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Facilities Engineering

CGE 665

Compressors increase the pressure of gases and air so they

can be used in applications that require higher pressures
Important in the Oil and Gas industry to deliver sales gas or gas
injection for reservoir oil recovery

Why we need this facilities? After coming out from separator, gas
(typically) loss its momentum. Energy is required to maintain its
momentum for flow and also to reduce the volume.
The compression also include a large section of associated equipment
such as scrubbers (removing liquid droplets) and heat exchangers, lube
oil treatment etc.
Gas from a pure natural gas wellhead might have sufficient pressure to
feed directly into a pipeline transport system.
Gas from separators has generally lost so much pressure that it must be
recompressed to be transported. Turbine compressors gain their energy
by using up a small proportion of the natural gas that they compress.
The turbine itself serves to operate a centrifugal compressor, which
contains a type of fan that compresses and pumps the natural gas
through the pipeline.
Some compressor stations are operated by using an electric motor to
turn the same type of centrifugal compressor requires reliable source of
Consists of large section of associate equipment scrubber, heat
exchanger, lube oil.
Compression System

All compressors require a drive mechanism such as an electric motor or

turbine to operate, and all are rated according to their discharge
capacity and flow rate.

Most compressors require auxiliary components for cooling, lubrication,

filtering, instrumentation, and control. Some compressors require a
gearbox between the driver and compressor to increase the speed of
the compressor.
Compression System
Major Compressor Type
more commonly used than positive
displacement compressors because they
are less expensive, more efficient, have a
larger capacity, and require less

use impellers or blades to accelerate a gas use pistons, lobes, screws, or vanes to
and then convert that velocity into reduce a fixed volume of gas through
pressure. compression and deliver a constant
Selection of Compressor

A compressor is a mechanical device used to increase the

pressure of a gas or vapor.

The type of compressor that is used for a particular

application depends on several factors.

The factors include :

the type of gas being compressed
flow rates which are expressed as cubic feet per minute
(cfm) or meters cubed/second (m3/s)
discharge pressure which is expressed as pounds per
square inch (psi) or Kilopascals (kPa).
Adiabatic or isentropic efficiency

Adiabatic efficiency is defined as the ratio of work

output for an ideal isentropic compression process to
the work input to develop the required head.
For a given compressor operating point, the actual or
predicted isentropic efficiency can be calculated with

Head is simply the work expressed in foot pounds per

pound of gas or N-m/kg.
At a given compressor speed and capacity, the head
developed by a centrifugal compressor is the same
regardless of the nature of the gas being compressed.
The pressure rise produced by the given amount of head
varies with the density of the gas.

k 53.3T1 P2 k k1
H Zav g ( ) 1
k 1 P1
Mass Flow

Mass flow is expressed as mass per unit of time, most

often pounds-mass per minute (lbm/min) or kilograms
per minute (kg/min). Mass flow is a specific value
independent of gas properties and compressor inlet
conditions. Mass flow can be specified on either a wet
(water vapor included) or dry basis.

m 53 .09 (Q) (Ibm/min)

g - specific gravity of gas
Q - standard volume flow, MMSCFD
53.09 - conversion factor and specific volume of gas
Horse Power (HP)

When used in real situations, the adiabatic equation is modified

to take into consideration the compressibility factor of the gas

k 1

k 53.5T1
Z avg
P2 k
k 1 P1

Theoretical horse power can then be determined from H isen ( ft-
Ib/Ib) [ required work in ft-Ib required to lift 1 Ib of gas from P1 to
P2). When multiplied by flow rate ( Ib/time) power is obtained
Actual inlet volume flow

Actual volume flow is defined as the amount of volume per unit of time at the inlet to
the compressor.

Actual volume flow is normally expressed in actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) or
actual cubic meters per hour (m3/hr).

When gas composition and pressure and temperature are known, the specification of
actual volume is appropriate because the fundamental performance characteristic of
the compressor is sensitive only to actual volume flow at the inlet.

Head(adia) x MassFlowrate(Ibm/min) 1 1
HP x( ) x(
33000 isen mech)
Actual inlet volume flow
Discharge Temperature

The discharge temperature for any single stage

compressor is:

A centrifugal compressor is used in a gas plant to recompress residue

gas. The plant is producing 15 MMSCFD of residue gas and is selling tha
gas to a pipeline company always operating at 1000psig. The plant sends
the gas to the compressor at 500psig. Given the following data, determine
the horsepower used.

Elevation: sea level

Ambient Temperature: 65 F
Gas Specific Gravity: 0.6
Ratio of Specific Heats, k: 1.25
Average Compressibility Factor, Z: 0.9897
Discharge Gas Temperature: 200 F
Suction Gas Temperature: 95 F
Efficiency: 98%

a. Isentropic efficiency
R, = P discharge / P suction
= 1000 + 14.7 / 500 + 14.7
= 1.97

T2 = 200 F + 460 = 660 R

T1 = 95 F + 460 = 550 R

isen = T1 [ (R(k-1/k) 1) / (T2-T1) ]

= 0.77

b. Head Required:

k 53.3T1 P2 k k1
H Zav g ( ) 1
k 1 P1
H = 35 433 ft-Ibf / Ibm

c. Mass Flow:

m 53.09 (Q) (Ibm/min)

M = 477.81 Ibm/min

d. HP Required:

Head(adia) x MassFlowrate(Ibm/min) 1 1
HP x( ) x(
33000 isen mech)

HP = 680 ft-Ib
Process Equipment Technology, PTEC
Petrowiki, Compressor