA could save 18.2
million dollars
QUALITY CIRCLE AT WORK(CONTD)
BHEL-Navratna PSU one of the largest PSUs in INDIA.
BHELs Tiruchirapalli Plant : A large heavy engineering units manufacturing
boilers and an entire range of equipments required for a thermal power unit.
BHEL-pioneer in implementing QCs in INDIA. Introduced it in 1981. Introduced
in 1984 at the Tiruchirapalli Plant.
Impact of Quality Circles in BHEL
Cohesive team work and team spirit.
Work itself is more enjoyable.
Improvement in interpersonal and intergroup relations.
Improvement in the quality of workmanship within the work group.
Greater and prompter response to suggestions given.
Attitudinal changes.
A greater sense of belonging to the group and the organization as a whole.
Positive approach.
Mutual trust.
QUALITY CIRCLE AT WORK(CONTD)
The positive impact at the plant lead to the encouragement of the QC concept
10% in crease in the number of Quality Circles at BHEL
HR AND QUALITY CIRCLE
PHILOSOPHY OF QUALITY CIRCLE
The man on job more about its problem than anyone else.
Every person is inherently talented and a conducive environment brings the
best out
People building is more important than people using

The above statements clearly underscore the importance of the human


element.
Various motivational theories like CHRIS ARGYRIS, FEDRICRICK HERZBERGS
THEORY , DOUGLAS Mc GREGORS THEORY, MASLOWS THEORY OF HIERARCHY
helps us understand the various needs of people.
QC Philosophy combines the various needs brought out transforms them into
actual practice
Motivation, Participation and Recognition are the three major aspects of QC.
INTANGIBLE BENEFITS OF QUALITY CIRCLE
Developing the ability of self expression
Personal Growth resulting from long-term group educational activities.
Greater self-confidence of supervisors
Member morale increase
Level of self supervision improves
Helps develop ability to work in teams and appreciate others point of
view
Better exchange of ideas and improvement in communication
The co-operative activities of the circle cement human relations.
It facilitates the satisfaction of members self-esteem needs.
The social need of human beings for belonging to a group is satisfied
through QC activities.
Thank You